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H XHIS til 1*^1 Ur 




CONTENTS 

No. 

1268. Report on trade conditions in Mexico. 
1289. Beport on trade conditions on west coast of South America. 
1270. Cotton fabrics in middle Europe. 

1330. Manufacture of woolen, worsted, and shoddy in France and England, etc. 
1342. Lace industry in England and France. 
1353. Grerman iron and steel industry. 

1498. Machine tool trade in Germany, France, Switzerland, Italy, and United King- 
dom. 

ui 



2079:^2 



\ 



^'^MS^i^™'} HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES {^^12^ 



REPORT ON 

TRADE CONDITIONS IN 

MEXICO 

By 
ARTHUR B. BUTMAN 

Special Afent of the Department of Commerce and Labor 



TRANSMITTED TO CONGRESS IN COMPLIANCE 
WITH THE ACT OF MAY 22, 1908, AUTHORIZING 
INVESTIGATIONS OF TRADE CONDITIONS ABROAD 



JANUARY 4, 1909 

Bef erred to the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce 
and ordered to be printed. 



WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1908 



Department of Commerce and Labor, 

Office of the Secretary, • 

Washington^ Deceinber 18^ 1908. 
Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith, in compliance with the 
act making appropriations for the legislative, executive, and judicial 
expenses of the Government for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1908, 
approved February 26, 1907, the report of Special Agent Arthur B. 
Butman on Trade Conditions in Mexico. 

Respectfully, Oscar S. Straus, 

Secretary. 
The Speaker of the House of Representatives. 



CONTENTS. 



Letter of sabmittal 6 

Foreign capital invested 7 

IfiTting 7 

Agrici^tore 8 

Sugar and coffee 8 

Cotton and rubber 9 

Timber reeourcee 9 

Manufacturing 10 

Leading manufactures 10 

Trade with the United States 11 

Foreign commerce 11 

Vegetable products 12 

Animal products, sugar, cottonseed, etc 12 

Imports — Status of different countries 18 

What Mexico imports 14 

Lumber and furniture 14 

Manufactures of iron and steel 14 

Agricultural machinery and implements 15 

Hardware— Vehicles, automobiles, etc 16 

Outlook for food products 16 

Prices of food products 16 

Wines and liquors 17 

Textiles, dry goods, etc 17 

Chemicals, drugs, and medicines 17 

Sewing machines and sanitary and electrical fittings 18 

Shoe and leather trade 18 

Market for American-made shoes. 19 

Mexican railways 20 

Mileage of various lines 21 

Competitors gaining on the United States ^ 22 

Hints for the American exporter 22 

Gonduiion 23 

8 



LETTER OF SUBMITTAL. 



Washington, June SS, 1908. 

Sm: I have the honor to present herewith a report on industrial 
and commercial conditions in Mexico. My investigations in the 
Republic, made under your instructions, occupied several months, 
and while the larger portion of tlie time was spent in the capital city, 
the chief commercial center of the country, considerable time was 
passed in other important cities and towns; and agricultural, mining, 
and various sections were visited with the constant aim in view of 
coming into personal touch with both importers and consumers. 

The Mexico which the traveler finds to-day, whether he crosses 
the Rio Grande or disembarks at Tampico or Veracruz, is practically 
a new country. "Old Mexico," while not forgetting the glories or 
achievements of the past, has already awakened to a sense of her vast 
powers for development and opportunities for industrial growth. The 
spirit of the Republic now is a spirit of progression, and the atmos- 
phere one of advancement. It is a land rich in natural resources await- 
ing further material development, and one of splendid opportunity. 

It is not to be denied that a large percentage of the population of 
Mexico, which in the year 1900 numbered 13,611,694, are of the peon 
class, who cling to traditional custom; nor that in isolated sections 
one sees the crooked stick for a plow, and the ox-cart with wooden 
disk wheels. Those, however, can not be taken as expressive of 
the ruling spirit in Mexico. 

The RepubUc is rapidly advancing agriculturally, industrially, 
and conmiercially, which means added requirements to be suppUed 
from foreign sources. Commercial intercourse between Mexico and 
the United States has grown steadily, and Mexico is finding a larger 
and better market for her raw materials in our country, while more 
American goods are handled in Mexico than ever before. Not- 
withstanding that fact Europe is constantly gaining ground. There 
are many details of Mexican trade and its requirements which our 
people fail to understand, or, understanding, fail to meet; these, to- 
gether with a r^um^ of present industrial conditions in the country, 
I have endeavored to set forth in the following pages. 
Respectfully, 

Abthue B. Butman, 
Special Agent, Department of Commerce and Labor. 

To Hon. Oscar S. Straus, 

Secretary of Commerce and Labor. 

5 



TRADE CONDITIONS IN MEXICO. 



FOREIGN CAPITAL INVESTED. 

The growth and influence of the Mexican Republic is daily becom- 
ing of more importance to the world at lai^e. Its leaders in thought 
and affairs, realizing the necessity for outside aid in developing the 
natural resources of the country, have wisely framed such laws as 
are a safeguard to the commercial, financial, and industrial interests, 
and the constant increase in the foreign capital invested in Mexico is 
the reflex of their action. The reputation for solidity, following 
upon prudent management, held by the banking institutions of 
Mexico is widely extended, and I am confident that the same is 
well deserved. 

The minister of finance furnishes the following interesting informa- 
tion concerning the amount of capital invested by citizens of the 
United States, France, England, and Germany in Mexico during the 
fiscal year 1906, the first year after the monetary reform in the Re- 
public: Total amount, not including the amount invested in the 
form of machinery and merchandise, or in bonds of the Federal or 
State Governments, $43,077,000, divided as follows: Banks, $28,684,- 
800; mortgages, $996,000; industry, $4,930,200; mines, $3,735,000; 
other property, $1,743,000; and raikoads, $2,988,000. 

MINING. 

In the production of silver Mexico leads the world, and in copper 
she holds the second place, being surpassed only by the United 
States; in both gold and lead she stands fourth, while her zinc 
deposits, the possibilities of which are as yet unrealized, are being 
mined on a larger scale than ever before. It is impossible to secure 
statistics showing the accurate yield of Mexican mines. It is stated, 
however, that the production of the precious metals, with copper and 
lead, forms approximately 95 per cent of the whole mine product. 
The following statement regarding the Mexican output of gold and 
silver is furnished by the minister of finance: 

Bearing in mind the fact that the consumption of metals within the Republic ib 
comparatively insignificant, and that as fast as ore is taken from the mines it is either 
treated or exported, for in general our mining companies do not allow their ore to 
accumulate, it is possible to arrive at a very approximate knowledge of the output. 

7 



8 TBADE OONDinONB IN MEXIOO. 

The Gzportation of gold from Mexico for the fiscal year 1907 was 
as follows: 

In Mexican coin $14,924 

In foreign coin -• 6,016 

GoldbuUion 9,416,012 

Gold ore and gold in other forms 2,464,148 

Total 11,889,099 

The total exportation of gold, minus the amount sent abroad in 
coins, was $11,869,159, to which, if the $6,339,661 worth deUvered 
during the period for coinage purposes to the Exchange and Currency 
Commission be added, makes a total production of gold for the year 
of $18,208,821, an increase in production of $81,621 over the fiscal 
year 1906. 

The production of silver, calculated in the same manner, amounted to 
$38,390,235 during 1907, anincreaseof $738,644 over the previous year. 

Official statistics of the production of all other minerals depend 
likewise upon the recorded export values, which for the fiscal year 
1907 totaled $18,182,229. The development of the mining industry 
is on the increase in Mexico, as shown by the number of deeds 
recorded during the first half of the present (1908) fiscal year, which 
numbered 3,000 title deeds embracing 60,852 claims. This registra- 
tion is the largest ever made during a like period of time. 

AGRICULTURE. 

Agriculture, owing to improved transportation facilities, has within 
a few years greatly advanced. The diversity of climate and soil 
render the cultivation of tropical, semi-tropical, and temperate zone 
crops possible, while concerning the yield of some of these crops mar- 
velous statements are made. 

The cidtivation of sugar cane seems to have proven an especially 
profitable enterprise for American planters engaged therein in Mexico. 
The cost of virgin lands suitable to the growth of sugar cane, as well as 
the cost of labor, is comparatively low, while the cane yield is abim- 
dant, especially on plantations situated within the Tropics. In my 
preliminary report on the Mexican sugar industry, published in the 
Daily Considar and Trade Reports of February 21, 1908, also supple- 
mentary report published April 8, facts and statistics in regard to both 
the production of sugar and trade in the commodity were given in 
detail. It need only be further stated here that the industry is becom- 
ing more and more an important one, and that it is receiving added 
protection from the Mexican Government by an increased rate of 
import duty placed on foreign sugars. Modem methods of manufac- 
ture have improved the quality of the product, while the home con- 
sumption is constantly increasing. 

Mexican coffee finds a good market in Europe and is also exported 
to the United States. The condition of the coffee industry shows a 



TRADB 0ONDITION8 IN MEZIOO. 9 

healthy tendency, inasmuch as the larger planters at least have intro- 
duced modem methods of curing the bean. Improved grades of 
coffee and more lucrative sales are the results already shown. The 
States producing the larger quantity of coffee at present are Oaxaca, 
Veracruz, Tabasco, and Chiapas. In export returns for the last 
fiscal year coffee shows a falling off in both quantity and value, which 
is accoimted for by a poor crop, since the Areas imder cidtivation are 
increasing rather than diminishing. The production of henequen or 
sisal fiber was set forth in detail in a report printed in the Daily Consu- 
lar and Trade Reports of December 5, 1907. The State of Yucatan is 
the home of this particular fiber, and it is estimated that 100,000 acres 
are imder this cultivation on the Yucatan peninsula. The average 
size of the individual plantation is 500 acres. Of agricultural exports 
from Mexico henequen yields by far the most valuable returns. The 
cultivation of ixtle, another indigenous fiber plant, for commercial 
purposes is also increasing. 

CXXnON AND BUBBEB. 

As regards the production of cotton, while it is claimed that there 
are lands outside the Laguna district, the section where probably 85 
per cent of the fiber now produced is grown, well suited to cotton culti- 
vation, it is nevertheless true that the acreage imder cultivation does 
not increase despite the fact that active efforts have been made to 
effect such an increase. Mexico does not produce sufficient cotton for 
the consumption of her cotton mills, probably not more than one-half 
the amoimt required, the United States supplying the bulk of the 
remainder. Cotton-seed products are rapidly becoming an important 
commercial proposition here and exports of cotton-seed meal and 
cakes have considerably more than doubled during the past five years. 

The production of rubber is receiving marked attention at the 
present time, and the success of this cultivation in Mexico would seem 
to be no longer a matter for question. I am informed that one com- 
pany alone has 20,000 acres in trees ranging from a few months to 
seven years of age. 

The minister of finance in reviewing the exports of Mexico for the 
last fiscal year states, regarding the rubber situation: ''Foremost 
among the products of which the exportation increased are rubber, 
including guayule rubber, the exportation of which began five years 
ago and now exceeds $6,500,000 Mexican ($3,250,000 United States 
currency) per year." 

TIMBER RESOURCES. 

The area of first-class timber in Mexico is estimated as comprising 
from 20,000,000 to 25,000,000 acres. The heaviest stumpage of pine 
and oak are foimd in the States of Chihuahua, Durango, Jalisco, 
Michoacan, and Guerrero. The largest bodies of tropical hard woods^ 



10 TBABB OONBinONS IN HEXIOO. 

or cabinet woods, are located in the Gulf States. The best timber is 
still more or less remote from transportation, but the railroads are 
beginning to open up the coimtry in some of the lumber districts, and 
the industry, while now in its infancy, bids fair to experience a wide 
development with the advent of increased transportation facilities. 

Detailed information concerning the extent of Mexican ^timber 
lands, varieties of hard woods, ratings of the same, estimated cost of 
the logging and manufacturing in Mexico, etc., may be foimd in the 
report on the subject printed in the Daily Considar and Trade Reports 
of January 31, 1908. 

MANUFACTURING. 

The manufacturing industries are of inconsiderable importance as 
compared to the mineral and agricultural resources of the Republic. 
The lack of native fuel, as well as lack of capital and expert knowledge, 
is largely responsible for the small extent of manufacturing which 
exists. The adoption in recent years of electricity as a motive power, 
together with the introduction of foreign capital and experience, and 
the protection afforded native industries by the Government in levying 
customs duties, will doubtless in time bring about a development in 
manufacturing hitherto unknown to the country. It is probable that 
owing to the lack of coal supply few countries have proportionately 
resorted more largely to the utilization of water power for the genera- 
tion of electricity than Mexico. 

The general character of the coimtry is mountainous, so that while 
there are no large rivers the high waterfalls make possible such 
development. Generally speaking, however, the value of a water 
power in Mexico depends largely upon the construction of storage 
reservoirs for retaining the flood waters, since the wet and dry seasons 
prevailing throughout the coimtry render variable the flow of the 
streams, and only by this method may a trustworthy power of large 
proportion be obtained. 

Within a comparatively recent time the use of electricity has been 
introduced into various mining camps and large amoimts of electrical 
machinery placed in mining work. The most notable development of 
electrical force from hydraulic power is that of some Canadian capital- 
ists, officially known as the Mexican Light and Power Company, one of 
the largest electric power plants of the kind in the world. 

LEADING MANXTFAOTUBES. 

The manufacture of cotton textiles for home consumption is the 
most successfully established native industry. The latest official sta- 
tistics available give the nimiber of Mexican cotton mills as 128, 
employing 30,162 persons, operating 678,058 spindles and 22,021 
looms. The larger number of factories are located in the central 
States, Puebla heading the list with 29 mills. The mills of Orizaba, 



TSABB OOKBITIONS IH MBZIOO. 



11 



State of Veracraz, are known to the cotton manufacturing world at 
large. The j are modem plants, well equipped and complete in detail. 
The principal output of Mexico's cotton factories is of the cheaper 
grades of prints and sheetings, though in a few cases certain fine-class 
fabrics are produced. 

The growing of cotton in the Republic and the various branches of 
the cotton textile industry were described in a preliminary report 
published in the Daily Consular and Trade Reports of February 29, 
1908. 

Breweries, soap manufactories, and iron and steel industries are 
manufacturing plants of importance in the country. The latest avail- 
able statistics give the number of breweries as 37, the number of soap 
manufacturing plants as 305, and the number of iron mills and 
foundries as 21. The principal iron and steel plant is located at 
Monterey, in the northern State of Nuevo Leon, concerning the output 
of which a brief description has been previously furnished. The com- 
bined output of none of these industries is sufficient to meet the 
domestic demand. 

TRADE WITH THE UNITED STATES. 

A large percentage of Mexico's foreign commerce is carried on with 
the United States, both in imports and exports. It is impossible 
to state just the amoimt of American capital invested in Mexico, but 
from $750,000,000 to $800,000,000 is a conservative estimate, con- 
cerning the bearing of which upon our trade with that coimtry no 
comment is required. 

Another important fact in connection with our trade relations is the 
residence in Mexico of large numbers of our own coimtrymen, it being 
a proved precedent that where the citizens go in any considerable 
nimiber the coimtry^s goods follow. A striking example of the above 
is the present large volume of Italian trade with certain South Amer- 
ican countries, following upon the colonization movement. 

FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

The values of the total exports of Mexico as shown by official statis- 
tics were for the past three fiscal years as follows: 1905, $103,843,184; 
1906, $135,027,026; 1907, $123,512,968. These totals were repre- 
sented in detail by the following articles: 






im. 



im. 



1907. 



OoW 

SOrer 

Other mineral products . 

Venteble products 

Ammel products 

Menufectorlng products 
BaadTj 



114,124,210 
12,030,775 
18,130,388 
20,410,961 
5,231,040 
8,010,230 
381.033 



816,784,400 

02,440,241 

17,735,435 

81,388,211 

5,838,206 

1,483,203 

388.112 



811,880,100 

40,731,171 

18,182,220 

86,701,500 

5,553,000 

1,875,718 

519,520 



12 



TBADE OONDITIONS IN MEZIOO. 



Included in ''Other mineral products" are copper and lead, with the 
following quantities and values for 1907: Copper , including copper ore, 
156,644 metric tons, valued at $14,338,803; lead, including lead ore, 
69,077 metric tons, valued at $1,815,080. During the past five years 
the exports of copper hav^ increased, owing to the advance in the price 
of the metal, some $4,000,000. Lead, on the other hand, shows a fall- 
ing off in both quantity and value. 

VEGETABLE PRODUCTS. 

After minerals, in export valuation, follow vegetable products, 
which show a constant and satisfactory increase. 

Since the piurchasing power of a nation is largely determined by her 
resoiurces as measured by the valuation of her exports, the following 
detailed tables of the principal vegetable products exported may 
prove interesting: 



H^rtddea. 



looe. 



iBoe. 



1W7. 



□equ 
laiie fiber 

CoffBfl.,.. , 

Chlck-peu......,,^.^. ...... 

CUtcle ...,..- , 

WcxmIj 

Rubber, Including guftjiil«. 
OuAyulfl pl&Dti » . 



ili63S,7S5 
1,740,^43 

4,6oa,sn 

1,357»230 
§09»4W 



tl4jeG»,7Sl 

4,G2^,934 

1,103, 70S 

1,474,439 

S44,g6S 

1*37.217 

306,773 

14^r43l 

08,278 



tl5tOS7,343 
l,B9«,0fil 

a, 034, on 

l,fiaS,073 

1,080, H9 

S65,43ft 

30ir4fl0 



ANIMAL PRODUCTS, SUGAR, COTTON SEED, BTO. 

Cattle and untanned hides form the chief exports of animal prod- 
ucts, concerning which the following returns are given for the three 
years' period: 



Articles. 


1906. 


1906. 


1907. 


Cattle 


$1,166,932 
3,356,326 


$1,266,946 
8,928,667 


9606,448 
4» 419.796 


UDtADDed hides 





It is stated that the falling oflF in cattle exports for 1907 was due to 
the increased home demand. 

Exports of the chief articles of manufactured and simdry products 
with their respective valuations were as follows: 



Articles. 



1006. 



1906. 



1907. 



Refined siigar 

C'oa r.-o sugar 

Cotton-seed meal and cakes 

Palmetto hats 

Tanno<] hides and skins 

Manuiuctured tobacco 



12,847,288 
26,449 
280,278 
160,968 
143,376 
231,708 



$336,700 

8,281 

281,718 

sn,a60 

107,487 
185,918 



8870,S« 

U,8tt 

fil,i47 

tl4.147 

17,in 

MibOT 



TBADB 0ONDITION8 IN MEXIOO. 



18 



The principal exports to the United States are copper , lead, goat- 
skins and hides, coffee, and textile grasses. The United States is 
Mexico's best customer, furnishing by far the largest market for her 
export trade. Statistics of exports for the year 1907 to the follow- 
ing coimtries are as follows: United States, $87,852,943; Great Brit- 
ain, $15,873,263, and Germany, $10,014,612. France, Belgium, 
Spain, and the West Indies follow in the order mentioned, each taking 
smaller quantities than the other countries named. 

DCPOBTS — STATUS OP DIFFERENT OOUNTBIES. 

« 

More than two-thirds of Mexico's exports are sent to the United 
States, and nearly two-thirds of her imports come from that source. 
The imports from Germany in value are only about one-sixth of those 
from the United States, while from Great Britain and France they 
are considerably less than one-sixth. The imports from other coun- 
tries are insignificant in comparison. 

Germany seUs more goods to Mexico than does Great Britain, and 
she buys less from the RepubUc. German exports are more than 
$2,000,000 in excess of her imports from Mexico, while the imports 
of Great Britain are nearly $4,000,000 in excess of her exports; 
France sells more than double the value of the goods she buys. The 
following statistics for 1907 show the various countries from which 
Mexican imports are drawn, with the increase in value over 1906: 



Coontry. 


1907. 


Ckdnover 
1906. 


Country. 


1907. 


Gain oyer 
1906. 


United States 


$72,895,639 
12,165,767 
U,7I9,275 


1415,806 
1,872,730 
1,698,867 


Franofl ................. 


$8,781,624 
8,970,542 


$728,307 


(])ff rnutny 




189,284 


Gxeat Britain 











The statistics given are those of the Mexican Government. The 
exports to Mexico in 1907, as shown by the official returns of the 
United States, aggregated in value $67,692,618, while the imports 
from that country were of the value of $67,000,795. The nations of 
Europe show keen interest in Mexico's markets, and Canada is 
conducting an active commercial campaign there. 

As showing that Mexico herself is alert to the improvement of her 
foreign trade it maybe stated that during the past year the department 
of foreign affairs issued an order classifying her consular service in order 
that more time may be devoted to the collection and dissemination 
of information to promote commerce, industry, and agriculture. This 
departure was made not only to furnish better statistics of existing 
trade relations, but to encourage new business, a special feature being 
the study of the needs of the territory within the jurisdiction of the 
consular official and the collection of information relative to articles 
produced therein, which information might be of value to Mexico. 

H l>-6a-2-Vol 96 2 



14 



TBADE OONDITIOKS IK MBZIOO. 
WHAT HBXIOO IMPORTS. 



Mexican imports are classified, according to the tariff, into eleven 
groups. These are given in the following table, in which the valua- 
tions are in round numbers, and comparison is made with the returns 
for the fiscal year 1906: 



Artloles. 



Animal substaooes. 

Vegetable substaooes 

Mineral substances 

Textiles, and manufac- 
tures thereof 

Chemical and pharmaceu- 
tical products 

Spirituous, fermented, and 
natural beverages 



1906. 



S7,941,734 
15,852,264 
44,160,203 

11,024,720 

3,759,166 

8,635,425 



1907. 



S9,360,314 
15,441,769 
40,329,547 

12,895,588 

4,626,557 

3,550,711 



Articles. 



Paper, and applications 

thereof 

Machinery and apparatus. 

Vehicles 

Arms and explosives 

Sundry 

Total 



1906. 



$2,646,364 
9,932,871 
2,236,230 
2,006,390 
3,969,064 



107,064,421 



1907. 



$2,933,064 

13,497,506 

4,379,996 

1,901,780 

4,649,337 



113,566,270 



The most important increase during the year was that of machinery 
and apparatus of all kinds. 

The principal articles imported from the United States are coal, 
lumber, explosives, manufactures of iron and steel, raw cotton, wheat, 
and boots and shoes. Mexican importations of wheat and com fluc- 
tuate according as the home crops are good or bad. Under normal 
conditions the Republic does not fully supply her own breadstuffs, 
her average annual wheat importations from the United States aver- 
aging about $800,000 or $900,000, though $2,000,000 worth was 
imported in 1906. 

LUMBER AND FUBNrrUBE. 

Approximately 70 per cent of the lumber used in Mexico at the 
present time is imported, owing to the undeveloped state of the coim- 
try's timber resources. Importations of furniture show a steady 
growth, and the market here is one of good promise to American 
manufacturers. This is especially true of office furniture. In uphol- 
stered goods competition with European makers is very keen. It is 
the goods of high grade that have the larger demand in Mexico. 

In shipping furniture to this country great care should be taken to 
give the following details in full on the invoice accompanying the 
goods, as required by the customs law: The kind of wood, whether 
soUd, common, stained in imitation of hard woods, or veneered, of 
which the article is made; and if upholstered, the kind of cloth, 
whether cotton, wool, silk, or a mixture of these textiles which enters 
into the upholstery. 

MANTTFAGTUBES OF IBON AND STEEL. 

The large increase shown in the importation of iron and steel man- 
ufactures in 1907 shows the rapid development of Mexico's industries. 
In a preliminary report the machinery situation, with reference to 
mining and sugar-making machinery, was presented at some length, 



TBABB CONDITIONS IN MEXICO. 



16 



and anything further than a brief r6sum6 of conditions at present 
obtaining in the market must needs be a repetition of that report. 
The value of United States machinery exports to Mexico for the past 
two fiscal years is shown in the following table: 



DoscrtptloiL 



1906. 



1907. 



DeaorlptiozL 



1906. 



1907. 



Inery. 



Electrical 

Metal-workiiig 

HiDing machinery . 

Pctmpfl and pumping ma- 
chinery 

Sewing machiTMW, and parts 
of 



1974,248 
69,129 

1,054,965 
696,543 



$1,241,546 

80,693 

3,280,967 

1,144,060 

779,647 



Steam engines, and parts of: 

Locomotives 

Another 

Typewriting machines, and 

parts of 

Afl other 



$466,536 
663,625 

848,072 
4,090,014 



81,285,836 
630,800 

872,858 
2,521,970 



a Included in ** AU other machinery" prior to Joly 1, 1906. 

Our most formidable competitor is Great Britain, particularly as 
regards sugar-making machinery. The United States holds the mar- 
ket for Tnining machinery, though Great Britain, Grermany, and France 
each supply a small percentage. The market for electrical machinery 
and apparatus is already large, and bids fair to continue to increase. 

AGBICULTUEAL MACHINEBY AND IMPLEMENTS. 

The agricultural industry aflFords opportunities of promise for the 
introduction of agricultural machinery, implements, and tools. Pa- 
tience and perseverance are necessary, as the training of the consumer 
has been along lines quite dilBferent to those prevailing in the United 
States. Well-stocked agencies for American agricultural implements 
are established in the principal towns of the Republic, and while present 
sales are considerable there is room for great improvement. Competi- 
tion is offered by German and English agricultural implements, but 
with the exception of thrashers, where preference is in instances given 
the British-made machines, and double-molded board and gang 
plows, which the (jermans have introduced in agricultural sections, 
our competitors have not as yet made much headway. 

American implements are Hghter in construction, less complicated, 
and better suited to the needs of this country than those of European 
origin, and the majority of haciendados give preference to our products 
for these reasons. 

HABDWABE — VEHICLES, AUTOMOBILES, ETC. 

Importation of builders' hardware of American manufacture show 
considerable gains, and the products are deservedly popular; but there 
is sharp competition offered in these lines by Germany, which is the 
most marked and keen in the northern portions of the Republic, where 
the trade appears to be controlled by German houses. 

The second largest increase in Mexico's imports for 1907 was in 
vehicles. Included under this head are freight cars, of which large 



16 



TBADE OONDITIONB IN MEXIOO. 



importations were made, and there was also a large increase in auto- 
mobiles. The automobile trade with the United States has rapidly 
advanced, showing the third largest foreign market for American cars. 
During the five-year period 1903-1907 the exports of automobiles to 
Mexico from the United States advanced from $24,762 to $812,639, 
while valuations for the past three fiscal years, 1905-1907, were 
respectively $119,986, $422,626, and $812,639. The gradual further 
improvement of Mexican highways, already traceable in many in- 
stances more or less directly to the demands of the automobilist, is 
certain to prove an important factor in enlarged future sales of such 
cars. French, ItaUan, German, and English automobiles are sold here, 
but the present outlook for American machines seems to be of the best. 

OUTLOOK FOB POOD PRODUCTS. 

The recent establishment of the Mexican National Packing Com- 
pany's plant at Urupan effected a new departure in this country, and 
is a notable example of the commercial and industrial advance now 
taking place within its boundaries. The enterprise was honored with 
a special paragraph in the message of President Diaz to the Mexican 
Congress on April 1 last, and great expectations as to its future good 
results for the country are anticipated. In the opinion of an old rep- 
resentative in Mexico of one of the largest Chicago packing houses, the 
interests of the United States packers will not be greatly affected by 
the establishment of this new plant. The United States sends practi- 
cally no refrigerated meats to Mexico at present, and the trade in hams 
and bacon and canned meats, from t)ie immediate outlook at least, is 
not Ukely to decrease. Mexican prices of all meats and foodstuffs may 
be considered as ranging high. 

PBIOES OP POOD PRODUCTS. 

The following Hst is illustrative of the general prices of certain food ' 
products in Mexico. The prices are retail per kilo (2.2 pounds) unless 
otherwise stated, and are given in United States currency: 



Articles. 


Price. 


Articles. 


Price. 


l=^^in« and l>ftcop 


10.67 

.45 
.45 

.50 
.45 
.45 
.50 
.45 
.20 
.15 
10. 50-. 62} 
.30 
.18 

.65 
.76 


Wheat flour, American . . . .per pound . . 
Rice, American 


SO. 09 


Beef: 




.20 


Rib roast 


Beans, American 


.20 


Porterhouse 


Dried fruit 


.50 


Tenderloin 


Cocoa, American per pound 


.90 


Pork. 


Cocoa, Dutch do.... 

Tea do 

Coffee do.... 

Condensed milk per can. . 


1.26 


Lamb and mutton 


$0. 62-1. 60 


Veal 


.20 


SanfMis<ftff 


.20 


Canned fish T>ei 

Baited ood 


pound.. 
...do.... 
...do.... 
...do.... 
...do.... 


Canned apples, American, per §-pound 
can 


.62 


Butter, American 

Oleomargarine, American 

Lard, American 

Cheese: 


Breakfast foods, American, per pock- 
• age . .,, ^ 


.22 


Biscuits: 

Uneeda per package.. 

Fancy, American i)er pound . . 


.16 
.42 


European 









TBADE CONDITIONS IN MEXICO. 17 

In dried and canned fruits, bottled pickles, etc., the United States 
does a considerable trade here; but England is a strong competitor, 
and it is said that the first cost of the English products is often less 
than that of the American; also complaints are made regarding 
American packing. In certain kinds of canned goods French products 
have a preference, owing, more than any other reason, it seems, to the 
very neat and artistic maimer in which the goods are sent out. 

Li the fancy biscuit line England is also strongly asserting herself, 
but the United States holds a good proportion of the trade. 

WINES AND LIQUORS. 

Wines scarcely afford a promising field for the American export trade, 
nor is it probable that the situation will greatly change. American 
clarets must meet in competition low-priced wines of Spanish and 
French origin which have long held the Mexican market, thereby 
offering small chance for the sale of American brands. Champagnes 
and brandies are likewise furnished largely by French houses. Amer- 
ican whiskies are widely advertised and are gradually gaining in sales 
throughout the coimtry. 

TEXTILES, DRY GOODS, ETC. • 

Native mills supply a large amoimt of the cotton textiles needed 
for the home market, and Great Britain furnishes the principal 
foreign supply. France holds the fine dry goods and millinery trade, 
and the highest grades of women's and infants' ready-made wear are of 
French origin. In all lines of men's furnishing goods and ready-made 
wearing apparel American articles are deservedly popular. 

Woolen textiles are furnished principally by England and France. 
There is no prejudice existing in Mexico against either woolen or 
cotton piece goods of American manufacture, the source of supply 
being largely governed by the matter of price. 

CHEMICALS, DRUGS, AND MEDICINES. 

The United States should furnish a larger share of Mexico's require- 
ments along these lines than is now the case. There is a growing 
demand for patent and proprietary medicines, and the field for such 
is a valuable one. The important drug and chemical houses through- 
out the coimtry, both wholesale and retail, are principally German 
and French, and in many such things German goods control the 
market. A good proportion of proprietary medicines are furnished 
by the United States. France continues largely to hold the trade 
in perfume and toilet articles, this being due in part to the wide 
advertising which has been given to this nation's goods. The market 
for essential oils is an important one, also for flavoring and coloring 



18 TBADE CONDITIONS IN MEXICO. 

extracts, but the strong competition from English, French, and 
(jerman sources must not be underestimated. 

Proprietary or patent medicines manufactured in the United States 
are subject to a high Mexican tariff; accordingly some half-dozen 
prominent American houses have successfully established local 
bottling branches in Mexico, thereby enabling them to put out their 
medicines at lower prices than would otherwise be possible. Two 
very essential factors for this trade in all lines are personal represen- 
tation and extensive advertising. 

SEWING MACHINES AND SANITABY AND ELECTRICAL FTTTINGS. 

American products in phonographs, sewing machines, and type- 
writers control the field. 

All the larger cities in Mexico are taking up the problem of modem 
improved sanitation, and the general enforcement of sanitary laws 
following upon this action is creating a wide demand for sanitary 
appliances and equipment of every kind. 

The installation of electric power plants in many sections opens up 
opportunities in these locaUties for the introduction of electrical 
fittings, and all appliances connected therewith. American manu- 
facturers of these goods will do well to have a constant eye to Mexican 
needs and to remember that competition with Germany must be met. 

SHOE AND LEATHER TRADE. 

Leather tanning is carried on to a considerable extent throughout 
the Mexican Republic. Mexico City and Leon are centers of the 
tanning and leather trade, but there is scarcely a city or town in the 
entire coimtry which does not boast one or more tanneries. The 
quality of Mexican tanned leather is, however, as a whole inferior, 
and as a foreign commercial proposition has not proved a success. 

The boot and shoe industry in Mexico is as yet in its infancy, there 
being not more than ten or twelve modemly equipped factories in the 
RepubUc, turning out on an average from 50 to 450 pairs per day, 
with the exception of the two largest which maintain a capacity of 
2,000 and 1,000 pairs, respectively, daily. The small ''to order" and 
''by hand" shops are numerous in all localities. 

The modem equipped establishments are furnished with American 
machinery, and the more important firms are composed of Americans, 
employing American foremen, using lasts and upper leathers imported 
from the United States, and turning out a well-made Goodyear and 
McKay shoe. This class of goods enters into .keen competition with 
shoes from the United States, but the averrge lower grade Mexican- 
made shoe, owing to the lack of skiE^fT workmen, is inferior to a 
corresponding grade of shoe made i^the United States. For the 
benefit of those intimately interested in the boot and shoe export 



TBADB CONDITIONS IN MSXIOO. 



Id 



trade with Mexico the following cost of production in that country, 
showing the average weekly wages of operatives in shoe factories, is 
furnished, ten hours constituting a day's labor: 



DeicriptioiL 


Weekly 
wages. 


Description. 


Weekly 
wages. 


Roug*» rtn* catting 


13.76 
3.75 
OlOO 
.U 
2.50 
2.50 
.035 

OlOO 

7.50 
4.50 
3.75 
4.50 
4.50 
7.50 
2.50 
e.00 


nhnnn^ laying 


14.00 


GhamieUiig Qoodyekr soles 


N^Mpg h^ imitiT 


3.76 


Oitt^nff o^cUcUng 


3.76 


Upper fitting ftntTstitohing eadi. . 

Counter sMving 


Stttch'separating by machine 


3.76 


Hflel attaching, r. . ' 


OlOO 


Box toei skivtrTg. 


Top-piece slusslng by machine 

Hew f rimmirig 


4.60 




4.60 




Heel breasting. 


4.60 




Kdge trimming 


7.60 


Tffff^^i^xn trhnmfvfgx ...' ..... 




6.00 


Welt hammering'. 




flwOO 


Trimming and flxtng shaiik pieces 


Inking and finishing heels and seat 

by Naomkeag ; sole and shank flnish- 
ingfincludinglajTlng colors; cleaning 
op, and taking out last 




Romiaing and ^^(^TiTifihig on last 




Sole stitching, Goodyear Rapid 


13.00-0.00 









ICABKET FOB AMEBICAN-MADE SHOES. 

The United States has already achieved a large measure of success 
in the boot and shoe trade with Mexico. The exports of these prod- 
ucts of American manufacture for the five-year period 1903-1907, 
inclusive, which follow, attest the popularity which the American 
shoe has gained in the Mexican Republic: 



Year. 


Pairs. 


Value. 


Year. 


Pairs. 


Value. 


1908 


402,804 
496,183 
683,840 


1623,804 

786,502 

1,116,608 


1906 


843,398 
810,859 


11,629,864 


ig04 


1907 


1,560,321 


1006 









Men's footwear for this trade is made principally on a characteris- 
tic American-shaped last; and the same leathers are employed as 
are used in the United States. Both the balmoral and Oxford styles 
are worn, and altogether there is but small difference between the 
demands of the Mexican and those of the American trade. There is 
a certain demand for a shoe for men's wear made on the long, narrow 
Spanish-shaped last. This special style has been conformed to by at 
least one American manufacturer, who in thus wisely catering to a 
marked taste of the foreign buyer has reaped satisfactory results. 
Another preference of the trade is for a sole of lighter weight than that 
usuallj required for the United States home trade, which applies to 
bodi women's and men's footwear. The styles most desirable in 
iromen's goods are fashioned along French rather than typically 
American lines, with Cuban and Louis XV heels. For afternoon or 
dicofl wear fancy goods have a decided popularity, which has been 
wen met by American manufacturers in outputs of special lines. 
There is perhaps a slight preference for the high shoe, button or laced, 
fin orer tiie Oxford. 




20 TRADE CONDITIONS IN MEXICO. 

American shoes usually retail in Mexico City for from S5 to $6 a 
pair, both men's and women's. An extra high shoe for miners' 
wear sells for S6.75; men's white canvas balmorals for $4.25; Oxfords 
of the same material, S3.75; men's dancing pumps for $5.75; slippers, 
"Opera" for $3.25, and ''Romeo" for $4.25. Women's white can- 
vas Oxfords and slippers are sold at $3.75. Special lines of women's 
fancy shoes at $7.50. 

Americans meet a considerable amoimt of competition in hand-made 
Spanish shoes, which are sold often at a price lower than is asked for 
the American shoe. I heard a good deal about this competition in 
the northern cities, where, owing perhaps to the proximity of the 
region to the United States, the use of modem wearing apparel and 
footwear is being more generally adopted by the lower classes. Nor 
is the wearing of proper footwear by these classes by any means con- 
fined to the north, as it is, to a certain degree, general all over the 
Republic. Americans living in Mexico say that the change in this 
respect during the past five years has been a wonderful one. 

It would seem that a good opening for the introduction of a cheaper 
grade of American shoe than is now on the market is thus afforded. 
The future demands for such a line of shoes would seem, judging from 
the present trend of conditions, to be well worth the personal investi- 
gation of those interested. 

MEXICAN RAILWAYS. 

There are at the present time approximately 14,000 miles of rail- 
ways in Mexico. The Tehuantepec National Railroad, opened in 
January, 1907, which crosses the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, is carrying 
on a large volume of business. The land haul from terminal to termi- 
nal is 190 miles, and the time occupied is less than twenty-four hours. 
During the year 1907 the value of American commerce passing over 
this Mexican transcontinental railroad is estimated as having been 
between $25,000,000 and $30,000,000. 

The Tuxpam-Manzanillo extension branch of the Mexican Central 
Railroad approaching completion will open up a new transconti- 
nental route, the benefits of which will be incalculable to the Republic. 
The development of the Pacific coast States of Mexico will derive 
new impetus, and rich agricultural districts will be given communica- 
tion with the outer world through this needed outlet. Channels of 
trade between these localities and Pacific ports of the United States, 
British Columbia, Central and South America, and the Far East will 
thus be opened and more economical importation of foreign prod- 
ucts made possible. This extension is 100 miles in length, and the 
opening to traffic is expected to take place next September. 

The Kansas City, Mexico and Orient Railway will, when com- 
pleted, furnish Mexico's third transcontinental . route. This line. 



TRADE 0OND1TTON8 IN MEXICO. 



21 



which is now under construction between Kansas City, Missouri, 
and Topolobampo, Sinaloa, on the Gulf of California, has its entire 
distance of 1,659 miles surveyed and located and right of way secured. 
The line is at present about one-half completed. It receives a sub- 
sidy from the Mexican Government amounting to about $2,750,000, 
which is paid in Government bonds as construction progresses. 
In addition, subsidies are also granted the road by the States of 
Chihuahua and Sinaloa. 

The local development which is sure to follow upon the advent of 
this line, both in western United States and Mexico, can not be too 
highly estimated. It crosses the most productive area of Oklahoma, 
opening up a region much in need of railway facilities. Between the 
Bed River and San Angelo, in Texas, a distance of 200 mUes, it is 
developing a region that is rapidly being transformed from a grazing 
to a farming coimtry. In the mountains east of Chihuahua is being 
opened up an important mineral region in silver, lead, and zinc, and 
the field for oil development is also attracting attention there. West 
of Chihuahua in the Sierra Madres access will be furnished to one of 
the best timber belts in Mexico. The Hamburg-American Steam- 
ship Company has entered into a contract with this railway company 
to put on a line of steamers from Topolobampo to Hawaii, the Philip- 
pines, Japan, and China as soon as the railway is completed. 

Another important railroad undertaking in the Republic is the 
extension of the Southern Pacific West Coast Tnmk line, which is 
being built from the terminus of Guaymas to the city of Guadala- 
jara, under the name of Cananea, Rio Yaqui and Pacific Railroad. 

The mileage of the various railways, not including side tracks, of 
the Republic and the source of the capital invested in them are shown 
in the following table: 



Name of road. 



Capital Invested. 



Miles. 



Mexican Central 

National 

Interooeanlc 

Hildago y Nordeste 

Mexican 

Mexican Mineral 

Mexican Northern 

Mexican Southern 

Tehnantepec National 

Durango Central 

Mapi^ 

Vera Cruz and Pacific 

Vera Cruz 

Coahulla and Zacatecas 

Linares and Gulf 

Chihuahua and Pacific 

Chihuahua Mineral 

Jalapa and Cordoba 

Sonora 

San Rafael and Atllxco 

San Gxefforlo 

Central de Potosl 

Aio Grande, Sierra^Madre and lacidc. 

Kansas City, Mexico and Orient 

Zituacuare 

ran American 

OazacaSjatU 



United States, British, and German. . 
United States, Briilah, and Mexican. 

Brit l.sh and Mexican 

Mexican 

British 

United States 

do 

British 

Mexican and British 

United States 

Mexican 

United States and Mexican 

British 

....do 

United States 

do 

Mexican 

United States 

do 

Spanish 

Mexican and United States 

United States 

....do 

do 

Britl«ih 

United States 

British 



3,402 

1,7;« 

736 

154 

321 

15 

81 

2(3 

210 

22 

15 

265 

45 

95 

40 

162 

16 

19 

2(i5 

70 

19 

10 

iro 

182 
16 

242 
48 



22 



TBADB OONDITIOKS IK KEXIOO. 



Name of road. 


Capital Invested. 


Miles. 


Naoozaii...... ••••••.. 


United States 


77 




Mexican 


28 


United Railways of Yucatan 




406 


Merlda a Peto 


MexlAan... .,. 


133 


ElOro 


British 


30 


San Lula Potosl to Rio Verde 


United States 


38 


CSordoba a Huatusoo 


Mexican 


20 


Torres a Piietas 


United States 


13 


Iztlabuaca .......^. ^..rr-^-r .t. 


British and United States 


23 


F. C. del Desaffue 


Mexican 


27 


P. C. de Tlaxco 


do 


16 


tw-nurutA Yftaiii ftnd Pacific 


United States 


39 








Total 


10,388 









COMPETITORS GAINING ON THE UNITED STATES. 

There are many lines of trade other than the ones already noted, in 
which the demands of Mexico's markets are considerable. While the 
trade returns afford just cause for a certain degree of satisfaction, it 
must not be forgotten that competitors of the United States while 
holding in comparison but a small percentage of Mexico's trade are at 
the same time making more rapid progress. The reasons for this fact 
are attributed to various causes, but in the main this may be laid at 
the door of those old and hackneyed misdemeanors of improper pack- 
ing, slow delivery, and failure to make good promises regarding the 
goods, inattention to necessary details in invoicing, imwillingness to 
cater to special requirements or to meet terms of credit offered by com- 
peting nations, and lack of personal representation, with ignorance of 
actual conditions. There has been improvement, but there is room 
and great necessity for a much wider improvement. 

The banking and financial laws of Mexico are founded on a solid 
basis. Failures in business are exceptional. While the Mexican may 
consume a long time in debating about the price of his purchases, 
when the transaction is completed he will adhere strictly to his word. 
European competitors show every consideration to the Mexican 
buyer as regards credits. Both Dun's and Bradstreet's commercial 
agencies have branches in the important cities of the Republic, 
through which full reports on prospective purchasers may be obtained. 

The American exporter should pay every attention to the shipping 
instructions received from the Mexican buyer . For instance, instouc- 
tions that certain articles be knocked down, and the different parts 
securely boxed in certain sized packages, and no package to weigh 
over a certain amount, may seem tedious to follow, but if final transpor- 
tation of the shipment must be made on mule or burro back, a piece of 
machinery weighing two or three tons can not well be taken apart at 
a small interior railroad station. The routing of shipments is im- 
portant. Goods which must be transshipped at Tampico or Veracruz 
should be strongly boxed, and furnished, in the case of drygoodsy 
etc., with inside protection against sea or tropical dampness. 



TRADE CONDITIONS IN MEXICO. 23 

♦ 

Advertising matter printed in English, employing the English sys- 
tem of weights and measures, and stating prices in American cur- 
rency is of small value. Catalogues and literature for circulation in 
Mexico should be printed in Spanish; should state the cost of each 
article in Mexican money (pesos and centavos), and should, in 
addition, furnish such information as will enable the prospective 
buyer to arrive at the cost of the commodities ofiFered in Mexican 
money laid down in Mexico. 

The salesman who imdertakes to sell American goods in Mexico, 
should not only speak Spanish, but should know something of the 
people, their customs, peculiarities, and their social as well as business 
ideas; he should also imderstand the laws of the country. 

Two facts which should be considered perhaps first of all, at least 
must be ever borne in mind, are that the seller is an Anglo-Saxon, 
the buyer a Latin, and that as far as customs, language, ideas, ways 
of living, business methods, etc., are concerned, the two races are 
nearly opposite. The proverbial "old Spanish courtesy" obtains in 
business as well as social relations, and the short, curt business letter 
sometimes sent out by American houses does not always fit the Latin- 
American idea, however much it may be preferred between Ameri- 
can business men, or however good the results obtained from such 
correspondence in the United States. 

It is by no means intended to infer that the American business man 
encounters any insurmountable obstacles in dealing with the native 
Mexican trade; on the contrary, if the American will conform to cer- 
tain rules and customs he will find no more difficulty in Mexico than 
in his own country. The fundamental principles of selling goods in 
Mexico are not different from those in the United States, but a dif- 
ference lies in the details of those principles which, by careful study, 
may be so arranged as to successfully fulfill all required conditions 
to the satisfaction of the purchaser and the betterment and enlarge- 
ment of American trade interests. 

Mexico assuredly offers a splendid opportunity for increased Ameri- 
can export trade relations. 



7d^^^^} HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES {^STi^ 



REPORT ON TRADE CONDITIONS 

ON THE 

WEST COAST OF SOUTH AMERICA 



By 
CHARLES M. PEPPER 

Special A|eot of the Deptrtment of Commerce end Lebor 



TRANSMITTED TO CONGRESS IN COMPLIANCE 
WITH THE ACT OF MAY 22, 1908, AUTHORIZING 
INVESTIGATIONS OF TRADE CONDITIONS ABROAD 



JANITARY 4, 1909 

Referred to the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce 
and ordere<l to be printed. 



WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1908 



....-, 



Department of Commerce and Labor, 

Office of the Secretary, 

Washington^ December 18^ 1908, 
Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith, in compliance with the 
act making appropriations for the legislative, executive, and judicial 
expenses of the Government for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1908, 
approved February 26, 1907, the report of Special Agent Charles M. 
Pepper on Trade Conditions on the West Coast of South America. 
Bespectfully, 

Oscar S. Straus, 

Secretary. 
The Speaker of the House of Representatives. 



CONTENTS. 



Letter of gabmittal 7 

Area and population ., 9 

Trade characteristics 9 

Beeooroesand development 10 

Purchasing power of mines and agriculture 10 

Basis of the market for foreign goods 11 

Lack of ore and fuel for manufactures 12 

Coal fields of Peru and Chile 12 

Charcoal for iron and steel works 13 

Native smelters formineral products 14 

Cotton mills and other domestic industries 14 

Machinery installations from abroad 15 

Bailway construction 16 

Presentand prospective lines 16 

American railroad ideas followed 18 

Material supplied by the United States 18 

Hindrances to contracts in Chile 19 

Hand-labor articles — Future improvements 20 

Public improvements 20 

Twenty million dollars for Valparaiso harbor 20 

More docks and wharves for Callao 21 

Proposed iron pier at Guayaquil 22 

Mining machinery 22 

Where oil drills and dredges are in demand 23 

Requirements of the nitrate fields 24 

Electrical machinery 24 

Encouraging prospect in Peru 26 

Utility in Bolivia and Chile 26 

Extension of telegraph and telephone lines 26 

Motor carsand launches 27 

Agricultural implements 27 

Points regarding plows in Peru 27 

Harvesters in the central valley of Chile 28 

Bolivian demand governed by altitude 28 

Hay and cotton presses— Thrashers and cultivators 29 

Sugar and rice mills 29 

Farm wagons and pumping plants 80 

Sundry iron, steel, and other products 30 

Nature of demand for hardware 31 

Household utensils and glassware 31 

Cooking ranges and stoves— Clocks and watches 82 

Typewriters and other American specialties 32 



4 CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Building material 33 

Value of the market for corrugated iron 33 

Belativeuse of structural steel and cement 34 

No encouragement for skyscrapers 36 

Lumber imported for many purposes 35 

Popularity of American furniture ;. 36 

Market for textiles 36 

Woolens and woolen mixtures— Hats 37 

United States weak in cotton piece goods.. 37 

Leather goods -38 

Sources of competition 39 

Breadstuffs and provisions 39 

Nature of flour importations 40 

Limited demand for breakfast foods 40 

Lard and cotton-seed oil 41 

Tinned meats and canned fruits 41 

Foreign and native be verages— Mineral waters 42 

Drugs and miscellaneous supplies 42 

Paints, wall and floor coverings, and paper 43 

Fiscal' systems 44 

Principle of customs duties 44 

Ecuador's application of single standard 44 

Peru's commercial stability under gold 46 

Bolivia's advance from silver basis 46 

Chile's fluctuating paper currency 46 

Foreign and native banking capital 47 

Prospect for an American bank 47 

Trade analysis 48 

Bolivia 49 

Chile 49 

Peru 50 

Ecuador 62 

Ocean transportation routes 53 

European steamship service 68 

Regular lines from New York 64 

From New Orleans and other Gulf ports 64 

Panama as a strategic route 66 

Insufiicient west coast facilities 65 

Excuses given for inefficient service 66 

Peruvian Government's fast steamship project 66 

Chilean Government's proposed subsidy 67 

Advantages of the Pacific ports 68 

Steamship lines to China and Japan 69 

United States sanitary authority at Panama 60 

Method of enforcing quarantine regulations 61 

Inspection by Chile and Peru 61 

Trade extension with United States 62 

Spanish language should be employed 62 

Trade-marks and advertising , 62 

Lithographs, billboards, and catalogues 68 

A pointed example --•^. j 9$. 

Requirements for commercial travelers -•••^•^•^BtttftiiiMlllHHi 

Value of export agencies •••'f^^i^iHPV^'Vi^^^^^^^l 



CONTENTS. 5 

Page. 

Trade extension with United States— Continued. 

Advantages and disadvantages of the system 67 

Variety of goods handled 67 

Expansive markets 68 

Field for manufacturers 68 

Faults to be corrected 69 

Middlemen's big profits 70 

Packing and transportation 70 

Instructions and regulations 71 

A serious evil 71 

Promptness in shipments 72 

Utility of parcels post 72 

Means for securing larger trade 73 

Predominance of Europeans 74 

German push and enterprise 74 

Italians, French, and Chinese 75 

Americans spreading out 76 

American influence growing 76 

Conclusion 77 



APPENDIX. 



Trade travel routes 78 

Colombia 78 

Ecuador .^. 78 

Peru .\ 79 

Bolivia 80 

Chile 81 

H D— 60-2— Vol 95 3 




LETTER OF SUBMITTAL. 



Washington, June 26^ 1908. 

Sir: The appended report reviews the Pan-American commerce 
of the area included in the west coast of South America from Panama 
to the Straits of Magellan. This area has a population of nearly 
12,000,000 inhabitants and an international trade of $250,000,000 and 
upward annually. The proportion of the United States in this trade 
is approximately $50,000,000, with the balance usually in favor of the 
countries of the Southern Continent. Since the construction of the 
Panama Canal was begun by the United States it has been apparent 
that there is a widening field in this commercial territory for the 
products of American farms and the output of American factories. 
The United States already has shared in the growth, but there are 
broader opportunities, and these I have sought to indicate both 
in the present report and in a number of special reports which it 
supplements. 

The striking features about the west coast as a market are that its 
purchasing power depends very largely on the exportation of miner- 
als and tropical agricultural products, that it lacks the raw materials 
for becoming a manufacturing section, and that through this lack of 
a basis for national industries it must be a heavy buyer of manu- 
factured goods, breadstuffs, and provisions abroad. The develop- 
ment that is now going on in railways and in mines insures a valu- 
able market for iron and steel products in which the United States 
is preeminent, and it is most gratifying to note the important part 
which American capitalists are taking in this development. But 
there is also an increasing demand for other articles, all of which can 
be supplied by the United States. In addition to the railway and 
mining enterprises, special note should be made of the possibilities 
for utilizing the waters of the Andes for hydro-electric power. 

I have sought to indicate the countries and the localities in which 
the diflFerent forms of development are most active, so that Ameri- 
can manufacturers may know where to look for the sale of their 
products. It is desirable to know not only the general market but 
the places where the specific market exists. 

To the movement of commodities and the exchange of merchandise 
transportation is so important that satisfaction will be felt in the 

7 



8 LBTTEB OF SUBMITTAIj. 

prospective improvement of the shipping facilities between Panama 
and the west-coast ports. The proposed new steamship line, of which 
an account is given, will facilitate not only the movement of freight 
but the transportation of the mails and of passengers. The facilities 
from the Atlantic coast and from the Gulf of Mexico are fairly ade- 
quate, and the tendency of the products of the Mississippi Valley to 
move through the Gulf ports to Panama and beyond will be en- 
couraged by the enlarged service which is now aflForded. In con- 
nection with ocean transportation it is a pleasure to state that the 
sanitary control exercised by the United States on the Isthmus has 
been of great benefit both to freight and passenger traffic in mini- 
mizing quarantine restrictions. 

I have not undertaken to give in detail technical information re- 
garding prices and description of articles such as is covered by the 
special agents who are familiar with the requirements of the separate 
lines of manufactures. The west-coast commerce has not yet reached 
the point where it is large enough in its various branches to call for 
such specialization. But the general facts which are essential to 
manufacturers and producers are set forth, with- suggestions as to 
the means for following up the opportunities. Practical trade hints 
are given with a view to aiding American exporters in winning the 
foreign markets comprised within the commercial area described. 
Their first step should be to take advantage of the information which 
the Bureau of Manufactures is able to furnish them. Further steps 
taken by the manufacturers themselves and continued with intelli- 
gence and persistence undoubtedly will enlarge the reciprocal market 
of the United States and the west coast. 
Respectfully, 

Charles M. Pepper, 
Special Agent, Department of Commerce aiid Labor. 

To Hon. Oscar S. Straus, 

Secretary of Commerce and Labor. 



TRADE CONDITIONS ON THE WEST COAST OF 
SOUTH AMERICA. 



AREA AND POPULATION. 

The commercial area of the west coast of South America includes 
the 3,100 miles of sea line from Panama to Valparaiso and the 
country back of it, which consists of the valleys and plains of the 
intermountain region and the slopes of the Andes system. Its further 
extension is from Valparaiso to Punta Arenas, a distance of 1,400 
miles. The meeting place of the traflSc from the Pacific coast of the 
United States and that which comes from the Atlantic and the Gulf 
of Mexico across Panama with the traflSc around Cape Horn and 
through the Straits of Magellan may be said to be at Callao, in Peru, 
midway between Panama and Valparaiso. 

The population within this trade area comprises Colombia, 600,000 
inhabitants; Ecuador, 1,500,000; Peru, 3,500,000; Bolivia, 1,816,000; 
and Chile, 3,250,000, or a total of 10,666,000. The statistics relating 
to Bolivia are based on the census of 1900, and those relating to Chile 
on the census of 1907; those relating to Peru, Ecuador, and the Pa- 
cific district of Colombia are estimates. The total foreign com- 
merce of these countries, including their intercoast trade, while vary- 
ing somewhat from year to year, may be placed at $260,000,000 to 
$276,000,000. Of this amount, Chile normally has $140,000,000 to 
$160,000,000, and in active years much more, the total in 1906 having 
reached $192,000,000. Of the Chilean commerce, more than one-half 
is furnished by the nitrate industry. Peru has $50,000,000 to $53,- 
000,000, all of which is west-coast commerce except the rubber traffic 
of Iquitos that flows in and out through the Amazon and amounts 
to $6,000,000 to $7,000,000 annually. Bolivia has $32,000,000 to 
$35,000,000, the bulk of which is through the Peruvian and Chilean 
ports, and Ecuador has $22,000,000. The trade of the Pacific section 
of Colombia may be estimated at 10 per cent of the total commerce 
of that country, or $3,000,000. Approximately, the trade of the west- 
coast countries is $26 per capita, Chile raising the average. 

TRADE CHARACTERISTICS. 

The trade conditions in Colombia have been described in a former 
special report, in which it is shown that the bulk of the commerce is 

9 



10 BEPOBT ON TRADE CONDITIONS 

on the Caribbean Sea frontage, and consequently it does not call for 
detailed description in the present report. The west-coast part of 
Colombia is served through the small ports of Buenaventura and Tu- 
maco, the larger volume of business being done through the former. 
Coasting vessels from Panama touch at both ports on their itinerary 
to and from Guayaquil. Buenaventura is the port for the Choco 
gold-bearing region, and the most valuable of its exports is gold dust, 
though there are a variety of tropical products. The imports are 
general merchandise, mining machinery, and railway material. Tu- 
maco is notable chiefly. for its exports of straw hats. The imports 
are merchandise and mining machinery. 

Ecuador in its relation to the other west-coast countries occupies 
a somewhat isolated situation. Its leading export crop is cacao, or 
chocolate bean, which is valued annually at $5,000,000 to $7,000,000. 
Other exports are coffee, vegetable ivory, hides, rubber, fruits, and 
some minerals, while among its crops which are consumed at home 
are cane sugar, tobacco, rice, the cereals, and a limited quantity of 
cotton. It is essentially a country of tropical agricultural products, 
with limited mineral resources. The trade conditions of Ecuador 
have also been fully described in a special report and call for little 
elaboration now except in their general bearing to the west coast. 

Peru, Bolivia, and Chile have many trade characteristics in com- 
mon, as also physical characteristics. There is a similarity in the 
projects for developing their resources and there is a noticeable 
commercial identity, most of the large houses having branches at all 
the important ports from Paita, in northern Peru, to Punta Arenas, 
in the Straits of Magellan. 

RESOURCES AND DEVELOPMENT. 

The physical conditions of the west-coast countries are such that 
for an indefinite period in the future development enterprises will 
be necessary in order to utilize their natural resources. Railways 
are to be built, mines opened up, and public works constructed, so 
that the commerce is not simply the stationary one of supplying the 
settled wants of a fixed population. The narrow coast strips between 
the sea and the Cordilleras may not be subject to commercial expan- 
sion, but the lateral valleys, the intermountain plains, and the moun- 
tains themselves, which are the storehouses of mineral wealth, are 
all to be exploited. There is a prospective agricultural development, 
by means of irrigation, of regions close to the coast and across the 
Continental Divide on the Atlantic watershed, where railways are 
expected to join the navigable river regions. 

PURCHASING POWER OF MINES AND AGRICULTURE. 

The purchasing power of the west-coast countries is dependent 
chiefly on two classes of articles. These are agricultural, which are 



WEST COAST OP SOUTH AMEBIOA. 11 

mainly tropical, and mineral products. In Ecuador cacao, ivory 
nuts, rubber, coffee, and hides are the main source of buying power; 
in Peru sugar, cotton, alpaca wools, rubber, cacao and cocaine, cop- 
per, gold, and silver; in Bolivia tin, copper, and silver, with wool, 
rubber, cacao and cocaine, and other agricultural products occupying 
a subordinate position; in Chile the nitrates, copper, silver, wool 
from the Patagonian and Magellan Straits region, vineyard products, 
and in some years a surplus of cereals. 

Substantially all the mineral products of these countries are ex- 
ported. Peru's mineral exports are growing rapidly, but a leading 
source of buying power is still the agricultural products. In 1906 
the copper output was 13,000 tons, valued at $15,000,000, and silver 
to the same amount; the sugar was valued at $4,325,000; alpaca and 
other wools, $2,600,000; rubber, $2,650,000; cotton, $750,000; hides, 
$775,000; cacao and cocaine, $250,000. 

In Bolivia the mines are both the present and the prospective means 
of foreign purchases. The output of tin was 17,000 tons in 1906 and 
16,000 tons in 1907, the value in the latter year being $15,000,000, as 
against $18,000,000 in the former year. The copper output was much 
smaller, but it can be estimated at 6,000 tons annually, with a rising 
tendency. Exports of silver will increase materially in the next few 
years. 

Chile's production of nitrates, which are used by the whole world as 
fertilizers, average from $75,000,000 to $85,000,000.« The manganese 
ores, exported for blending, do not furnish a^ noticeable commer- 
cial factor, though they are a valuable asset. Copper, while the pro- 
duction has dropped from 30,000 tons to about 20,000 tons, can still 
be counted on to bring to the country from $5,000,000 to $6,000,000 
annually, and the development of new fields back from the coast, 
which is now going on, promises to restore the former output. The 
wool exports have risen to $3,000,000, in response to high prices and 
an exceptionally active demand. 

BASIS OP THE MARKET FOR FOREIGN GOODS. 

These products have been grouped in a general way because they 
exhibit the chief sources of the purchasing power of the countries 
mentioned and at the same ,time indicate the prospective lines of de- 
velopment and the nature of the wants to be supplied. It will be 
found on detailed analysis that the striking feature of the west-coast 
as a market is the demand for iron and steel products, textiles, and 
the foodstuffs of the Temperate Zone, for which minerals and tropical 
products are exchanged. Consequently, there is the natural basis for 

•The production for the nitrate year ended March 31, 1908. was 41,179,000 
Spanish quintals (quintal =101.6 pounds) and the exports were 39,876,000 
quintals. 



12 BEPOBT ON TBADE CONDITIONS 

international trade in the exchange of commodities of a widely vary- 
ing character. As a whole, the west coast has few national industries, 
and it can not for a long time, if ever, become a home- industry region. 
The reason for this is that the raw materials which form the basis of 
manufactures, where they exist at all, are so scattered that' to assemble 
them is commercially impracticable. This is true of Chile in only a 
limited sense. In its variety of climate, with its temperate-zone 
products, and in its mineral deposits and forests it has the nucleus of 
some domestic manufactures. These, however, do not" exist in suffi- 
cient degree to make it a manufacturing country as distinguished 
from a producing one whose products are chiefly for export. 

LACK OF ORE AND FUEL FOR MANUFACTURES. 

The prime factors in modern industrial establishments are iron 
ore and fuel. Iron ore exists abundantly in Chile, but in the com- 
mercial sense the iron-ore fields are yet remote. Much improvement 
must be made in transportation facilities and great expense be in- 
curred in demonstrating the commercial value and the utility of these 
deposits. In northern Peru, on the route from Paita to the Amazon, 
iron-ore beds also exist, but their value is problematical, and even 
if a railroad should be built to them their utility as the basis of man- 
ufactures is doubtful. For a generation at least there is little pros- 
pect of the exploitation on a large scale of iron ore on the west coast. 

If the ore existed in localities easily accessible, there would still 
be the basic question of fuel. The development of the coal deposits in 
the west-coast countries has begun, but as a rule they are located in 
regions difficult of access, and after railways are built to reach them 
the mining and shipping charges will render them unavailable except 
for industries in a circumscribed area. There is, for instance, no 
point in northern Peru where iron ore and coal could be assembled to 
build up a great steel mill. The coal that is exploited is used for 
local purposes and could be further employed for the railways. 

COAL FIELDS OF PERU AND CHILE. 

Peru now mines between 80,000 and 100,000 tons of coal annually. 
Some of this in the department of Ancachs is anthracite. Other coal 
mines have been developed in the department of Junin, which is the 
center of the bituminous deposits, and the coal, though somewhat 
high in ash, is utilized by the Cerro de Pasco smelting works, which 
convert it into coke. The railway extensions from the Oroya dis- 
trict south toward Cuzco probably will result in further output of 
coal for local purposes, but not for national industries. In 1906 the 
total value of the Peruvian coal output was $075,000. 

Chile for years has mined coal, much of which is lignite and is 
lacking in caloric qualities. It is commonly known as " stone coal," 



WEST COAST OP SOUTH AMEBICA. 18 

and some of it is used on the steamers. But even if the quality were 
satisfactory the quantity mined is far from sufficient for home pur- 
poses. Heavy importations are made from England and Australia, in 
1907 the total having been 1,489,000 metric tons, as against 833,000 tons 
of domestic production. Recent discoveries in the south around Val- 
divia have shown that coal of a fairly good quality exists there. The 
output, however, of newly opened mines is not likely to lessen the 
importations, since larger quantities are used from year to year. The 
deposits at present being mined are situated on the southern coast 
of the Bepublic, the most important of them extending a consider- 
able distance under the sea. A coal mine is also worked in the terri- 
tory of Magellanes, near Punta Arenas.** 

CHARCOAL FOR IRON AND STEEL WORKS. 

Chile seeks to employ other natural resources as a partial substitute 
for coal in building up native industries. Assuming that the iron 
ore is sufficient and that it can be brought from Coquimbo in the 
north to the south without transportation charges proving too heavy, 
the eflFort is to utilize the big forests of the south in providing char- 
coal. Liberal concessions have been granted to the Creusot Works, 
of France, for establishing works at Corral and Valdivia, which are 
within the forest area. These industries are in the initial stage, and 
it is not yet possible to predict the outcome of the experiment, but 
the enterprise will continue to have the support of the Chilean Gov- 
ernment by means of both protective duties and subsidies. It is the 
nearest approach to the establishment of iron and steel industries on 
the west coast. If the expectations should be realized, Chile at some 
future time will be manufacturing steel rails, structural steel, black 
tin plates, corrugated iron, and a variety of other iron and steel 
products. 

•An article in the Polctin de la Sociedad Nacional de Mineria, November, 1907, 
contained the following statements: "The analysis of the coal produced in the 
province of Arauco shows that this coal has a caloric value equal to from 92 
to 93.8 per cent of the English coal from south and north Wales. A comparison 
with Australian coal shows results still more favorable to the Chilean product, 
which is also superior to the best Japanese coal. Finally, it may be said that, 
Judging from the investigations and experiments made both in Europe and 
Chile with Chilean coal, the superiority of the latter over European lignites has 
been fully demonstrated." After due investigation it may be stated that there 
are in the Kei)ublic coal deposits that can produce an excellent quality of 
coke, which may ix)ssibly serve for the smelting of iron ores, and which is 
assuredly suitable for the reduction of some other minerals. An anthracite 
zone having been discovered in Chile, such as the deiiosits of Quilacoya and 
Huimpil, the coal of which contains a large proportion of fixed carbon and very 
little volatile matter, there is no doubt that the mixture of the products of this 
zone with certain coals from the coast would produce a good quality of coke. 



14 BEPOBT ON TRADE OOKDITIONS 

However, the prospect is not immediate enough to cause apprehen- 
sion in regard to the loss of this market. In connection with the 
necessity of cheap fuel for manufacturing industries it has to be noted 
that even close to the coast coal costs from $15 to $18 a ton, while in 
the inter- Andean region the price ranges as high as $40 per ton, and 
is therefore prohibitive. Llama dung and a kind of Alpine moss in 
the regions above the timber line serve for domestic fuel and for light 
manufacturing. The moss is also used on railway engines. 

The possibility of utilizing crude petroleum as fuel has often been 
suggested, and as the oil fields are developed a use undoubtedly will 
be found on a larger scale than at present, but this will be more for 
transportation than for manufacturing purposes. The output of the 
Tolara and Zorritos oil fields, in northern Peru, is now about 71,000 
tons per annum and the value $1,000,000. The indications are that 
the fields around Puno and Lake Titicaca can also be exploited com- 
mercially, but here, too, the chief use would be for transportation. 

NATIVE SMELTERS FOR MINERAL PRODUCTS. 

Since mineral products are so important in all the west-coast coun- 
tries except Ecuador, the extent to which they enter into native 
industries before they are shipped abroad needs to be described. The 
description is mainly an account of the smelting industry. In Peru 
large smelters are in operation for the copper products, and in spite 
of the high cost of fuel and its transportation charges they are found 
more profitable than shipping the matte, which is only 60 per cent 
copper. In Bolivia there are no large smelters for the tin, that min- 
eral being shipped in the form of concentrates. The Pulacayo 
silver mines at Huanchaca have smelters in operation, but the big 
smelter and amalgamation works at Antofagasta, which were built 
at a cost of $2,000,000, also to take care of the product of these mines, 
were dismantled after a few years' experiment and are now entirely 
abandoned. In Chile there are several active smelters. The leaching 
of the Chilean nitrates is so simple a process that it can hardly be 
called a manufacturing industry, though it is the essential process 
through which the raw material is put before shipment. A propor- 
tion of west-coast cargoes consists of ores for smelting, the freights 
being based on the London quotations, the cost of marine insurance, 
etc. In Peru the smaller mines, which are not able to maintain 
smelters, ship the matte. 

COTTON MILLS AND OTHER DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES. 

Of industries based on agricultural products the Peruvian cotton 
mills form the leading one. There are, however, not more than eight 
or nine mills, with a capital not exceeding $2,000,000, and these do 
not entirely consume the native crop. Peru is like the United States 



WEST COAST OF SOUTH AMERICA. 15 

in that it raises cotton, ships the raw product abroad, and then buys 
back the manufactured article. The mills are extending their opera- 
tions, and in addition to the tocuyos or coarse cloths they are begin- 
ning to make bleached goods, yet it will be a long time before the cot- 
ton industry of Peru is established on a home-market basis equal, 
for example, to that of Mexico. Between 1,500 and 1,600 operatives 
are now employed in the mills. 

The straw-hat industry of Ecuador was described in the special 
report on that country. Its development does not mean any loss to 
foreign goods, because no other country produces the straw from 
which these hats are made. Instead this industry, through the pros- 
perity it spreads, increases the market for foreign goods by increas- 
ing the purchasing power of the people. Other domestic industries 
of Ecuador include ship-repair yards, flour mills, breweries, a small 
sugar refinery, cotton mills, candle works, confectioneries, brick and 
tile works, and the making of saddlery, matting, and woolen ponchos. 

Chile has sugar refineries which might be called national indus- 
tries. They draw their supplies of raw cane sugar from Peru. It 
has also locomotive and car works, but these are a local rather than 
a national industry. This also may be said of the flour mills of both 
Peru and Chile, of the sawmills, tanneries, and shoe factories of Chile, 
the brick and tile works of Peru, and the ship-repair yards of all 
the coast countries. Bolivia is so lacking in local industries that it 
offers a bounty to those that are operated by steam power. 

MACHINERT INSTALLATIONS FROM ABROAD. 

The more the national and domestic industries of these countries 
are reviewed the clearer will appear their dependence on the United 
States and Europe. Wliere manufactories are set up, the machinery 
installation is necessarily from abroad. The smelting works of Cerro 
de Pasco are supplied entirely from the United States, while the 
Chilean sugar refineries get their installation from Europe. Peruvian 
cotton is ginned by American gins and fabricated by Manchester 
machinery. Such shoe factories as have been attempted base their 
expectations of profit on Massachusetts shoe machinery. The ship- 
repair yards and the foundries are dependent on the machine tools 
imported from the United States. The flour mills all along the coast 
are supplied with foreign machinery. In addition to the machinery 
■ plants necessary for the Chilean nitrate industry there is a market for 
foodstuffs and clothing. 

RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION. 

It is apparent from a study of the physical geography of the west 
coast that internal transportation facilities are at the basis of future 
industrial and commercial growth, especially in view of the pre- 



16 BBPOBT ON TRADE CONDITIONS 

ponderance of mineral over agricultural resources in so far as relates 
to commodities for which the most profitable markets may be found 
abroad. The exploitation of the productive resources and the pur- 
chasing power of any locality which may be selected are largely de- 
pendent on the extension and maintenance of the railway systems 
and the operation of the mines. 

With this development there is also a growth of permanent popula- 
tion, a spread of general prosperity, and an increase in the purchasing 
power of the individual. After the transportation facilities are pro- 
vided, the working of the mines comes. With railway building fore- 
most and with mining exploitation in its wake, it follows that the 
leading demand must be for iron and steel products, while there will 
also be a large field for merchandise to be supplied to the railway and 
mine laborers, as well as to the agricultural population. The wide 
demand which railway construction creates is wiell known. There is 
not only the materials and machinery for the line, but there are the 
tents of the construction camps and the food and clothing for the 
workers. This demand, while temporary as to a given locality, is con- 
tinuous for the different countries as a whole. 

PRESENT AND PROSPECTIVE LINES. 

A review of the actual construction now in progress and the pros- 
pective building would indicate about 300 miles annually for the next 
five years, with prospect of an increase in the mileage toward the 
end of that pjeriod. 

The status of construction in the different countries has already 
been given in several short reports and in a special report on the 
progress of the Pan-American project, but in order that American 
manufacturers may keep advised as to conditions in the region under 
consideration a summary will be given here. 

Golomhia. — ^The Buenaventura line is in operation for 25 of the 80 
miles to Cali. An American syndicate is negotiating with the Co- 
lombian Government to continue the construction of this railway 
to Cali and later to Bogota. 

Ecuador.— ThQ Guayaquil and Quito Railway, 290 miles, is com- 
pleted. A feeder south to Cuenca, 92 miles, and afterwards a line 
north to Ibarra, about the same distance, are projected. 

Peru. — Prolongations and extensions include the line of the Cen- 
tral Railway from Oroya south to Huancayo and Southern Railway 
north from Checacupe to Cuzco. Both projects are being carried out 
by the Peruvian Corporation under contract with the Government 
The line to Huancayo will be extended later to Ayacucho. 

The line from the port of Ilo to Moquegua, once abandoned is 
being reconstructed by the Government. 



WEST COAST OF SOUTH AMERICA. 17 

Surveys for a coast line from Lima to Pisco have been undertaken 
by the Peruvian Corporation for the Government. A guaranty of 
7 per cent interest on a capital expenditure of $2,500,000 for the 126 
miles standard gage was authorized by the Congress several years 
ago, but the original company failed to take advantage of it. 

Surveys for a coast line from Callao to Huacho, 40 miles, have 
been made by the English syndicate holding the concession and have 
been approved by the Government. This line is to be prolonged to 
connect with the narrow -gage systems of northern Peru. 

The line from the port of Pacasmayo toward Cajamarca is being 
prolonged. 

A line from Tumbez through the river valley, to be undertaken 
after the line from the port to the town, 7 miles, is completed, is under 
consideration. 

Projects for railways to the Amazon are awaiting financial back- 
ing from the United States or Europe. 

Peru has a permanent railway fund, the proceeds of the tobacco 
tax, which insures continuous railway building. The Peruvian Cor- 
poration, through financial arrangements elfected in London, has 
obtained the funds required for the extensive betterments demanded 
on its system. 

Bolivia. — ^The American syndicate's line from Viacha to Oruro, 
128 miles, is completed, and through railway communication now 
exists between Lake Titicaca and the town of Uyuni, 363 miles. The 
next construction will be from a point between Oruro and Uyuni to 
Potosi, and from Uyuni to Tupiza, 125 miles. A later line will be 
from Oruro to Cochabamba, 100 miles. The gage of the Antofa- 
gasta and Bolivia Railway between Uyuni and Oruro will probably 
be widened from 2^ feet to 3 feet 3f inches, to conform to the Ameri- 
can syndicate's standard, and this will call for new material. The 
joint capital of the Bolivian Government and the Speyer-City Bank 
Syndicate is $27,000,000, but probably more will be expended. The 
Argentine Government is making surveys for the prolongation of 
its line from Quiaca, at the border, to Tupiza, 52 miles. Material 
for the extension of the Argentine line to Bolivia was bought in 
Europe. 

Chile. — ^The most important project is the Longitudinal Line, 800 
miles, for which the Chilean Congress has authorized the expenditure 
of $37,000,000. Tenders approximating $20,000,000 were received 
for the 500-mile section between Papudo and Copiapo. 

The line from Arica to La Paz, Bolivia, which the Chilean Govern- 
ment, by a treaty with the Bolivian Government, obligated itself to 
construct, will be approximately 320 miles long, though complete 
engineering surveys have not yet been made. The estimated cost is 
$15,000,000. 



18 BEPOBT ON TRADE CONDITIONS 

Other railway construction is for the Government on the southern 
lines and for private interests, including the nitrate companies, 

AMERICAN RAILROAD IDEAS FOLLOWED. 

In a special report on the Bolivian railways the tendency to follow 
American ideas in construction and operation was commented upon. 
This is the certain outcome of the introduction of capital from the 
United States into South American railway building. Heavy loco- 
motives are coming more into favor, 60-pound rails are being laid, 
and 30-ton freight cars employed. 

Except for narrow coast strips, the general feature of railway 
building in the west-coast countries is the heavy grade and the bridg- 
ing, which is even greater than ordinarily would be looked for in a 
mountainous country. A majority of the Peruvian railways are of 
the standard gage^ but outside of these the narrow gage is employed, 
the meter, or 3 feet 3| inches, being the favorite, though there are 
some 3-foot gages and one line with 600 miles of trackage has the 
2^-foot gage. This is the Antofagasta and Bolivia Bailway. It re- 
quires pretty heavy locomotives and uses 25-ton cars, notwithstanding 
its narrow gage. 

MATERIAL SUPPLIED BY THE UNITED STATES. 

The small quantity of new material and rolling stock on the Buena- 
ventura line, in Colombia, was bought in the United States, and the 
rails and bridges and rolling stock of the Guayaquil and Quito Rail- 
way, in Ecuador, were made in the United States, though there were 
some minor importations from Germany. 

In Peru, though most of the lines are controlled by the London 
company, known as the Peruvian Corporation, practically all the ma- 
terial, including the ties, is from the United States. Some rails, 
however, are imported from Europe. The heaviest order for loco- 
motives ever given by a South American railway company was placed 
by the Peruvian Corporation in the United States. This order was 
for 55 locomotives. The same company made extensive purchases of 
bridge material in the United States. Orders and deliveries during 
1907 included 200,000 sleepers; 10 brirlgcs for the Central Railway; 
15 short girder spans. Central Railway; 1 bridge, Southern Railway; 
2 spans. Southern Railway; 2,400 tons rails plus accessories, Chilete 
extension; 580 tons rails plus accessories for Cuzco extension (ad- 
ditional) ; 1,500 tons rails. Southern Railway; 7,450 tons rails and 
accessories, Huancayo extension; 144,000 sleepers, Huancayo exten- 
sion; 6 bridges, Huancayo extension; 6,200 tons rails and accessories, 
Cuzco extension; 144,000 sleepers, 55 locomotives, for Central and 
Southern. 

The Cerro de Pasco Mining Company has procured the material 
for its railway lines almost exclusively in the United States. Its 



WEST COAST OF SOUTH AMEBIOA. 19 

orders have included engines of the Mogul type, 40-ton steel hopper 
coal cars, ore cars, box cars, gondolas, etc. In Bolivia up to the 
present time about 40,000 tons of material, including steel rails, have 
beeij bought in the United States by the Speyer-City Bank Syndi- 
cate for the lines which it is building under contract with the 
Bolivian Government. On the lines so far constructed, which are 
across the central plain and which avoid much of the heavy grading, 
trestling, and bridge work that will be required in the remaining sec- 
tions tlie material required has been from 325 to 400 tons per mile. 

HINDRANCES TO CONTRACTS IN CHILE. 

In Chile there are well-understood reasons why United States capi- 
talists have not secured contracts for the various railways and why 
their share in the business of supplying material is relatively small. 
The controlling influences have European connections, Belgian and 
German syndicates securing the preference. However, the Govern- 
ment has bought heavy locomotives in the United States for the 
State railways and also some rolling stock, particularly passenger 
cars. One order of 60 passenger cars was filled in St. Louis, the 
price being $8,860 gold each delivered in Chile. A contract for 700 
steel freight cars was awarded by the Government in 1907 to a Bel- 
gian syndicate, which agreed to lay down the box cars at $1,304 each 
and the flat cars at $1,823 each. Chile also seeks to favor its local 
car-building industry. 

Some rivalry exists between the German and the Belgian syndi- 
cates for the contracts involving the construction of new lines in 
which the Government is interested. 

The contract for the railway from Arica to La Paz was given to 
the Deutsche Bank, of Berlin. For 500 miles of the Longitudinal 
Line between Papudo and Copiapo the Belgian syndicate underbid 
its German competitor by $500,000. The financial arrangements for 
building these two lines have not at this time been completed, and it 
can not be said when the construction work will be begun and orders 
given for material. It is likely, however, that since both of these 
projects are in the hands of European syndicates the purchases of 
rails and much of the bridge material and rolling stock will be made 
in Europe, though it is agreed in South America that both in bridge 
building and in rolling stock the American mills can do better there 
than their European competitors. 

American firms never have been favored in the large Chilean rail- 
way contracts. Usually the announcement of tenders to be made has 
been within too short a time to permit them bidding. A more liberal 
policy would be as beneficial to Chile as to railway builders in the 
United States. The nitrate railways are owned by private compa- 
nies in which English interests predominate, and their purchases are 
generally, though not exclusively, made in Europe, 



20 BEPOBT ON TBADE CONDITIONS 

HAND-LABOR ARTICLES — ^FUTURE IMPR0VE3MCENTS. 

One or two additional points in regard to railway material may be 
briefly set forth. In the construction work there is small demand for 
steam excavators, while correspondingly there is a larger market for 
wheelbarrows, scoops, shovels, picks, etc. The salient fact is that 
about all the excavating and grading has to be done by hand labor, 
and usually pretty unskillful hand labor. In some places Italians are 
obtained for the masonry work, while expert bridge builders are sent 
out from the United States. 

In the future air brakes will be fitted to the rolling stock on most 
lines, though this raises a serious problem in the operation of the rail- 
ways, since it is difficult to find native laborers who can be trusted 
with them. A more important fact is the increasing use of the Ameri- 
can type, both of locomotives and of cars, which are capable of carry- 
ing heavier loads than the local managements heretofore have been 
willing to attempt. With the employment of American managers on 
the Peruvian railways and the example set by the American syndicate 
in building the Bolivian railways, the tendency now is toward the 
more efficient system, particularly in the freight service. 

PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS. 

Harbor works and other public improvements should call for a 
large quantity of material, now that the Panama Canal is well under 
way. Some of the Governments, in order to secure the full benefit of 
the canal, will have to spend large sums, for the west coast has few 
natural harbors. It is estimated that $00,000,000 will be required 
to make the necessary improvements in the various ports between 
Panama and Valparaiso, and the time in which it is calculated that 
these could be carried out is fixed at ton years. Slost of the countries 
are busied with schemes of railway building for developing their re- 
sources, and their revenues, aside from current expenses, are wisely 
devoted to this purpose. With the development of these internal 
resources, however, the necessity of improved harbor facilities will 
become imperative. There will be little gained in exploiting the 
natural wealth of any country unless means can be found for export- 
ing the products and for receiving in return manufactured goods. 
International commerce of this sort is the basis of the permanent and 
the expanding prosperity of all these countries. With the greater 
political stability which now exists, with small foreign debts, and 
with public credit strengthened, some of the Governments should be 
able further to utilize their credit by obtaining reasonable loans for 
harbor improvements. 

TWENTY MILLION DOLLARS FOR VALPARAISO HARBOR. 

Chile has been the most progressive of the west-coast countries in 
providing harbor facilities, and it has something akin to a continuous 



WEST COAST OP SOUTH AMEBICA. 21 

policy. The Valparaiso Harbor works, which will cost $20,000,000, 
have not yet reached the stage of actual construction work under 
contract. The numerous plans for making Valparaiso a fairly safe 
port have been described in various consular reports and need not be 
recapitulated in detail. They have been worked out with great 
elaboration. At the time this report is written a cable dispatch from 
Valparaiso says that the French proposal will be accepted and that 
the works will be completed within five years. There is a Govern- 
ment guaranty of 5 per cent interest to the constructors. With 
French capital undertaking the enterprise, it is natural to suppose 
that most of the material will be bought in France, yet in the execu- 
tion of so large a contract there is certain to be a chance for Ameri- 
can material also. 

At other Chilean ports marked advances have been made and 
good harbor facilities have been provided, but the improvements are 
not concluded and there is an indefinite period for the supply of 
material. Modern appliances, including improved hoisting machin- 
ery, steel cranes, etc., are not common on the west coast, but Chile 
is better supplied than its neighbors. 

MORE DOCKS AND WHARVES FOR CALLAO. 

Peru in the near future will be compelled to make great improve- 
ments in the dock and wharf facilities which the good natural har- 
bor of Callao furnishes. The shipping is controlled by a French 
company, which owns and operates the darsena or wharf. This has 
utterly inadequate means for handling the growing freight. Ves- 
sels frequently lie six weeks and longer before they can get their 
cargo lightered to the darsena, since its limited space is entirely 
taken up by the regular steamers of the two leading steamship lines. 
Two railroad spurs are all the facilities that are now available for 
handling the freight of the railways. 

Earnest and indignant protests of shippers and merchants over 
losses to which they are subjected are daily heard, and the Govern- 
ment is besought to take up the matter. The French company, since 
its concession is for a limited period, is not inclined to spend money 
on improvements. At the same time its concession is exclusive, and 
no other company or firm can erect docking and wharfage facilities. 
The Central Railway Company, the Cerro de Pasco Mining Company 
with its heavy shipments of copper, and several of the great business 
firms are ready and anxious to erect docks of their own if they can 
obtain the privilege from the Government. 

The burden which this condition puts upon commerce is so great 

that if improvement is not made the whole commerce of Peru will 

suffer loss. The outcome is likely to be some arrangement by which 

the French company's concession can be canceled and the darsena 

H D— (iO-2— Vol 95 4 



23 BEPOBT ON TRADE CONDITIONS 

enlarged with plenty of new docks and wharfs and modem hoisting 
and other appliances. Whether this be done by the Government 
itself or by throwing open the privilege and permitting the various 
companies to build their own docks and install machinery, a market 
for material is bound to be created before long. 

At some of the minor ports of Peru improvements also will have to 
be made. These will consist in building new jetties or extending the 
existing ones and providing hoisting facilities. At Mollendo, which 
is next in importance to Callao, costly mistakes are being corrected 
in building a breakwater, and this work will have to be supplemented 
by other improvements. At Tumbez and Pacasmayo extensions and 
enlargements are under way. 

PROPOSED IRON PIER AT GUAYAQUIL. 

In Ecuador the splendid harbor of Guayaquil, on the Guayas River, 
is not so perfect that it permits of no improvement. The trouble 
heretofore has been the sanitary conditions, which made it necessary 
for the vessels to anchor far down the river and to lighter their cargo. 
With the hope which is now held out, Ihat Guayaquil will be made a 
sanitary port, encouragement is given to the scheme for a system of 
docks and wharves which would do away with the expense of lighter- 
age. This plan has the indorsement of the Government and has been 
authorized by the Ecuadorian Congress. The legislation provides 
for an extensive iron pier and wharf and other construction under 
terms which appear to be reasonable. However, Guayaquil capital- 
ists have not succeeded in effecting satisfactory arrangemesjits, and 
American manufacturers might be able to float the project by supply- 
ing the material through American contractors. The engineering 
proposition is a simple one. 

In the matter of municipal improvements, especially waterworks, 
there is backwardness, but even the smaller cities and towns are 
awakening to their importance. Qiile has the largest number of 
small cities and it has proven the best field. 

MINING MACHINERY. 

The information already given regarding the mineral resources of 
the west-coast countries and the means which are being provided for 
their exploitation by the building of railway lines carries its own 
suggestion as to the market for mining machinery. American su- 
premacy is not so universally recognized in South America as in other 
parts of the world. A larger degree of recognition in the form of 
purchases has been given it in Peru than in Bolivia and Chile. 

In the mining industry of Bolivia stamps and concentrating tables 
will be most in demand in developing the tin mines, while the silver 
and copper mines will call for the usual installations. The reaction 



WEST COAST OF SOUTH AMERICA. 33 

in Bolivia from German machinery may. be taken advantage of by 
American manufacturers. The largest measure of future purchases 
will be the development of the tin mines and the revival of silver 
mining in the Potosi and other districts when they are reached by 
the new railways and cheap transportation is provided. Some of the 
American companies that were compelled to suspend operations when 
the financial stringency came on in the fall of 1907 have partially 
resumed, but the general exploitation of Bolivian mines by Ameri- 
cans, which will be the outcome of the investment of New York 
capital in the railways and which will insure the purchases of min- 
ing machinery in the United States, has not yet begun. 

Copper at 12^ to 13 cents a pound in New York, it is claimed, en- 
ables the Corocoro mines to be worked, though new ones are not likely 
to be opened up while this is the prevailing price. To encourage 
tin exploitation in Bolivia the product must fetch £135 to £140 
(£1=$4.86) per long ton in the London market. The copper and 
silver mines in the Antofagasta district have the benefit of railway 
transportation within reasonable distance, and that is an encourage- 
ment to the installation of machinery to work them. 

Smelters of the most modern kind have been built in Peru at 
Cerro de Pasco and Rio Blanco with almost complete installations of 
machinery from the United States. Chile has replaced some of its 
crude works with modern machinery. In most of the mining dis- 
tricts of Bolivia the cost of fuel is prohibitive. 

WHERE OIL DRILLS AND DREDGES ARE IN DEMAND. 

Oil drilling machinery is finding a growing market, and large ship- 
ments are received from the United States. The exJ)loitation of the 
Lake Titicaca fields is now quite extensively carried on. 

Dredging machinery is still a problem, though it is agreed that the 
placer gold fields are far from being exhausted. In fact, tlie in- 
centive to the employment of dredges is the belief that they have not 
been more than scratched. The dredges which were imported into 
southern Bolivia by way of Buenos Aires to work the bed of the 
San Juan River have not enabled the company to pay dividends, and 
the Tipuani River region, where little question is raised regarding 
the gold deposits, is inaccessible. 

In the Inambari region of southern Peru a company is reported to 
have undertaken to install dredging machinery, allowing two years 
for its transportation. In the Poto district of the Province of Sandia, 
after experimenting with traction drills to determine the value of the 
gravels, an American company has decided to install dredges. In 
this case there are no serious transportation difficulties to be over- 
come. In southern Chile it is declared that the dredges have about 
paid working expenses. In Colombia, where a dredge was brought 



24 BEPOBT ON TBADE CONDITIONS 

in from the Atlantic side through the Atrato River and the expenses 
of transportation were not heavy, paying results have not been ob- 
tained. Nevertheless, many mining capitalists have faith that dredg- 
ing machinery in time will add greatly to the output of the Choco 
region. An English company transferred an extensive dredging 
plant from Burmah to Tumaco on the Colombia coast to work the 
river bed in that district, but time enough has not yet elapsed to deter- 
mine the success or failure of the plan. 

REQUIREMENTS OF THE NITRATE FIELDS. 

The nitrate deposits are the great machinery factor in Chile. It 
might be said that since the process of breaking up the earth by dj^na- 
mite or other means, including picks and shovels, carting it to the 
oficinas, or central establishments, and leaching it is so simple there is 
not enough call for machinery. There is, however, a considerable use 
of boilers, since the evaporation is the chief element in the process. 
There are also the donkey engines which are universally employed, 
the small electric plants, and large quantities of tubes or pipes for 
piping the water, which must be either brought from the sea or piped 
down from the few natural sources where it can be obtained. It is a 
small oficina which does not require an expenditure of $100,000 for 
these purposes, while the larger ones expend from $250,000 to $300,000. 

During the boom period of 1906-7 the nitrate industry spent great 
sums in providing machinery, all the leading oficinas equipping 
themselves with the latest and best. In the stress which came upon 
the industry at the beginning of 1908 some of them found that they 
had invested too much on equipment. The consequence of the im- 
provements made and the large purchases of machinery followed by 
a period of stagnation is that for a few years the demand will be 
light. Yet the field is worthy the attention of American manufac- 
turers, especially since the United States is buying increased quan- 
tities of nitrates and is thus laying the groundwork for a reciprocal 
trade. Most of the installations of nitrate machinery are from Eng- 
lish manufacturers. This is natural, since English capital has con- 
trolled the industry from the beginning. After the Germans invaded 
the field there were some purchases of machinery in Germany also, 
but these were not large as compared with those from Great Britain. 

ELECTRICAL MACHINERY. 

The installation of electrical machinery may properly be charac- 
terized as one of the future great industries of the west coast. What 
has been said about the scarcity of fuel explains this prospect, though 
scarce fuel would not give encouragement to electrical development 
unless the natural source also existed. This is found in almost un- 
limited quantities in the waters of the Andes. There is hydro-electric 



WEST COAST OP SOUTH AMEBICA. 25 

power capable of indefinite development diflfering only in different 
regions. This power already is utilized to a limited degree for light- 
ing, trolley traction, and light manufacturing. From Ecuador to 
Chile aU the larger municipalities have electric lighting, but there 
are many small towns in which it is yet to be introduced. Its use 
for private residences, stores, etc., is capable of great extension. 

In Ecuador the street-car systems of Quito, the capital, and Guay- 
aquil are being transformed into trolley systems. At Quito the 
power is near at hand, but for Guayaquil it has to be brought from a 
distance. A promising project in this country is to bring the power 
by long-distance transmission from the Chimbo River, 55 miles to 
Guayaquil, and utilize it for manufacturing industries in addition to 
traction and lighting. 

ENCOURAGING PROSPECT IN PERU. 

In Peru the most extensive employment of electricity is that which 
is obtained from the Rimac River. The chief enterprise is one 
which brings the power from Chosica, 30 miles, to Lima and employs 
it for street-car companies, for lighting, and for light manufacturing. 
Most of the cities have electric-light, systems and a few of them also 
traction systems operated by electricity. In its broadest applica- 
tion — ^that is, for transportation — Peru offers the most inviting field 
in the Central Railway, with its 4i-per cent grades and its numer- 
ous other engineering problems. The project of operating certain 
sections of this railway by electricity, so long as neither definitely 
accepted nor definitely rejected by the Peruvian Corporation, may 
be said to be open. Many practical railway men and equally prac- 
tical electrical engineers are confident that ultimately electricity will 
be adopted. 

Peru also offers a prospective field for the utilization of electricity 
on a large scale in smelting. The Cerro de Pasco Company's inves- 
tigations of the power available in two rivers 30 and 50 miles distant 
have predisposed the officials to follow up the subject. No promise 
is held out of immediate results, yet there is the probability which 
comes from the economic saving that may be effected in operating 
the smelters and other works at this great altitude. The Canadian 
experiments in smelting iron ore, of course, are not conclusive as to 
copper ores, but they furnish some basis for comparison. 

UTILITY IN BOLIVIA AND CHILE. 

In Bolivia the first utilization of electricity on a large scale may be 
in the mining industry. The encouragement comes from the necessity 
of finding some substitute for the high-priced fuel. Its application 
to the railway system is a matter of the more remote future; but if 
the plans of the Bolivian Government are carried out for a railway 



26 BEPOBT ON TBADE CONDITIONS 

from La Paz through the Yungas region to the navigable waters of 
the Beni River, electricity, in the opinion of competent experts, will 
be the motive power. Six per cent grades will be required on this 
line, and they can be overcome by electrical power easier than by any 
other means. 

The use of electricity in Bolivia at present is on a limited scale. 
La Paz has an electric-lighting system and may install a trolley. 
The power for the trolley line, which is the continuation of the steam 
railway from the Heights down to the city, 5^ miles, with 6 per cent 
grades and sharp curves, is obtained from a gas engine, and with 
this motor the limit of the cargo that can be carried is 10 tons. The 
operation of the line is unsatisfactory; and since water can be pro- 
cured within 20 miles, hydro-electric power will be substituted for 
the gas engine. 

In the Corocoro mining district hydro-electric power can be ob- 
tained over a 65-mile transmission, and it is available within a shorter 
distance of the Oruro mines. The estimated reduction of the cost 
per horsepower per hour for the mines by the use of electricity is from 
3 to 10 cents, according to the location of the mine and the fuel used. 
Oruro has electric lights, and a few other cities have made contracts 
for them. Electricity would also be of great benefit to light manufac- 
turing industries, since fuel is so high priced. The Bolivian Govern- 
ment probably would apply the bounty which it now offers to indus- 
tries operated by steam power to those actuated by electricity should 
any be established. 

In Chile electricity is pretty generally employed, both for traction 
purposes and lighting, while there is some utilization of this force 
in manufacturing. The two lines of future development are for 
manufacturing and railways. The leading project of a railway char- 
acter is for electrifying the line from Valparaiso to Santiago, but 
there are numerous other enterprises. An important German hydro- 
electric enterprise is that for the Maij^o River, near Santiago. 

EXTENSION OF TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE LINES. 

In the general sphere of electrical ajDparatus the extension of the 
telegraph and telephone systems is to be noted. This is constantly 
going on. New telephone exchanges are being installed in many 
cities, while there is a notable tendency toward long-distance lines. 
The extension of the telegraph lines and the market for copper wire 
and apparatus is twofold. There is the growth which is due to the 
building of railways and there is the effort of the different Gk)vern- 
ments to enlarge tlieir systems so as to bring remote regions in con- 
nection with the centers of population. Bolivia, Peru, and Ecuador 
are all extending their telegrajDh lines toward the Amazon basin. It 
is also worth noting that several of the Governments interested have 



WEST COAST OF SOUTH AMERICA. 27 

given concessions for the installation of wireless systems in the vast 
interior river regions. 

The three leading electric companies in the United States are rep- 
resented in all the west-coast countries and have been aggressive in 
seeking the business, so that there are few suggestions to be made for 
the extension of American electrical interests. The chief competition 
is from the German companies, and this includes telephone and 
similar apparatus. 

MOTOR CARS AND LAUNCHES. 

The market for motor cars and automobiles of all kinds, including 
electrical ones, is confined to a few cities, the lack of good roads mak- 
ing their general use impracticable. The demand for motor boats 
in the larger ports and harbors of the west coast is limited. In the 
smaller harbors the prospect is not encouraging for displacing the 
ordinary boats of the natives, who depend on oars and sails. In 
Ecuador the river service tributary to Guayaquil offers the best field. 
Some gasoline and similar launches are now in use, but no electric 
ones. One difficulty is the keeping of boats in good repair, repaint- 
ing, so essential in the hot humid climate of the Equator, being a 
matter of indifference. Farther down the coast there is a better 
prospect, because wood fuel, which is cheap and plentiful in Ecuador, 
is dear. Gasoline, kerosene, and naphtha are employed. 

A number of motor boats are utilized at Callao and in the adjoin- 
ing waters. They are very acceptable for harbor purposes. Most of 
them, however, have been imported from England and Scotland, 
although there are a few from the United States. This class of 
boats for whatever locality intended should be of good draft and 
adapted to rough handling. 

AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. 

The market for farm tools is as varied as the differences in soil 
and climate. In Ecuador it is chiefly for ordinary hand implements, 
machetes, hoes, sickles, etc., because the mass of the Indian popula- 
tion do not yet use modern implements. The introduction of plows, 
however, has been followed by favorable results, and they are em- 
ployed on some of the larger estates. On all the west coast except 
the central valley of Chile oxen are employed almost exclusively, and 
there is little probability of a change to horses or mules, because these 
animals are not available. So the gearing of farm machines must be 
for slow motion. 

POINTS REGARDING PLOWS IN PERU. 

In Peru irrigation is so largely employed upon the sugar planta- 
tions and the cotton fields that this must be taken into account in 



28 EEPOBT ON TRADE CONDITIONS 

connection with farm machinery. The steam plow in use on some of 
the larger plantations is of a well-known English make, and it is sup- 
plemented in some instances by the disk. For the ordinary purposes, 
which require the use of the common plow drawn by oxen the ex- 
pense is great, the estimate being that the animals eat up 10 per cent 
of the proceeds of the land. For this reason various planters have 
s6ught to find a substitute in automobile plows, but they have not yet 
obtained anything in the latter shape which is suitable for the dry, 
irrigated soil. Ball-bearing disk plows sell in Lima at retail for $55 
to $60. Single-handle steel-beam implements are sold at $7 to $8, and 
the double ones at $11 to $12. 

On some of the lands in the interior region of Peru the crudest and 
most primitive of all plows is used, not only the wooden beam but the 
donkey skull as a substitute for steel plates. While the Peruvian 
natives show the usual unwillingness to change, some dealers are tak- 
ing means to induce them to adopt modern methods, particularly in 
the way of actual demonstrations at the hands of intelligent farm 
laborers who have been shown the use of the implements. 

HARVESTERS IN THE CENTRAL VALLEY OF CHILE. 

In the central valley of Chile farm implements are very similar to 
those of the north in so far as the hand tools go. A considerable 
variety of American plows, cultivators, and harrows, and also scythes 
and sickles, are in use. There are likewise harvesters, mowers, and 
reapers. This field has been well canvassed by representatives of 
American harvesting interests. The conclusion they have reached is 
that the market is susceptible of a slow but gradual enlargement, de- 
pendent on the degree in which machine labor replaces hand labor. 
At times there is a scarcity of farm labor, and some laborers come 
from Argentina, the difference in crop seasons making this inter- 
change of work possible. However, there is no farm labor immigra- 
tion on a large scale, and the use of machinery for harvesting may be 
depended on as a permanent substitute. 

The agricultural-implement business of Chile is centered in three 
or four large firms with headquarters at Santiago, and there is also a 
national agricultural cooperative society which has the support of 
the Government. Some of the American manufacturers regard the 
Chilean field as an expansion of their Argentine business and manage 
it from Buenos Aires. 

BOLIVIAN DEMAND G0\T:RNED BY ALTITUDE. 

In Bolivia the sale of farm tools is not likely to become extensive 
for many years or until the chaco or agricultural region on the Atlan- 
tic slope is opened up. There is, however, a limited market on the 
central plain, the average altitude of which is 12,000 feet. In this 
region the staple products are potatoes, barley, and the cereal known 



WEST COAST OF SOUTH AMERICA. 29 

as quinua, which is similar to rice. In the valleys below 9,000 feet 
alfalfa, Indian corn, wheat, and oats are grown. 

On the central plain, where it is necessary to rotate the crops and 
rest the soil for periods varying from three to six years, better har- 
vests could be obtained and a shorter period of resting secured by 
deep plowing. With this idea in view an effort has been made to 
substitute American plows, including disks, for the primitive wooden 
prong. The few of these implements which have been introduced 
have not yet had time to make their way. Bolivia, while limited as 
a market for plows and similar implements, has, however, one ad- 
vantage. It is possible to substitute mules for oxen, since large num- 
bers of Argentine mules are imported every year. 

HAY AND COTTON PRESSES — ^THRASHERS AND CULTIVATORS. 

There is a good demand for hay presses in Ecuador and Peru knd a 
larger one in Chile. Cotton presses and cotton cultivators are practi- 
cally limited to Peru, since it is the only one of the west-coast coun- 
tries that grows cotton in large quantities. The three-prong is pre- 
ferred to the two-prong cultivator in some of the Peruvian districts. 
Cultivators which retail at $15 are salable. 

Thrashers have not come into general use, though they are not un- 
common in the central valley of Chile. In Peru the small, simply 
operated thrasher is the only one for which a market can be found. 
The old ways of tramping out the grain by bullocks and winnowing 
it by the wind are still prevalent in most of the agricultural districts 
of Ecuador and Peru. 

For harrows the market is similar to that for plows, but in many 
districts the most primitive methods prevail. For instance, in some 
of the interior regions of Peru the Indian women sit on logs drawn 
by oxen. An American make of harrow, 50 teeth, and retailing at 
$35, finds some sale in Lima. A spiked-tooth cultivator retailing at 
$65 has a more limited sale. English shovels have the preference 
over those from the United States. 

SUGAR AND RICE MH.LS. 

Sugar machinery is limited to Ecuador and Peru, the latter country 
being the chief buyer. The majority of the Peruvian sugar planta- 
tions are supplied with antiquated machinery, and if modern mills 
with the latest equipment could be established the economic saving 
would be important. Nevertheless, even the most advanced and most 
progressive of the planters are slow to make these changes. Tliey 
complain that their capital is not sufficient. The machinery in use 
is of English make, and where new equipment is introduced the 
English manufacturers get most of the orders. In supplying the 
trapiches or small sugar mills the United States has a good hold on 
the market. 



80 BEPORT ON TRADE CONDITIONS 

Rice machinery is imported both from the United States and Eu- 
rope. The chief rice fields are in the northern district of Peru, 
though some i« cultivated in the southern section and in Ecuador. 

FARM WAGONS AND PUMPING PLANTS. 

The lack of good roads explains the absence of a demand for 
modern farm wagons. In most localities the huge two-wheeled ox 
cart serves ordinary purposes. Yet there are some American wagons. 
On the Bolivian table-land the railway company imported for its own 
use several improved Indiana vehicles, and some of Pennsylvania 
make are owned by private parties. A sturdy stage coach still em- 
ployed was built in New Hampshire. 

Projects of new irrigation to open large tracts to cultivation are 
under consideration by the Peruvian Government, and there is a pos- 
sibility of the installation of pumping plants on a large scale. In 
Chile the Government encourages irrigation, but there is no general 
system. The Bolivian Government has no large irrigable areas, but 
it imports well-drilling machinery from the United States for use 
on the central table-land. Common pumj^s for domestic purposes are 
imported from the United States, as are also windmills, both the com- 
mon tyi^es and the improved eeromotors. Southern Peru is the best 
market for the aeromotors. 

SUNDRY IRON, STEEL, AND OTHER PRODUCTS. 

In machine tools there is a good demand all the way from Guaya- 
quil to Valparaiso. The United States controls it. American drills 
are found in all the machine shops of the mines and wherever small 
foundries are established. Carpenters' tools are also mainly from 
the United States, though there are some from Germany and Eng- 
land. Forges are from the United States. The natives of all the 
west-coast countries are experts in cabinet work and wood carving 
and they are accustomed to American lathes and similar tools. 

Saws for sawmills are about equally divided, but handsaws are 
mostly of American manufacture. In this respect a decided prefer- 
ence is shown for the Philadelphia make. Some saws from Alsace 
imported by Germans are sold in Bolivia, and in Chile there is also 
a more general use of European tools. In the boom which followed 
the effort to develop the southern timber field of Chile and \N'hich 
resulted in establishing several hundred sawmills, the trade was di- 
vided between the United States and Europe. Most of the lumber 
used along the west coast is Oregon pine, with a little cedar from 
Central America. The artisans, being accustomed to this wood, natu- 
rally prefer the hand tools which are best adapted to it. American 
saws and other tools have proven equally adaptable for the Chilean 
soft lumber. In most of the countries the handsaw is used to a large 



WEST COAST OF SOUTH AMEBICA. 81 

extent and the work which in the United States would be done by a 
small sawmill is performed by hand labor. , 

NATURE OF DEMAND FOR HARDWARE. 

Builders' hardware of American make has large sales at most of 
the west-coast points, and household hardware has a fair market. The 
competition, however, is keen — for good quality with Great Britain, 
and for the cheaper grades with Germany. Hammers are mostly of 
English make. Locks, bolts, padlocks, and keys are divided between 
Europe and the United States. In the rural districts the old-fash- 
ioned padlock is still the most common in use, while the ordinary 
door lock with large key is also used. Spring locks are coming into 
more general use. American wire nails have the preference over Ger- 
man nails. 

At the present time there is an unusually good field for builders' 
and household hardware in Guayaquil, because that city is undergo- 
ing reconstruction, and the class of buildings being put up calls for 
more substantial outfittings than has been customary. American 
hardware goods are well displayed at Guayaquil. At Lima and 
Callao also there is considerable building, but here the English house- 
hold hardware seems to have the preference. Li Chile, particularly 
in the north, there is a large consumption of hardware, but the trade 
is controlled by Great Britain. Plumbers' supplies and sanitary ap- 
pliances have a limited but growing market. Silverware is in steady 
demand in the larger cities where the wealthy and the fairly well- 
to-do classes are found. 

HOUSEHOLD UTENSILS AND GLASSWARE. 

Clay and pottery utensils are still in common use among the poorer 
popuhition of all the west-coast countries, but there are growing sales 
of enameled ironware. This is mostly from Germany, though some 
graniteware from the United States finds a market. Glassware has 
a fair sale in the towns and cities with the exception of Guayaquil, 
which is a windowless city, ordinary slat shutters serving the purpose 
of this climate both in the hot and in the rainy seasons. In all the 
west-coast countries plate-glass windows and show cases are common, 
but this market, as well as that for common window glass, is con- 
trolled largely by Belgium and Germany. Looking-glasses also come 
from Europe. 

Fine glass tableware is imported chiefly from France and Austria. 
Bottles, of which the importations are heavy, come mostly from Great 
Britain. The United States does some business in lamp ware and 
chimneys, a considerable market having been built up by Pittsburg 
in these articles. Hano:ing lamps, very ornate, are quite common in 
the homes of the wealthier classes. They are mostly imported from 



S3 BEPORT ON TRADE CONDITIONS 

Europe. Kerosene is still the chief illuminating agent for the 
majority of the inhabitants; the poorer classes use candles. The con- 
sumption of kerosene is a measure of the market for lamps. It must 
be remembered, also, that in the Andean region, where the altitudes 
range from 10,000 feet upward, the atmospheric ctmditions cause a 
more frequent expansion and contraction, and consequently a greater 
breakage than at sea level. Pittsburg manufacturers created a de- 
mand for their products by providing a chimney that gave a maxi- 
mum of durability under these atmospheric conditions. 

COOKING RANGES AND STOVES — CLOCKS AND WATCHES. 

Cooking ranges are brought from the United States and France, 
but not in large numbers. The oil stove is used in larger quantities, 
especially in Chile, where the climate is more severe than in the coun- 
tries farther to the north and nearer to the Equator. The French gas 
stove seems to have the preference over the American. The high 
price of fuel and the reasonable rates at which petroleum may be 
obtained should increase the sale of oil and of gas cook stoves, as well 
as those which are used for heating purposes. 

In clocks and watches a good trade is done by the United States. 
Two or three well-known makes of New England clocks are found 
everywhere, particularly the wall clocks. The finer clocks in the resi- 
dences of the wealthy classes are imported from Austria and France. 
High-class American watches are not in great demand, those who 
are able to buy an expensive article of this kind usually selecting 
one of European make. In the cheaper grades the American and the 
Swiss watches compete on even terms and usually are to be found 
together in the jewelry shops. 

Iron bedsteads and portable cots, which are in general use, are 
imported from England. The demand for brass bedsteads is small. 

The sales of barbed wire are increasing in all the agricultural sec- 
tions, but there is also a steady demand for woven- wire fencing. 

TYPEWRITERS AND OTHER AMERICAN SPECIALTIES. 

In a large variety of articles which are recognized as peculiarly 
American it can not be said that the manufacturers in the United 
States have been lacking in enterprise. Typewriters of every recog- 
nized make are pushed, though the limit has not yet been reached. 
The same is true of cash registers, which are to be found in the inte- 
rior districts as well as in the cities. (Jraphophones, phonographs, 
and talking machines of all kinds are found in the most remote dis- 
tricts. Surgical instruments from the United States have a market, 
but the American nuinufacturers have not yet caught up with the 
French and German makers, IMiotogruphic supplies are imported 



WEST COAST OF SOUTH AMEBIOA. 88 

chiefly from the United States, but not exclusively, since there ia 
competition with cheaper German articles. 

The sewing machines are mainly of the prominent American fac- 
tory which has followed successfully its system of installing machines 
with families on the installment plan, the first installment covering 
the factory price. There is some competition by cheaper English 
and German machines, especially in the interior districts, where the 
small hand machine has a market. However, these cheap German 
hand machines are now pretty well discredited. In musical instru- 
ments Germany leads the United States. 

Printing presses, linotypes, and similar machinery are in growing 
demand and come from the United States. One drawback is the lack 
of expert native machinists and operators. In the larger installations 
of printing machinery a contract usually is made for the services 
of an expert machinist for a given period. 

Cutlery is divided between England and Germany, with very little 
from the United States. Firearms are imported mostly on Govern- 
ment account, generally under contract, but there is a fair sale to 
individual customers, and these show a preference for American re- 
volvers. The German imitations of American firearms, which were 
sold very cheaply, are now in disfavor, their inferior quality having 
quickly shown itself. 

BUILDING MATERIAL. 

Among the iron and steel products outside of heavy material*, such 
as steel rails and machinery, probably the largest single item is cor- 
rugated iron, both for sheet-iron roofing and for other building pur- 
poses. Its use is universal. The whole nitrate district of Chile is a 
collection of corrugated iron cabins and other structures. This ma- 
terial is as easily fabricated into the dwelling of the peon in the 
desert as of the town residence and store and seems to be preferred 
to the mud or adobe cabin. It is also in use for larger structures, as 
in Antofagasta and Iquique, where the churches are of structural 
steel and corrugated iron. The capital city of La Paz, in Bolivia, 
which formerly was a city of red-tiled roofs and which has had a de- 
cided building boom, is now a city of sheet-iron roofing, this material 
being used on all the new buildings. In Ecuador in many places the 
grass-thatched roofs are being supplanted by sheet-iron ones, no re- 
course being had to the tiles as an intermediate stage. 

VALUE OF THE MARKET FOR CORRUGATED IRON. 

These illustrations give a general idea of the increasing value of 
this market and of its permanency. Since the mills in the United 
States can make corrugated iron more cheaply than those of Great 
Britain it is a source of surprise that so much of these importa- 



84 . BEPOBT ON TRADE CONDITIONS 

tions should be from England. The explanation appears to be that 
while the United States can produce corrugated iron cheaper than 
England the latter can ship it at lower rates. 

An example of the difference in prices was noted in Peru. A large 
mining company asked bids for painted corrugated iron in lots of 500 
tons. The quotations c. i. f. Callao per ton of 2,240 pounds were as 
follows: From Liverpool, via Panama, $54.62; via the Straits of 
Magellan, $54.02. From New York, via Panama, $56.18; via the 
Straits of Magellan, $54.50. There was thus a difference in favor of 
the English product by either route, but on account of transshipment 
the Straits are preferred. The explanation offered by the import- 
ing house which made the tenders was that the English firm had 
the benefit of competition between steamship lines. Moreover, when 
the rates of the steamers were too high the English firms utilized - 
sailing vessels, and with the sailing vessels to fall back on they 
always could be sure of a means of regulating the steamship rates. 

This corrugated iron and similar business is so important that a 
new steamship line, or rather an existing line whose vessels hereto- 
fore have limited their itinerary to the eastern coast, is now running 
to the west coast as far north as Callao. It is understood that this 
line has a guaranty of a certain percentage of cargoes from powerful 
iron and steel interests in the United States. The shipping facilities 
afforded should enable the United States mills to obtain a larger 
share, in the sales of corrugated iron and afliliated products on the 
west coast, since the announced purpose of the American manufac- 
turers is to lay down their goods c. i. f. on the west coast on terms to 
meet any rates that may be offered by competitors. 

RELATIVE USE OF STRUCTURAL STEEL AND CEMENT. 

The relation of corrugated iron to building, as thus briefly out- 
lined, does not deprive other building material of a market. Ameri- 
can manufacturer after the Valparaiso earthquake looked forward 
to an immediate market for building material of an antiearthquake 
character. It can not be said that the makers of structural steel, 
cement, etc., neglected to cultivate this field. Representatives of 
several large concerns visited the country. Some of them were dis- 
appointed, but it can hardly be said that their disappointment will 
be permanent. Chilean imports of cement increased from 50,227,000 
kilograms (kilogram = 2.2 pounds) in ll)0(> to 98,428,000 in 1907. 

There was not the resort to structural steel on a large scale which 
had been anticipated. Rebuilding began in Valparaiso and other 
points within the earthquake zone with a view to protection from 
earthquake, but the processes employed were siuiple. In the large 
buildings the cement work was reen forced by steel for the heavy 
framework. In ordinary dwellings bamboo poles and other reeds 



WEST COAST OF SOUTH AMEBICA, 86 

were wired and then plastered with mud. The natives still use adobe 
or clay and sun-dried bricks with the interstices filled in. At several 
places along the coast where structural steel was employed it was not 
usually of American make and the building scheme was faulty, as 
happened in Lima, Peru, where the most pretentious new building in 
the center of the city is of poor Belgian structural steel and the 
structure itself is of the bird-cage type. 

NO ENCOURAGEMENT FOR SKY SCRAPERS. 

American representatives probably looked for too much, some of 
them expecting sky scrapers to be erected, at least 6-story buildings, 
on the same scale as in the United States; but it is difficult to induce 
the construction in any Latin- American city of a building even for 
business purposes of more than three stories. The use of cement has 
been greatly extended and some of the best quality is imported from 
the United States. The cheaper grades can not be exported by 
American manufacturers profitably in competition with Germany 
and Belgium. 

Beenforced concrete, as it is understood in the United States, is 
not coming into general use, but a cheaper form of cement is being 
substituted for it. The city of Guayaquil is going to be rebuilt on 
sanitary principles and there ought to be some use there of structural 
steel and of similar material. Expanded metal is being introduced 
into Peru with satisfactory results, and its use is likely to spread 
along the whole coast. 

LUMBER IMPORTED FOR MANY PURPOSES. 

The west coast market for lumber from the United Stares is an 
unusually good one, Chile and Peru rarely falling below $1,000,000 
each in their annual importations. This lumber is used for building 
purposes, for the mines, and for railway ties. A large quantity, for 
instance, is employed in the Cerro de Pasco copper mines. The bulk 
of the railway ties used is also from north of Panama, though some 
are supplied from southern Argentina and Chile. 

While all the countries have extensive timber resources, in most of 
them the lack of transportation facilities renders these resources use- 
less, and it will be many years before the railroads are built to the 
timber regions and the various countries become independent of lum- 
ber brought from abroad. Chile is exploiting her great forests in 
the south, but on account of its great dampness the quality of this 
timber is poor. For building and similar purposes it does not com- 
pare with the North American lumber, as the Chilean imports from 
the United States show. At Lima, through which all of central Peru 
is supplied, Oregon pine commands two and three times the price paid 
for Chilean lumber. In the nitrate districts some light cork wood is 



36 BEPOBT ON TRADE CONDITIONS 

brought from Ecuador for special purposes, but Ecuador itself is an 
importer of North American lumber. 

POPULARITY OF AMERICAN FURNITURE. 

Some native woods are manufactured, yet the bulk of the household 
and office furniture is imported. American manufacturers hereto- 
fore 'seem to have paid little attention to this west-opast field, their 
shipments being spasmodic and to fill occasional trial orders. How- 
ever, Peruvians, Ecuadorians, and Chileans who have been in the 
United States have by their own initiative and through their prefer- 
ence for American furniture created a good demand. American 
styles appear to suit them. Wickerwork is popular, while Austrian 
bent- wood chairs are less common than in otherpartsof South Amer- 
ica. Roll-top desks and office appliances are from the United States, 
but there are many business houses which confine themselves to old- 
time plain desks, some of which are of native manufacture. There 
is a market for modern school furniture, and manufacturers would 
do well to get in communication with the municipalities which pro- 
vide for public school systems. 

MARKET FOR TEXTILES. 

Next to iron and steel products the most valuable market on the 
west coast is that for textiles, and of these cotton piece goods are 
naturally the leader. Notwithstanding that wool is the product of 
all these countries and that the art of native weaving has not been 
lost by the Indian populations, they are very far from clothing them- 
selves with materials of home production. There are a few native 
woolen mills. The textile market may be estimated approximately 
at $12,000,000 to $15,000,000 annually, of which Ecuador imports 
$1,500,000, Peru $3,000,000, Bolivia $1,250,000, and Chile $7,000,000. 

Chile buys heavily in tlie United States of drills, shirtings, and 
flannels. The Peruvian cotton mills are yet far from supplying the 
native demand for the tocuyos or coai-se goods of their own people, 
and they contribute only slightly to the Bolivian market. This local 
production has had some effect in diminishing the call for imported 
gray domestics, but it has not boon seriously felt. The Peruvian 
mills also nuuiufacturo some drills, ducks, cashmeres, and towels. 
Manchester prints have almost a monopoly in all the countries of 
this class of goods. The United States simuIs unbleached gooils, some 
drills, gray domestics, shirtings, and duck, and also ci>loivd prints in 
small quantities. Italy, through the pn\^*niv of an Italian popula- 
tion, has obtained a foothoUl and oxpvu'ts some bleached and colored 
goods, (lormany supplies shirtings, hut its In^st trade is in hosiery. 
'It also supplies ponchos in imitation of the native maim fact ure. 



WEST COAST OF SOUTH AMERICA. 87 

WOOLENS AND WOOLEN MIXTURES — HATS. 

In woolens and woolen mixtures the market is divided between 
England and Germany, the former having the bulk of the trade in 
blankets and the latter in shawls, a variety of shoddies, and in ready- 
made clothing, for which there appears to be a growing market4 
Silks and fine dry goods are divided among France, Germany, and 
England, although there are some direct silk importations from 
China and Japan. Linens are from England, Italy, and France. 
Collars and cuffs have a larger mixture of cotton than of linen, and 
this trade is supplied chiefly by Italy and Spain, which imderstand 
its peculiarities and cater to the demand for very high turn-down 
collars and for expansive cuffs. Haberdashery may be said to be 
controlled entirely by European houses. In neckties the demand i^ 
for very fancy articles, and the fine grade is from France and Italy, 
while Germany supplies the cheap and gaudy neckties, as also the 
handkerchiefs. 

The demand along the tropical belt for foreign hats is surprising 
when it is considered that light straws are more suitable. The 
Panama hat even at Guayaquil, which is the center of the market, 
costs almost as much as in New York and is little worn except by 
foreigners. The extent to which black derbies are worn in the Torrid 
Zone always astonishes a stranger. This is a valuable market and is 
supplied by England and Germany. Tall hats are also in quite com- 
mon use and most of them are imported from London. Felt hats, 
both black and white, are in fair demand. A few American hats of 
this class have found their way south from Mexico and Central 
America, but the greater number are of European make. The cheap 
felt hats worn by the poorer classes are of Austrian manufacture, 
other countries not being able to compete. In the interior, particu- 
larly in Bolivia, the Indians of both sexes wear this felt headgear. 

UNITED STATES WEAK IN COTTON PIECE GOODS. 

The manner in which the cotton-goods market has been allowed to 
fall away from the American mills was described in the report on 
Ecuador and in special reports. The loss has been largely due to 
indifference caused during periods of active home demand and to the 
enterprise of the Manchester mills in supplying the deficiency. It is 
difficult to point out a remedy for this condition until the American 
cotton mills themselves wake up to the situation and decide that this 
business is worth going after again. 

The cotton-goods trade differs from almost every other line of for- 
eign business in the lack of intercourse between the mills and their 
customers. Other kinds of manufactures are pushed by means of 
catalogues and printed matter, samples, and traveling salesmen. 
This method appears to be almost unknown in cottons. I have heard 
H D— 60-2— Vol 95 5 



88 KEPOBT ON TRADE CONDITIONS 

of only one traveling salesman on the west coast. The importing 
firm generally buys from the manufacturers' agents or through the 
commission agents. They quote prices and indicate what they are 
ready to supply, occasionally also offering to shade current quotations 
on a job lot, which is usually a case of dumping. They answer que- 
ries, but apparently seldom urge sales or offer to meet local condi- 
tions by supplying special patterns and designs. They also show 
indifference to the metric measurements, which the Manchester mills 
readily place on the factory output when required. 

The means of regaining this market would seem to be for a number 
of mills to act in concert and select a representative who would spend 
his whole time traveling from commercial center to commercial 
center and bringing the importers into direct communication with the 
mills. Usually Massachusetts staples are understood by the term 
American cotton goods, the southern mills not being known. Some 
of the southern mills which have gotten into Central America could 
extend their trade down the west coast. 

LEATHER GOODS. 

American boots and shoes were received with great favor on their 
introduction into this market, and the possibilities are far from ex- 
hausted. Nor is it seriously restricted by high import duties for 
the protection of local factories. The fact stands out that American 
shoes of good quality can be sold in competition with those of native 
manufacture because their superiority makes itself felt. The retail 
price usually is from 75 to 100 per cent above the price in the United 
States. The well-to-do classes are able to pay this and they are 
fully supplied with American shoes. The problem for the exporting 
manufacturer is to, secure the sale of shoes for the poorer classes at 
X figures within their means, and the first step is to convince them of 
the saving which is effected through durability. It is the common 
knowledge of dealers, if not of buyers, that a pair of good American 
shoes will outlast two pairs of native ones. In Ecuador and Peru 
most of the local shops, many of which are hardly more than cobbler 
shops, use imported tanned leather, but it is not of the best quality. 

In Chile the tanning industry at Valdivia was established by Ger- 
mans fifty years ago, and is still in their hands. It therefore fur- 
nishes a basis for leather goods which the other countries lack. A 
national shoe and leather exposition was held at Santiago in the fall 
of 1907, at which 23 shoe factories and tanning establishments were 
represented. Their daily output of boots and shoes was stated to be 
a fraction under 6,000 pairs. While Chile thus has tlie basis for sihoe- 
making, and while some of its factories are equipped with American 
machinery, they are still restricted largely to the coarser grades. The 
quality of the native tanned leather is poor. It is also claimed 




WEST COAST OP SOUTH AMEMOA. 89 

American tags are put on these inferior goods to deceive customers. 
The foreign population, which is considerable, buys largely of im- 
ported shoes. 

SOURCES OF COMPBTmON. 

In Peru there are no large factories. A number of American manu- 
facturers have established agencies, and their output is sold on com- 
mission. A few stores in Lima make a specialty of American shoes. 
An effort which was made some years ago to establish a distinctive 
New York shoe house failed, yet it served the purpose of making 
American shoes known. There is a better prospect now for a similar 
experiment. It must be noted, however, that Vienna is beginning 
to compete with the United States in shoes of a quality a little above 
the average. Though the last which is shaped to the foot is not yet 
popular, the disappearance of the very sharp pointed toes is noted. 
Ladies' fine shoes come from both France and Spain. American 
manufacturers do not appear to have pressed the sale of this class 
with the same success that has marked men's footwear. The popu- 
larity of russets and tans is also noted. 

In Bolivia the market is still a restricted one, but is being slowly 
expanded as a larger number of Americans spread through the coun- 
try. The fine, high-laced shoe, usually of gilt or silver surface, which 
is worn by the Indian women and costs $12 and upward, is manufac- 
tured by hand or is imported from France. In Ecuador the United 
States has the lead in men's shoes of a good grade, but lacks in supply- 
ing children's shoes of a good quality. The poorer classes wear alpar- 
gatas, or straw sandals, some of which are of native manufacture and 
some of which are imported from Spain. 

In saddlery, for which there is a good demand in all the interior 
regions, the English manufacturers lead where reliance is not had on 
native work. A small raw -hide trunk, known as the " petaca," which 
is in universal use in mountain traveling, is of home manufacture, 
but there are considerable importations of trunks and valises from 
England. Small quantities of fine leather goods, pocketbooks, ladies' 
handbags, and small satchels are imported from France. 

BREADSTUFFS AND PROVISIONS. 

The west-coast countries are so far from feeding themselves that 
the importation of breadstuffs and provisions forms a large part of 
their foreign connnerce. Chile is the only one which might be called 
self-sustaining in the matter of flour, and even it makes importations 
for blending, taking both flour and wheat from California. The 
production of cereals in Ecuador is limited to isolated districts, which 
have the crudest and most primitive kind of flour mills and supply 
only the neighborhood. Peru has some good agricultural districts, 
but they are isolated and without means of transportation. The large 



40 BEPOIIT ON TRADE CONDITIONS 

flour mills are located on the coast at Callao and approximately 
40,000 tons of wheat are yearly imported for their consumption. 
Sometimes a little of this is from California, more from Chile, and a 
larger quantity from Australia. The flour industry at Callao is an 
important one. The largest mill has a working arrangement with 
the Chilean mills. There are also a number of mills controlled by 
Italians, which in addition to flour, manufacture vermicelli, maca- 
roni, and other wheat pastes. 

NATURE OF FLOUR IMPORTATIONS. 

Under these circumstances heavy importations of American flour 
hardly can be expected, yet there is a permanent market, since the 
native mills need the American flour for blending. Peru's annual 
importations of wheat and flour from the United States amount to 
$400,000. Ecuador takes annually flour from the United States to 
the value of $300,000, much more than is taken from Chile. The 
Bolivian market is the prize for which both the United States and 
Chile contend, since practically all the flour it consumes has to be im- 
ported. Notwithstanding that Chile is so much closer, some direct 
shipments are made from the United States through MoUendo. Chile 
ships through the port of Antofagasta. A tribute to the California 
flour is the adoption of the name " Calif ornian flour "for one of the 
Chilean brands. Some of the Bolivian importers blend the Cali- 
fornian and the Chilean flour after importin^r. There is no longer a 
tariff discrimination by Bolivia in favor of Chile, and American flour 
is imported by the former country though it does not appear in the 
customs statistics. 

As regards cereal products other than flour the market can not be 
said to be a big one, though it should not be neglected. Indian corn 
is imported by the difl'erent countries in variable quantities, usually 
in the form of corn meal, which Ecuador purchases to the extent of 
$75,000 to $100,000 and Peru and Bolivia in lesser quantities. 

LIMITED DEMAND FOR BREAKFAST FOODS. 

Efforts to create a demand for the various kinds of breakfast foods 
have met with some encouragement in proportion to the degree of 
energy shown, yet this market never can be an extensive one, since 
tropical countries are not suited to them, and tropical customs ex- 
tend to the higher regions where the climate is not torrid. The draw- 
back to an extensive use of breakfast foods is that in the Latin- Ameri- 
can countries no breakfast is taken according to the American idea. 
Among all classes the morning meal consists of coffee and rolls or 
simply coffee. The midday meal is a substantial one, beginning with 
soup and cold meats. Rice serves as a substitute for cereals. There 
is, however, among foreigners and natives who have lived in the 



WEST COAST OF SOUTH AMERICA. 41 

United States an occasional demand for oatmeal porridge, and oat- 
meal is handled by the grocers in preference to the other breakfast 
foods. Another drawback is the difficulty of obtaining fresh milk, 
but this is partly overcome by using condensed milk and cream prop- 
erly diluted. The different sorts of English " biscuits " are in general 
use among both foreigners and natives. American soda crackers are 
rarely obtainable. 

LARD AND COTTON-SEED OIL. 

Under the heading of provisions the most important item is pack- 
ing-house products. The hog of the coast region and of the mountain 
plateaus is of the lean, razor-back variety, and is not a lard producer. 
The importation of lard is therefore quite heavy, the bulk of it com- 
ing from the United States. Ecuador buys lard to the amount of 
$350,000 annually, Peru $250,000, Bolivia $100,000, and Chile $250,000. 
The latter country, however, obtains some of its lard from Uruguay. 
Cotton-seed oil and similar preparations, and also olive oil, are used, 
though not much of the pure olive oil is imported. The cotton-seed 
oil importations from the United States are small, except in Chile, 
because Peru itself produces the article and helps to supply the neigh- 
boring countries. Some cotton-seed oil of the United States, how- 
ever, finds its way to the west coast from Europe. The Peruvian 
cotton-seed oil is nsed for lighting purposes in some of the mining 
districts and for the manufacture of soap. The oil-cake residue is 
exported to England. There are some importations of bacon, but 
hams are more in demand. Few of these come from the United 
States, the Spanish and English hams having obtained the market 
years ago. 

TINNED MEATS AND CANNED FRUITS. 

In tinned meats of all kinds the market is a most valuable one and 
its permanency is assured, since large districts in the interior must 
depend upon this source of food supplies. In the mining regions of 
Peru and Bolivia and in the nitrate districts of Chile there is an 
enormous consumption of tinned meats, and the trade has spread to 
the far interior rubber regions since an American company succeeded 
in opening up trade with them by means of a special steamer. 

Soups and a variety of other tinned goods are imported from the 
United Kingdom, notwithstanding the enterprise which Chicago 
packing houses have shown in looking after this trade. Sardines are 
almost entirely of European shipment. 

Canned salmon also forms a valuable trade, the bulk of the 
importations being from the Pacific coast. A possible limitation on 
this market is indicated in Chile, where an effort is to be made under 
the sanction of the Government to propagate salmon. The Chilean 
waters are declared to be suitable for this purpose. Chile now buys 



4S BEPOBT ON TRADE CONDITIONS 

canned salmon in the United States to the amount of $200,000 annu- 
ally,® and it will be several years before the demand will be lessened 
by the propagation of native salmon, even though the experiment is 
successful. 

In relishes, pickles, and preserves, England has control of the 
trade, though fine French preserves are in evidence. In most classes 
of canned fruits, which is an extending trade, California has the 
lead. In many places Swiss condensed milk has the lead over that 
from the United States. 

FOREIGN AND NATIVE BEVERAGES MINERAL WATERS. 

As regards beverages and liquors there will always be a market, 
notwithstanding the native wine production. In the Ambato district 
of Ecuador vine cultivation has been attempted with some success, 
but only a small neighborhood district is supplied. In Peru the 
Pisco and Moquega districts make a fair article of wine, but the 
consumption is not great. The Pisco brandies have an established 
reputation. Chile is the real wine-producing country of the west 
coast The products of its central valley vineyards are in favor, 
though they do not shut out the clarets and other imported French 
wines. California clarets have not undertaken to compete with 
Chile. American and Scotch whiskies are imported in about equal 
quantities. 

All the countries produce barley and occasionally hops, so that 
IocaI breweries are everywhere to be found. Usually these are flour- 
ishing local industries, yet they do not seem to interfere with the 
importation of foreign beers. Preference is shown for German beer, 
yet the light bottled beer which some of the American breweries 
export finds a ready demand. The market would be greater were it 
not for the persistent bad packing of the American breweries, which 
causes the local dealers to forego orders. English ales have some 
demand, but sales are small in comparison with beer. 

There is a universal market for mineral waters, notwithstanding 
that most of the countries have mineral springs gf their own and 
bottle the product under various names. A well-known brand of Amer- 
ican mineral water is now successfully competing with Apollinaris. 

DRUGS AND MISCELLANEOUS SUPPLIES. 

American dealers in drugs and medicines should understand the 
new condition which is enlarging the west-coast market. All the 
Grovernments are giving much more attention than formerly to sani- 

«The exports of canned salmon from the United States to Chile for the fiscal 
year 1907 were $286,000, according to the returns of the Bureau of Statistics. 



WEST COAST OF SOUTH AMERICA. 48 

tary measures. The permanence of the bubonic plague has been 
reluctantly recognized and measures taken to combat it continuously 
instead of spasmodically. The serum used is imported from Paris. 
Some of the Governments until recently took no account of smallpox, 
but they have now taken it in hand and have adopted compulsory 
vaccination. They rely on Paris for the vaccine matter. 

Disinfectants are in universal use, notably at Guayaquil, since the 
violent outbreak of bubonic plague in the spring of this year. Dis- 
infecting apparatus is employed on all vessels coming through the 
Straits of Magellan when they reach Peruvian ports. Standard 
drugs are slowly displacing patent nostrums, though the makers of 
some of the latter started a fresh campaign when the pure-food law 
in the United States restricted their operations at home. One large 
American house has built up an excellent business in supplying 
standard prescriptions, but there seems to be ample opportunity for 
other houses. Emulsion oils, of which the consumption is large, are 
handled generally by local branches of the American establishments. 
Both Germany and France do a large business in supplying medici- 
nal preparations. Millions of oboles, or wafers, are imported from 
France for quinine preparations, these wafers being employed in- 
stead of capsules. Gauze bandages, absorbent cotton, and various 
antiseptic preparations are supplied by France. 

There is a valuable trade in fine soaps, perfumes, and toilet prepa- 
rations, in which the United States has a share that could be made 
larger by proper effort. The American manufacturers of these 
articles appear to understand how to put them up attractively, and 
that is one of the best means of securing sales. 

PAINTS, WALL AND FLOOR COVERINGS, AND PAPER. 

It is doubtful if American makers of paints and varnishes take full 
advantage of the market which they could obtain, though they do 
better with varnishes than with paints. The heat and humidity of 
the tropics make frequent painting a necessity, and this demand is a 
constant one. German dry paints are bought in preference to those of 
the United States, and the Germans also have the trade in dyestuffs. 

In wall paper, lincrusta, linoleum, and oilcloths there is a limited 
sale, but this market could be extended. It is very stable, since new 
patterns are not required each year. Such trade as exists is in Ger- 
man hands. The Germans also control the trade in stationery, both 
in the ordinary grades and the finer qualities, and in wrapping paper, 
though there is some competition from Great Britain. The only 
market the United States has is in supplying printing paper, which 
it does in large quantities. 



a BEPORT ON TRADE CONDITIONS 

Practically no competition exists in the importation of petroleum 
from the United States for illuminating uses, since little of the Pe- 
ruvian products is refined for this purpose. The same is true of 
lubricating oils. 

FISCAL SYSTEMS. 

Without reviewing the fiscal systems of the different countries in 
detail, it may be said that in addition to the usual means of internal 
taxation — alcohol and tobacco in particular — and the import duties, 
exports are a leading source of revenue for all except Peru. Chile 
draws large sums from the export tax on the nitrates, which is 56 
cents gold per hundredweight. Bolivia's heaviest source of revenue 
is the export tax on tin, but it also draws from silver, copper, and 
bismuth and from rubber, which is the leading agricultural export. 
Ecuador's products being almost entirely agricultural, the export 
duty is levied on cacao, vegetable ivory, and rubber. Peru levies a 
duty of 3 per cent on gold in bullion or dust and about 4 per cent on 
rubber. 

PRINCIPLE OF CUSTOMS DUTIES. 

The customs principle as applied to imports by all the countries 
is nominally ad valorem, but actually in most cases the duties are 
specific. Articles are divided into various classes at different ad 
valorem rates, but there is a valuation schedule fixing the value of 
almost every article named in the schedules. For example, the invoice 
value of a shipment of shoes from tlie United States is not taken as 
it would be declared by the exporter. Instead there is a classification 
in dozens of the various kinds of leather goods and the shoes are 
placed under their proper classification and the duties levied accord- 
ing to this schedule. Railway material, mining machinery, and agri- 
cultural implements are, as a rule, admitted free of duty. ' 

In Chile payment of customs duties may be made in paper money 
valued according to the international rate of exchange. In Bolivia 
it may be made at the current rate as fixed by the Government. In 
most of the countries the duty is also levied on gross and on net 
weight. Information regarding the tariff systems and the latest 
changes in the schedules is always to be had from the Tariff Division 
of the Bureau of Manufactures. The metric system is in universal 
use, and the weight is usually given in kilograms. 

Ecuador's application of single standard. 

The financial systems vary, but there is little difficulty in conduct- 
ing commercial operations. Ecuador and Peru have the gold stand- 
ard and are subject only to the ordinary fluctuations of exchange. 
In Ecuador the banks are allowed to issue paper notes against a 
gold reserve of 50 per cent and a silver reserve of 10 per cent. Values 



WEST COAST OF SOUTH AMERICA. 45 

usually are measured in terms of the sucre, which is equal to 48.7 
cents American gold. Both silver and paper sucres are in circulation. 

The basis of value is the gold condor, equivalent to the English 
pound sterling, but in actual business the pound sterling is the gold 
coin in use. It is legal tender for customs payments and for all 
Government obligations. At times sovereigns are imported from 
England, some of them by way of New York, in considerable quanti- 
ties, though nominally there is a slight balance of trade in favor of 
Ecuador due to the heavy sales of cacao in the European and the 
New York markets. 

Ordinary commercial discounts are 8 per cent. International ex- 
change is conducted on the basis of ninety-day drafts against London, 
Paris, and Berlin, or sixty days against New York. Commercial 
drafts of this character with the bills of lading attached differ 
greatly in the premium according to the season and the prevailing 
movement of exports, the premium ranging from 1 per cent to as 
high as 2i per cent. For three days' bank drafts on New York or 
London the charge is from one-half to 1 per cent. Ecuador has a 
number of strong banks with headquarters in Guayaquil. Their 
dividends through several years have ranged from 12 to 15 per cent. 

Peru's commercial stability under gold. 

Peru mints its own gold, the standard coin being the inca, or Peru- 
vian pound sterling, which is the exact equivalent of the English 
pound sterling. The latter also is in circulation, and heavy importa- 
tions are made from time to time. The most common coin is the silver 
sol, 10 of which make a pound sterling and the value of which, in 
terms of American gold, is 48.7 cents. No paper notes are in circula- 
tion, their emission being forbidden by law. For this reason checks 
form a larger element in the current commercial operations of Peru 
than in the neighboring countries. Ordinary discounts for com- 
mercial business are 8 per cent. 

In shipments abroad ninety-day drafts against documents is the 
usual time and three-day or sight drafts in limited transactions. 
The premium varies, but the rate of exchange, on account of the stable 
monetary system, is never violently disturbed. Some shipments of 
sugar and cotton are made against documents, but the banks do not 
encourage this business. On imported goods thirty-day drafts are 
accepted, though many shippers secure longer time. Advances are 
made to some of the exporters of ore, who in their turn make advances 
to the producers. 

All the Peruvian banks have increased their capital during the last 
few years, and there is still, in the judgment of Peruvian financiers, 
room for the expansion of banking capital. The railway companies, 
which are under English control, and the big American mining com- 



46 BEPORT ON TRADE CONDITIONS 

panics bring gold into the country to provide for the payment of 
wages and running expenses. 

Bolivia's advance from silver basis. 

Bolivia aspires to advance from a silver basis to the gold standard, 
but has not yet reached it. Legislation has been enacted providing 
the ratio of the country's currency to foreign gold, and it is hoped 
in time to secure a sufficient quantity of gold to enable the transition 
to be made. The present currency is paper and silver, the common 
coin being the boliviano, equal to about 40 cents American gold. 
Some silver money is in circulation, but the bulk of the transactions 
are in paper notes. These are issued by the banks under the authority 
of the Government and against a fixed reserve. Not enough of these 
notes of small denomination are issued for common purposes, and 
within the borders of the country half bills of the denomination of 
$5 and downward are used. The loss from this mutilation is serious, 
and it is also an inconvenience, but no means have yet been found for 
overcoming it. The Government seeks to maintain a parity of inter- 
national exchange on the basis of 12 bolivianos to the pound sterling, 
and it has done this through several financial crises with a fair degree 
of success. 

There is an export duty of 3 per cent on the exportation of gold 
coin. In the stringency in the spring of 1908 the Government issued 
a decree prohibiting absolutely the export of gold coins, except a 
small amount for personal use. Whether this resulted in increasing 
the contraband, as was claimed, is uncertain, but it stopped the opera- 
tions of some of the banks which were exporting gold to Chile. The 
gold in use and which is held by the banks consists both of English 
and of Peruvian pounds sterling. 

Commercial drafts on London and Hamburg are usually for ninety 
days, with a premium sometimes as high as 2 per cent. Ordinary 
bank drafts at three days' sight are at 1 per cent. When the tin mar- 
ket is active and a good price is had in London, Bolivian exchange is 
fairly steady. 

chile's fluctuating paper currency. 

Chile, notwithstanding its mineral and agi-icultural resources, pre- 
sents the greatest uncertainty in international operations, and in the 
panic of the last year losses by business houses were heavy. There 
are 150,000,000 paper pesos or Chilean dollars in circulation. In 1903 
a law was passed providing for resuming the gold basis on January 1, 
1910. Subsequent to the passage of this law fresh emissions of paper 
notes were made and there was some increase in the national debt by 
means of floating loans. This is said to have undermined confidence 
and to have been the cause of the panic. While it undoubtedly con- 
tributed, overspeci lation was another cause. However, the conse- 



WEST COAST OP SOUTH AMERICA, 47 

quence was the same. Exchange, which for several years had been 
falling, dropped rapidly until the peso was quoted at 9d. This was 
a severe loss as compared with 1905, when it was 18d. Some bank 
suspensions occurred and all business was violently disturbed by the 
daily and even hourly fluctuations. 

Chile has not yet fully recovered from its panic, but its natural 
resources are so great and its experience has been so bitter that it 
may be counted on by legislation and by greater conservatism in 
business operations to get back to the normal basis. During the crisis 
it resisted the tempation to call in the gold conversion fund from 
London and New York. In foreign trade the practice is to draw 
for value of invoice at ninety days' sight on receipt of goods payable 
at ninety days' sight rate for bills on London. 

FOREIGN AND NATIVE BANKING CAPITAL. 

The banking capital on the west coast is divided between native 
and foreign capital. Except one at Quito, in which Americans are 
interested, the Ecuador banks are controlled entirely by native capital. 
In Peru the Bank of Peru and London is, as its name indicates, a 
joint affair. It has branches throughout the country. The Banco 
Aleman Trasatlantico opened in Peru in 1905, when it took the Gov- 
ernment loan of $3,000,000. It has branches at different points. The 
Italian Bank of Lima limits its operations to that community, but 
there is also an Italian bank at Arequipa. The Banco Intemacional 
del Peru has its headquarters in Lima, as has the Banco Popular. 

In Bolivia the National Bank, with headquarters in Sucre and with 
branches in the various cities, is the fiscal agent of the Government. 
Other banks, however, occupy a somewhat similar relation and issue 
notes. It is only since 1905 that foreign capital has come into the 
country. The Banco Aleman Trasatlantico opened branches, as did 
the Bank of Chile and Hamburg. The Bank of Peru and London 
secured authority from the Bolivian Congress to engage in business 
on the same conditions as the other banks, but under the name of the 
Bank of Bolivia and London. The Bank of Tarapaca and Argentina, 
under its new name of the Anglo-South American Bank, has also 
established branches in Bolivia. 

In Chile native capital occupies a more prominent position in the 
banking institutions than is the case with the other countries except 
Ek^uador. There are some banks whose capital is almost entirely 
local, while there are others in which English or German capital is 
joined with Chilean capital but in which the control is really held in 
Europe. 

PROSPECT FOR AN AMERICAN BANK. 

The advantages of an American bank on the west coast frequently 
have been set forth in reports by consuls, notably by Consul-General 



48 



REPORT ON TRADE CONDITIONS 



Winslow, of Valparaiso. The increasing investments of American 
capital would seem to be a sufficient inducement. The big American 
mining interests in Peru do their business mostly through the Ger- 
man bank. Similarly, the syndicate which is building the Bolivian 
railways banks through the same institution. Substantially all the 
business has to be done by way of London. During the wild fluctua- 
tions in 1907 in Chile it cost from 12 to 14 per cent more for New 
York drafts than for those on London. This was because the mer- 
chants had to clear through London. It is likely that besides advanc- 
ing and facilitating trade an American bank would return good in- 
terest on the capital invested. 

TRADE ANALYSIS. 

The commercial relation of the United States to the west coast 
may be seen from a statistical summary for the calendar years 1906 
and 1907. The trade exceeds $50,000,000 per annum and there is a 
balance in favor of the South American countries. Colombia is 
omitted, since it is not possible to give the correct total of the impor- 
tations through the two small Pacific coast ports. The statement of 
the trade of the United States is as follows : 



Country. 


Imports Into United 
States. 


Exports from United 
States. 




1906. 


1907. 


1906. 


1907. 


Bolivia 






$242,000 
1,835,000 
6,193,000 
9,152,000 


$1,502,000 


Rciiftdor ,,-..,-, 


$3,282,000 
2,933,000 
17,945,000 


12,835,000 
7,098,000 
9,392,000 


1,884,000 


Peru 


6,876,000 


Chilfl 


11,440,000 






Total 


24,252,000 


27,878,000 


16,422,000 


21,702,000 







The lack of imports from Bolivia into the United States shown by 
the table is not entirely correct. The bulk of the tin concentrates 
and other minerals, which form Bolivia's chief export product, go 
to Europe, it is true, but some rubber and other agricultural products 
are shipped to the United States, as well as silver ores. Since the 
shipments are made through the ports of Chile and Peru the exports 
are credited to those countries. Similarly, the exports from the 
United States are not all exhibited, since some of them are also 
credited to the Peruvian and Chilean ports. Of course, in the total 
of the west-coast commerce they are not lost. The heavy increase 
of exports to Bolivia consists mainly of iron and steel products — 
material for the new railway system — and also mining machinery. 

The increase of $4,000,000 in Peruvian exports to the United States 
is due to the development of the copper mines by American capital. 
Until 1907 the ore was not mined in large quantities because the Cerro 
de Pasco Company was engaged in building a large smelter. The 
smelter began operations in the spring of 1907, and its shipments of 



WEST COAST OF SOUTH AMEBICA. 



49 



copper bars constituted the bulk of the 10,000 tons of copper exports 
credited to Peru for that year. Since this smelter is now in full op- 
eration and another large one at Rio Blanco, also controlled by 
American capitalists, has begun operations, the copper shipments 
from Peru will not only be permanent, but will be larger. 

The reciprocal market, as it relates to the trade of the United 
States and as it may afford suggestions for wider sales, is exhibited 
in the statistical summary of the commerce by articles and countries. 
According to the figures of the Bureau of Statistics of the Depart- 
ment of Commerce and Labor for the fiscal year 1907, the latest for 
which full returns are available, the trade was as follows : 

United States Imposts and Exports of Merchandise, Fiscal Yeab 1907. 

BOLIVIA. 



Articles. 



Quantity. 



Value. 



Chemicals, drugs, dyes, and medicines. 

Clocks and watches, and parts of 

Cotton, manufactures of 

Gunpowder and other explosives 

Iron and steel, and manufactures of o . . 

Tobacco, manufactures of 

AU other articles 



Total. 



$12,440 

1,744 

07,006 

9,920 

664,358 

100 

256,697 



041,287 



CHILE. 



.tons. 



Articles, American, returned 

Chemicals, drugs, and dyes: 

Soda, nitrate of 

AU other 

Copper, and manufactures of: 

Ore and regulus tons. 

Figs, bars, ingots, etc pounds. 

Cotton, unmanufactured 

Fertilizers 

Fruits and nuts: 

Walnuts pounds. 

AU other 

Furs and fur skins, undressed 

Hides and skins, all other pounds. 

Honey gaUons. 

Lead, in ore and base bullion pounds. 

Manffaoese ore, and oxide of tons. 

Wool, unmanufactured pounds. 

AU otiier articles .' 



Total. 



Agricultural implements. 
Bbck 



eking. 



Books, maps, etc., and other printed matter 

Breadstufrs: 

Wheat bushels. 

Wheat flour barrels. 

AU other 

Cars and other vehicles, and parts of: 

Cycles, and parts of 

All other 

Chemicals, drugs, etc. : 

Medicines, patent or proprietary 

AU other 



2,079 



14.733 

0,038,603 

10,124 



687,663 



36,423 
'i69,'46s 



101,387 
88,760 



•The export of railway material began in this period, 
■tatistica for the calendar year. 



417,441 

12.229 

232,303 

74,063 
280,102 
08,6/0 

6,174 
271,468 

140,286 
109,841 

Its increase is shown in the 



$40,428 

13,606,468 
1,100,047 

070,477 

2,184,687 

1,046 



82,138 



204,248 
6,806 



32,462 
10,443 



18,287,020 



60 



BEPOBT ON TBADE CONDITIONS 



United States Imfobts and Exports of Merchandise, etc. — Continued. 

CHILE— Continued. 



Articles. 



Quantity. 



Valae. 



EXPORTS— continued. 



Clocks and watches, and parts of 

Coal 

Copper, manufactures of 

Cotton, manufactures of: 

Cloths- 
Colored 

Uncolored 

AU other 

Fibers, vegetable, and textile grasses, manufactures of. 
Fish: 

Salmon, canned 

AU other 

Fruits and nuts 

Glass and glassware 

Grease, grease scraps, etc 

Gunpowder and other explosives 

India rubber, manufactures of 

Instruments and apparatus for scientific purposes, etc. 
Iron and steel, manufactures of: 

Locks, hinges, and other builders' hardware 

Wire 

Machinery, machines, and parts of— 

Sewing macliines, and parts of 

Steam engines, and parts of 

Typewriting machines, and parts of 

All other 

Nails and spikes 

Pipes and fittings 

All other manufactures of 

Jewelry, and manufactures of gold and silver 

Lamps, chandeliers, etc 

Lead, manufactures of 

Leather, and manufactures of: 

Leather 

Manufactures of 

Marble and stone, and manufactures of 

Meat and dairy products: 

Lard 

All other 

Naval stores: 

Rosin 

Turpentine, spirits of 

Oils: 

Animal— Lard 

Mineral- 
Illuminating 

Another 

Vegetable- 
Cotton seed 

All other 

Paper, and manufactures of: 

Printing paper 

AU other 

Perfumery and cosmetics 

Plated ware 

Soap 



.tons.. 



40,241 



.yards. 
..do... 



2,130,629 
10,661,260 



.pounds. 



4,168,876 



.pounds. 



10,257,167 



.pounds. 



8,888,400 
977,108 



.pounds. 



1,787,168 



.barrels.. 
.gaUons.. 

....do.... 



.do... 
.do... 



.do... 



12,105 
168,127 

19,580 

5,8^,470 
1,227,892 

220,994 



.pounds. 



6, 179, 156 



Stationery 

Tobacco, and manufactures of 

Vegetables 

Wood, manufactures of: 
Lumber- 
Boards, deals, and planks. 
Other lumber and timber. . 

AU other 

AU other articles 



.Mfeet. 



77,210 



Total. 



$62,516 
113,788 
23,934 



150,737 
800,115 
38,217 
38,665 

280,239 
27,067 
9,080 
25,714 
62,533 
60.160 
50,193 

287,521 

116,353 
214,890 

128,600 

210,051 

102,979 

785,558 

197,747 

36,020 

639,679 

11,080 

32,829 

14,188 

124,483 

52,314 

4,613 

164,717 
130,711 

52,974 
115,007 

11,783 

657,633 
234,214 

121,030 



164,371 
80.952 
9,161 
41,513 
50,966 
10,509 
12,839 
10,516 



1,232,607 
244.029 
189.938 
296,448 



10,195,657 



PERU. 



Articles, American, returned 

Chemicals, drugs, and dyes: 

Soda, nitrate of 

AU other 

Coooa, or cacao, crude, and shells of. 



.tons. 



.pounds. 



821,619 

444,848 
179,043 



WEST COAST OF SOUTH AMEBICA. 



61 



Unitbd States Imposts and Exports of Merchandise, etc. — Continued. 

PERU— (Continued. 



Articles. 



Quantity. 



Value. 



IMPORTS— continued. 

Coffee pounds.. 

Copper, and manufactures of: 

Ore tons.. 

Pigs, bars, ingots, etc pounds.. 

Cotton, unmanufactured do — 

Fertilieers— Ouano tons . . 

Hats, bonnets, and hoods, composed of straw, chip, grass, palm leaf, willow, 

osier, or rattan 

Hides and skins, other than fur skins: 

Goatskins poimds.. 

Hides of cattle do.... 

All other do 

India rubber, crude do — 

Lead, in ore and base bullion do — 

Sugar, not above No. 16 Dutch standard in color.... do — 

Wool, unmanufactured do — 

AH other articles 



269 

3,500 

7,635,032 

4,068,669 

15,475 



826,106 

9,267 

43.935 

165,346 

264.793 

35,200.180 

1,365,843 



Total imports of merchandise. 



Agilcultural implements 

Books, maps, engravings, etchings, etc 

Bieadstufls: 

Wheat flour barrels.. 

All other 

Brooms and brushes 

Candles pounds.. 

Cars, carriages, other vehicles, and parts of: 

Cvcles and parts of 

All other 

Chemicals, drugs, dyes, and medicines: 

Medicines, patent or proprietary 

Another 

Clocks and watches, and parts of 

Copper, and manufactures of 

Cotton, manufactures of: 

aoths— 

Colored yards.. 

Uncolored do 

AD other 

Fibers, vegetable, and textile grasses, manufactures Qf 

Fish: 

Salmon, canned pounds.. 

Shell Ash 

Another 

Fruits and nuts 

Olass and glassware 

Grease, grease scraps, and all soap stock 

Gunpowder and otner explosives 

India rubber, manufactures of 

Instruments, etc., for scientific purposes 

Iron and steel, and manufactures of: 

Structural Iron and steel tons. . 

Builders' hardware, saws, and tools 

liachinery. maciiines, and parts of— 

Electrical machinery 

Sewing machines, and parts of 

AU other 



91,512 



IGO 



803,165 
870,806 



551,160 



Pipes and fittings pounds.. 

An other iron and steel 

Jewelry, and manufactures of gold and silver 

Lamps, chandeliers, etc 

Leather, and manufactures of 

Meat and dairy products: 

Tallow pounds.. 

Lard do 

Another 

Naval stores: 

Rosin, tar, pitch, etc barn»l.i. . 

Turpentine, spirits of gallons. . 

Oils, mineral: 

Illuminating do 

Lubricating do 

Paints, pigments, and cnlnrH 

Paper, and raanufacturof of: 

Printing paper pounds. . 

AUoth«-!7.V. 



794 



2,010,950 



495.788 
2,428.040 



0,128 
45,472 

672. 43f) 
I97.0n0 



35,845 

1,836,466 

614,535 

179,126 

113,325 

250,533 
1,560 
8,234 

147.816 
12.967 

081.202 

423.858 
7.177 



4,058,202 



MM.O 



44,484 
33,179 

322,849 

106,496 

5,502 

15 

1,310 
290,665 

91.367 
70,106 
10,113 
29,893 



58,581 
61,778 
35,433 
93.. 123 

40.431 
19.088 
14,531 
14.202 
17,542 
12.890 

lOQ.fltU 
20.909 

262,950 

45,495 
155,280 

91,217 

93.074 
9.^9.245 

61.727 

623.304 

7.27.'i 

14..'i2«l 
114,042 

27.690 
229.309 
94, .^2 

26.798 
:U,.'588 

89,984 
44,327 
17,826 

tfi.«77 
53.907 



62 



BEPOET ON TRADE CONDITIONS 



United Stateh Imposts and Exports op Merchandise, etc. — Ontinued. 

PERU— CJontlnuod. 



Articlos. 



Quantity. 



Value. 



XXP0RT8— continued. 



I^arafnn and parafnn wax 

J'erfumery and oosinetlos 

Platwl ware 

Hoap 

Htatlnnnry: Pens, pencils, mucilage, etc. 

Vugetablei 

Wood, and manufactures of: 

Timber 

Luml)er— 

Doards, deals, and planks 

Bhooks 

Another 

Furniture 

All other manufactures of 

All other articles 



.pounds.. 



.M feet. 



Total. 



S23,976 



34,041 



IH^ITAnOR. 



S33,ff43 
43,487 

9,427 
40,416 

2,874 
17,084 

00,856 

661,207 
36,601 

213,732 
62,252 
29,618 

811,049 



6,075,739 



IMPtrnTS. 



Articles, Amortcan mturniHl 

rhi»mlcals. dn»gs. ami d>TS 

l\ioi>a» or cacao, crtide, and shells of pounds. 

iN^iryp* do . . . 

i^otttm. unmauufacturiHl 

Kurs and ^lr skins. umlnpssiHl 

Hals. honn«»ts, and homis 

Hides and sMns. othtu- than fur skln.n: 

«lt\alsklns pounds. 

HIdwofcattle do... 

A 11 ot hw do. . . 

India nihlMpr. crtide do. . . 

Ivorv, M>!i»taM<» do... 

All other at (IoWmi 



T^>Ul. 



8,280,950 
1,488,283 



25,854 
2.298.253 

70,675 

941,274 

11,588,684 



KXIVRTS. 



76.622 



19.043 



ApVuUmallmph»tn«>nt« • 

ItiM^Ws, maps, m^ui-avlims. elchU\|ts. f»tc 

Uii^adstufTn 

\\ hi»a« rton* l^arrpls. . ■ 

,\Uo«hi»« ! 

Unv\w^ and bni«h«« 

Candh** .... . p^^unds.. 

vVm^s, ^m^i 1 U|^«. o« I w \i»hK*les, and |v,n t j« of : 

iSvK»». and psMsoC 

Xuotlw. and pstisof 

Ohw^loal*. dn»K^. dM»*. a«d n^isholw* 

iNMlow. «iaMnirtonii>^ o(. 

\V0>« .... vanij. . 

VUoihiM .... 

V^TvM'^. \"«V*MaMi». and 1«»\UH^llvi<*'^^^. «ism\»:*o<uiv'sol 

n!«h 

^>Mnr'^><^><^' S'>d OllWM *»\JN|0*l\t«. . . 

indtavoM>^» iua«nfact«<^« o( ... 

li\Nn and M«vt. insn«fat*ini>^'« oj 

Ssi*« *n.i I'^M*. 

MiH*'^»"»'*•^ niaoh\»Yt*^. and r?»i1^ «^1 

JVxxinji i«aoh»rti**. !»«vt iv^ii* .^i 

Ml ,Mhoi 

. ;v..;n.i* L.'W.SWO 



i-osT.m 



Vnv»* nt\A fin«n»f« 

Ml .MhiM 

\Hi^n\ anil ^i^ox lM^•sh^1^ 
\ .*M . 
Ml .Mho; 

Oil* ViH^*!-.-*! 

AliOlJMS 



$8,068 

170 

1,155,586 

123,538 



285,552 

8,299 
385,332 

8,474 
652,242 
388,409 



3,059,571 



M».^n*. 






£:,u9l 



6,560 
4,061 

295.594 

11,705 

4.873 

2.019 

1.209 
10.487 
84,674 

114.970 

30.2»3 

44.937 

23.516 

8,248 



CS,Q04 
aR.970 

122. mo 

Ss1l9 

a.dP7 

103.295 

8.153 

5:.849 



2£.ai7 
4.895 



ii.an 

UwMl 



WEST COAST OF SOUTH AMEBICA. 



53 



United States Imports and Exports of Merchandise, etc. — Continued. 
ECUADOR— Continued. 



Articles. 



Quantity. 



Value. 



EXPORTS— continued. 



Paper, and manufactures of 

, T'erfumery and cosmetics 

/ }iated ware 

; Soap 

S pints, wines, and malt liquors: Wines. 

Stationery: Pens, pencils, mucilage, etc. 

'I'ninks, valises, and traveling bags 

\\'ood, and manufactures of 

A U other articles 



112, S55 
10,064 
3,460 
4,006 
13,286 
1,606 
1,206 
21,378 
143,813 



Total. 



1,726,280 



OCEAN TRANSPORTATION ROUTES. 

The movement of commodities from the United States is both 
through the Straits of Magellan and across the Isthmus. Through 
the Straits of Magellan the distance from New York to Valparaiso 
is 9,000 miles; Liverpool to Valparaiso, 9,500 miles; Hamburg to 
Valparaiso, 9,700 miles. Consequently, there is not much advantage 
for the Atlantic coast over Europe in the traffic through the Straits 
or around Cape Horn in the matter of distance, and such advantage 
as does exist in this respect is more than overcome by the far more 
numerous shipping lines from Europe. It may therefore be said that 
for the lower coast there is an equality of international commerce as 
affects transportation routes with reference to New York, Liverpool, 
and Hamburg. 

By Panama the advantage of distance is with the United States, 
since from New York to Valparaiso is approximately 5,000 miles, in- 
cluding way calls, and to Callao 3,600 miles. Some of the vessels that 
ply through the Straits of Magellan make their northern terminus 
at Guayaquil, while the vessels from Panama have Valparaiso as 
their southern terminus, connecting at this port with the' European 
and the Chilean coast lines. 

EUROPEAN STEAMSHIP SERVICE. 

Some of the steamship lines from Europe touch at Rio de Janeiro 
and Montevideo and then take their course through the Straits. The 
Kosmos is the leading German line. It traverses the entire Pacific 
coast as far north as British Columbia. The Roland Line, of Bremen, 
has a less extended itinerary. The Lamport & Holt Line, from Glas- 
gow and English ports, and the Gulf Line, which is also English, 
do not usually extend their voyages north of Guayaquil. The Pacific 
Steam Navigation Company of Liverpool connects at Valparaiso with 
its West Coast Line, but does not carry Atlantic freight farther north 
than the Peruvian ports. In addition to these regular lines there are 

H D— 60-2— Vol 95 (3 



54 BEPORT ON TRADE CONDITIONS 

many tramp and chartered steamers which make the west coast from 
the English and the German ports. 

REGULAR LINES FROM NEW YORK. 

The regular lines from New York through the Straits are the 
West Coast Line and the Merchants Line, whose itineraries extend 
as far north as Guayaquil. In the spring of the present year the 
Barber Line, which has maintained a service to Buenos Aires and 
other east coast ports, established a line for the west coast. The 
steamers are under the British flag, as are also those of the other com- 
panies. The first of the Barber fleet arrived at Callao in March with 
a cargo of coal from Baltimore and railway material. All these lines 
schedule sailings at intervals of four to six weeks, according to the 
cargoes that offer. Some of them call at European ports on their 
return voyage, not getting sufficient cargo on the west coast for the 
United States. 

The steamship service to Colon from the Atlantic ports is fairly 
satisfactory. From New York there are sailings every five days by 
the vessels of the Panama Railroad Steamship Company, which are 
controlled by the Isthmian Canal Commission. The Hamburg 
American Company and the Royal Mail also maintain a regular 
service. 

FROM NEW ORLEANS AND OTHER GULF PORTS. 

The Gulf ports have direct communication, and since New Orleans 
and Mobile are 600 miles nearer Colon than is New York, shippers 
of the Mississippi Valley are beginning to take advantage of this fact, 
and many shipments, particularly of packing-house products, are 
now made for the west coast by this route. The United Fruit Com- 
pany, beginning in August, will put on three large new vessels for 
both passenger and freight service, with the time between New 
Orleans and Colon four and a half days. The new steamers are of 
5,000 tons and have accommodations for 125 first-class passengers. 
The steamers will handle freight from New Orleans to Colon, 
Panama, and points beyond on both the north and the south Pacific 
coast. 

The United Fruit Company in maintaining this service issues 
through bills of lading in connection with the Panama Railroad and 
steamship lines so as to enable merchants and manufacturers doing 
business in the United States to make shipments through the port of 
New Orleans without inconvenience. The new vessels are equipped 
for handling return cargoes of bananas, and refrigeration is provided 
for vegetables and other perishable goods shipped from the Southern 
States to the Isthmus. The steamers sail from New Orleans Satur- 
days at noon direct to Colon, reaching there the following Thursday 
morning. On the return voyage Colon is left Tuesday afternoon and 



WEST COAST OF SOUTH AMEBICA. 55 

a stop made at Port Limon, Costa Rica, to load bananas. New 
Orleans is reached Monday morning. 

The Leyland Line also maintains a service from New Orleans by 
way of Jamaica, while the Hamburg American and the Prince Line 
dispatch occasional vessels from the same port. The Harrison Line 
itinerary is via Belize. From Mobile the United Fruit Company 
dispatches a weekly steamer. From Galveston to Colon there are 
occasional sailings of tramp steamers. 

The New Orleans route is likely to grow in favor with the shipping 
facilities increased as they now are, especially since this section is 
in close contact with Latin America and understands Latin- Ameri- 
can methods and wants. Many of the west-coast merchants now take 
this route in coming north and make their initial purchases in New 
Orleans. 

PANAMA AS A STRATEGIC ROUTE. 

For increased business on the part of the United States the Panama 
route is the strategic one. The proportion of traflSc via Panama is 
somewhat variable, but except in the case of heavy machinery, which 
will follow the Straits until the canal is opened, the tendency is more 
and more to utilize this route, since the railway service has been im- 
proved and cargoes are better handled at Colon and Panama than 
formerly. The cheaper insurance helps to offset the extra expenses 
of transshipment. 

In 1907 goods from the United States for the west coast to the 
value of $7,000,000 were shipped across the Isthmus. The ratio is a 
diminishing one progressively toward the south till Valparaiso is 
reached. Approximately 5 or 6 per cent of its imports are via 
Panama. Antofagasta has perhaps 10 per cent, Callao 50 per cent, 
and Guayaquil 75 per cent. Peruvian agricultural exports — cotton, 
sugar, and wool — are now coming up this route, while copper also 
follows it. 

INSUFFICIENT WEST COAST FACILITIES. 

The traffic has great possibilities in both directions, but the one 
conspicuous fact about transportation on the west coast has been its 
inefficiency and the failure of the existing lines properly to provide 
for the growing commerce. This applies especially to passenger 
travel and to the mails. The transportation is controlled by two com- 
panies, the Pacific Steam Navigation and the Compania Sud Ameri- 
cana de Vapores. The former is an English company and the latter 
is known as the Chilean line and enjoys a small subsidy from the 
Chilean Government. So far as the traveling and shipping public 
are concerned the companies are one. Occasional rivalry between 
different steamers does not alter this condition. The earnings are 
pooled and the service is in every way one of combined companies 
who maintain a monopoly. 



56 BEPORT ON TRADE CONDITIONS 

The companies have a working arrangement under which a steamer 
leaves Panama alternately on Thursdays or Fridays and one arrives 
from Valparaiso on Tuesdays or Wednesdays. This arrangement 
until recently was observed on paper only; At some periods there 
would be reasonable regularity and then would follow a time of ab- 
solute demoralization. New York agents of the companies state that 
the steamers now leave Panama regularly on scheduled dates, their 
orders being not to wait for freight, whether it is ready in sufficient 
quantity to provide a full cargo or not. 

EXCUSES GIVEN FOR INEFFICIENT SERVICE. 

An example of the present slow service may be had by comparing 
the mails between New York and Bombay and New York and Callao, 
respectively. The distance from New York to Callao is 3,600 miles; 
to Bombay, 8,500 miles. By timing the departure of the steamers a 
letter may be transmitted to Bombay and an answer returned in the 
same period that ordinarily is required to transmit one to Callao and 
receive a reply. One reason usually given for the slow and irregular 
service is the delays which are caused by quarantines. It is true that 
quarantine delays are sometimes vexatious, but the conditions have 
been improving, while the steamship service has been* getting worse. 
The real trouble seems to be in the lack of competition. The Pacific 
Steam Navigation and the Chilean lines not only are formed into a 
trust, but they also have an understanding or agreement by which 
the Kosmos Line does not touch at Panama and the Pacific Mail runs 
no steamers south of Panama in consideration of the former not run- 
ning their steamers north of Panama. 

The nature of the coast business is given as another excuse for the 
slowness of the service, the time from Panama to Callao being twelve 
to fourteen days and from Callao to Valparaiso a similar period. 
Ordinarily through passengers and the mails are fortunate if Val- 
paraiso is reached within twenty-five days after leaving Panama or 
vice versa. Instead of touching at only a few leading ports, such as 
Guayaquil, Callao, MoUendo, Iquique, and Antofagasta, all the steam- 
era put in at numerous minor ports. Both companies also maintain 
an auxiliary coasting service for the minor ports. Where competi- 
tion of any sort has been secured a surprising improvement has been 
made. An Italian-Peruvian company established an independent 
service along the Peruvian coast and at once better service was pro- 
vided by the English and the Chilean companies, with lowered pas- 
senger and freight rates. 

PERUVIAN government's FAST STEAMSHIP PROJECT. 

The unsatisfactory shipping service and the consequent loss to com- 
merce caused the Peruvian Government to lend its support to the 



WEST COAST OP SOUTH AMERICA. 67 

project for an independent line between Callao and Panama. A 
company was formed with a capital of £350,000 ($1,703,275), the 
stock consisting of 300,000 shares. The Government took 30,000 sliares 
and provided an annual subsidy of £30,000 ($145,995) for fifteen 
years as interest and amortization. The company was also author- 
ized to issue bonds to the amount of £300,000 ($1,459,950), which were 
to be floated at not less than 92^. 

The basis of the service is to be a large steel floating dock and two 
large steamers capable of steaming 18 knots per hour, with four aux- 
iliary steamers. This plan assumed that an itinerary could be estab- 
lished for a four-day service between Panama and Callao, with a 
stop at Paita or Tumbez to receive and discharge Guayaquil passen- 
gers and mail. Vessels of lesser speed and therefore of less expense 
would answer the purpose, five days or even six not being too long, 
provided the service were regular, so that postal connections could be 
made and the passenger and freight facilities could be depended on. 
The chief point is to secure regularity and reasonable rapidity. 
With a five-day schedule between New York and Colon and a five- 
day service between Panama and Callao the mails will be greatly ben- 
efited, both by cutting the time in half and by the regularity that will 
be insured. 

The Peruvian company ordered the steel floating dock at a cost of 
£90,000 ($437,985), and it is to be delivered at Callao in October. 
It will serve to relieve the congestion of traffic there, though until 
the new steamers are put on the line its utility is limited. The order 
for the two new steamers was given to English shipbuilders in April, 
but it had been anticipated and the work was under way. The ves- 
sels are to be 18-knot turbine steamers of the Parsons type, of a gross 
registered tonnage of 3,500 and with accommodations for 350 pas- 
sengers. The delivery of the first one is promised at Callao in Feb- 
ruary, 1909. With the putting of this vessel into commission the 
Peruvian Government will have made the most important step that 
has been taken in years for improving the west-coast trade relations, 
and the United States will be the chief gainer. 

CHILEAN government's PROPOSED SUBSIDY. 

One result of this Peruvian enterprise has been the quickening of 
other governments and the partial awakening of the English and the 
Chilean lines from their somnolence. Qnce a fast line between 
Panama and Callao is established, another fast line will be essential 
between Callao and Valparaiso, with one or two intervening stops, or 
even a direct service might be maintained between Valparaiso and 
Panama. 

The President of Chile in January of the present year caused a bill 
to be introduced in Congress authorizing the Executive to enter into 



58 BEPOBT ON TRADE CONDITIONS 

a contract with the navigation companies for the establishment of 
a steaipship line between Valparaiso and Panama which should make 
the trip from one port to the other in not to exceed eight days. The 
Government was to pay the company accepting the conditions an 
annual subsidy of $100,000 and the contract was to last for five years. 
The Chilean Congress has not yet legislated on this proposition, but 
the fact that it came from the Executive gives it standing as a basis 
for prospective legislation. 

The Pacific Steam Navigation and the Chilean companies have 
also sought to meet the possible competition of the Peruvian line by 
adapting their facilities to the terms of the proposed Gk)vemment 
subvention. They have proposed to run weekly vessels from Val- 
paraiso to Panama on a twelve-day schedule, making stops at Val- 
paraiso, Coquimbo, Antofagasta, Iquique, MoUendo, Callao, Paita, 
and Panama. Auxiliary steamers will distribute the freight from 
these ports of call, while the present service between Panama and 
Guayaquil, which is distinct from the other west-coast service, will 
be enlarged. 

Should the promise of a twelve-day service between Valparaiso 
and Panama be carried out, it will be possible to arrange the Colon 
connection for New York so that the whole journey can be made in 
seventeen days and mails and freight handled with much more expe- 
dition than at present. The west-coast traffic is now so important 
and its possibilities so great that the existing inadequate facilities 
for handling it can not be permitted to continue indefinitely, 

ADVANTAGES OF THE PACIFIC PORTS. 

For the Pacific ports of the United States there are many natural 
advantages in the means for avoiding transshipping. Besides the 
sailing vessels and the Kosmos steamers, a service is maintained be- 
tween San Francisco and Callao by the North Pacific Line of W. R. 
Grace & Co. and the English and German tramp steamers. The 
business of California and the adjoining States with South American 
countries is in staple products, and as the demand grows in these 
countries it will expand. Lumber and flour are the leading ship- 
ments, but there are also agricultural implements, fruits, petroleum, 
and beverages. The aggregate value is large. 

One very striking feature of west-coast traffic is the number of 
sailing vessels which engage in it in competition with tlie steamers* 
This section might be said to be the last refuge of the sailing ships. 
The nature of the cargoes gives them their opportunity. Time is not 
usually an element in the importation of coal, and it is brought in 
the sailing schooners from Australia and from Wales. Similarly 
time does not enter into the nitrate shipments from Chile, and the 
majority of these bulky cargoes are exported in the sailing vessels, 



WEST COAST OF SOUTH AMERICA. 5£ 

the ships often serving as floating warehouses, which can be diverted 
from their regular course or dehiyed, according to the market. The 
coal and nitrate shipments also afford return cargoes in many in- 
stances. The heavy importations of lumber on the west coast fur- 
nish the sailing vessels with a large traffic, and they are able to handle 
this class of business most satisfactorily. The bulk of the shipments 
from California and Oregon are brought down the coast in schooners 
or in larger sailing vessels. 

The discussion of rates in connection with transportation and ves- 
sel lines is omitted here, because the very complete exposition of the 
whole subject in the report of Special Commissioner Joseph L. Bris- 
tow (Senate Document No. 429, Fifty-ninth Congress) and the sup- 
plemental information of Special Agent Lincoln Hutchinson regard- 
ing shipping facilities in his report on west-coast trade conditions 
render further explanation unnecessary. The European shipper, by 
various devices of the steamship companies, still seems to get cheaper 
rates for most commodities than do the shippers in the United States. 

STEAMSHIP LINES TO CHINA AND JAPAN. 

It should be noted that there are Asiatic steamers to and from the 
west coast. The Asiatic trade excites interest in view of its possible 
development along competitive lines with the United States and 
Europe. There is a large Chinese colony in Peru, and the Chinese 
merchants, in conjunction with Hongkong merchants, have for years 
operated a steamship service between Callao and Hongkong and the 
other Chinese ports. 

In 1906 the Japanese Government subsidized a new company known 
as the Orient Line between Yokohama and Callao and Iquique. This 
has done a fairly good business. Its cargoes have been chiefly of rice, 
with some railway ties, coal, and a little merchandise, including 
silks and teas. The return cargoes have been mostly Peruvian sugar 
and Chilean nitrates, with a little wool and cotton. The sailings have 
been about one vessel every six weeks. The shortage of rice on the 
west coast furnished the most profitable basis of this traflSc, but in the 
spring of the present year the dealers along the coast found them- 
selves overstocked, while the Peruvian crop indications were that it 
would be almost sufficient to supply the home demand. So for at 
least two years the rice cargoes are not likely to be carried by the 
Japanese steamers. Japanese coal is of a poor quality and only in 
exceptional cases can it compete with the coal from Cardiff and 
Australia. 

Looking several years ahead some persons foresee the time when 
Japan will be shipping cotton piece goods to the west coast in com- 
petition with Manchester, and machinery in competition with the 



60 BEPORT ON TRADE CONDITIONS 

United States, but this can not be said to be an immediate prospect. 
As to the return cargo the Peruvian sugar exportations are not likely 
to exceed 5,000 tons annually. The Japanese soil needs fertilizers and 
there is more certainty of the nitrates from Chile. Large quantities 
of jute bagging are imported by Chile from Calcutta, but this cargo 
is not available for the Japanese ships. The experiment of the 
sulwidized Japanese line can not therefore yet be said to indicate 
a successful outcome. Both it and the Chinese line derive a good 
deal of their revenue from immigrants of the coolie class. All the 
west-coast (Jovernments are now restricting and discouraging Chinese 
immigration. They can not on account . of their treaties take so 
radical a course with Japan, and the Japanese immigration com- 
panies are supplying a few thousand coolies annually. This, how- 
ever, can not be looked upon as a permanent source of revenue for 
the steamship companies. 

UNITED STATES SANITARY AUTHORITY AT PANAMA. 

Details regarding a wost-coast itinerary for commercial travelers 
and othei's aix> si»t forth in the appendix, and in connection with the 
subject of transportation only one additional point that relates to 
comment is here indicated. Wliile quarantine regulations are a 
necoi^sary evil, their ill effects in interfering with trade are being 
riHiuiHHi to a minimum. This is because of the control now exercised 
by iho United States sanitary authorities at Panama. Instead of con- 
flicting and lu>stile regulations a general plan is followed. 

The Unites! States, Iwsides being the sjuiitary power at Panama, 
has Marine-Hospital physicians stationed at Guayaquil and Callao. 
They are there by the courtesy of the Governments of Ecuador and 
IVnu but these Governments have got l>eyond the point of merely 
rovH^iving theiu courtei>usly. The Governmenis now cooperate most 
heartily with the measun*s suggesteii by the representati\^ of the 
Marine-lU>spital Si*rvici\ and the authorities of Panama govern their 
rcjnilHtions of the vossi^ls from down the ci^st by the suggestions 
DN^ivevi fnwi thes^e phj^ioians. At Guayaquil Dr. B. J. Lloyd is 
ni>t only the rnitini States n*pn\^MUative. but is chairman of the 
oiMumission which was onnitoil by the F.ouador Government to stamp 
i>ut buUwio plague aiul to make Guayaquil a sanitary port. Though 
all this can not U^ done in a day or a year, it can in time be accom- 
pHsIted^ and the measun^s now in fonv an^ already proving beneficial 
to <MMiimoiv>e. 

At C'^Uao tin* Peruvian iiovornmont has voluntarily placed certain 
authority in the hands of l\vior Wi^rhtman* the Marin^Hospital 
wprw^ntatiw, and has avaiUnl its*>lf of tin? oxporionce of the United 
S^tcis medical service 



WEST COAST OF SOUTH AMEEIOA. 61 

METHOD OF ENFORCING QUARANTINE REGULATIONS. 

Vessels leaving Panama are dispatched by the sanitary author- 
ities, and the success which has been obtained by the American oflS- 
cials in freeing that port from yellow fever is a great advantage to 
the captains and the agents, since it relieves apprehension and avoids 
vexatious delays. Vessels coming up the coast are inspected at Callao 
by the Marine-Hospital physician and their health condition is cer- 
tified. The process is repeated at Guayaquil. These up-coast vessels 
are not allowed to go to the wharves or docks where such harbor 
facilities exist for loading or taking on passengers. Instead they are 
served by lighters. By avoiding conmiunication with the shore the 
danger of contracting bubonic and other epidemic diseases is mate- 
rially lessened. In consequence it is rarely now that a vessel on reach- 
ing Panama is put in quarantine and its cargo delayed in unloading. 
Passengers from Guayaquil go to the quarantine station for two 
days if they have not certificates of yellow fever immunity, and the 
same precaution is taken in regard to bubonic. Excellent quarters 
are provided at the quarantine station, and the inconvenience to 
travelers is as slight as it can be made with due regard to safety. 
There is seldom interference with cargoes. 

The authority possessed by the sanitary oflScials is exercised dis- 
criminatingly, yet unsparingly where necessary, and the result has 
been to secure a much better observance of health regulations by the 
commanders of the vessels. After a steamship has been once ordered 
into quarantine for being in insanitary condition, not only the captain 
of that particular steamship but the commanding oflScers of all the 
vessels take notice, and it is not often that the lesson has to be re- 
peated. 

INSPECTION BY CHILE AND PERU. 

Vessels coming through the Straits of Magellan are subject to in- 
spection by the Chilean authorities, and also by the Peruvian au- 
thorities, if they proceed farther north. Peru has a quarantine sta- 
tion at Ilo, its most southerly port, where all vessels are disinfected 
and fumigated. In consequence of these improvements in quarantine 
and in sanitary supervision the danger to which the west coast is 
inevitably exposed is decreased and many of the losses heretofore sus- 
tained by commerce are avoided. Not everything has yet been done 
that should be done, but the spirit of cooperation is spreading and 
the measures of the various Governments are based on a common sys- 
tem, which was not the case formerly. Further improvements may 
be made in the future when all the countries become parties to the 
general sanitary treaty of Washington, which has been recommended 
by the different Pan-American conferences and by the sanitary con- 
ventions that have grown out of those conferences. 



62 REPORT ON TRADE CONDITIONS 

TRADE EXTENSION WITH UNITED STATES. 

The general situation of (he west-coast countries, their resources 
and industries, their actual and prospective development, the bases 
of their purchasing power for foreign goods, and their transporta- 
tion facilities and fiscal systems having been sketched, specific sug- 
gestions as to the means of building up commerce by American manu- 
facturers may now be offered. These trade hints are the outcome of 
suggestions which have been made to the author by men engaged in 
the importing business and who are familiar with the requirements 
of the market. A good deal of primary schooling is yet necessary 
in Spanish- American trade methods for manufacturers and exporters 
in the United States. 

SPANISH LANGUAGE SHOULD BE EMPLOYED. 

The spread of English facilitates commercial intercourse with 
Spanish- American countries, but in no possible view does it do away 
with the need for knowing Spanish. Business correspondence with 
importing firms in most cases may be carried on in English, because 
some of the members themselves, where they are not American, Eng- 
lish, or German, nevertheless speak and write English, or have clerks 
who do so. But this does not touch the main point, which is to reach 
the buyer or the person who is to be induced to become a buyer. The 
retail dealer, as a rule, only knows Spanish, and this is true also of 
his customers, and to make any article known its merits should be set 
forth in the language of the retailer and of his patrons. 

Wliile correspondence in English with importing firms may serve, 
there are many large houses, especially at points away from the sea- 
coast, with whom the prospect of securing business would be much 
better if the forms of Si)anisli correspondence were followed. Cata- 
logues in English may be studied out by them, but Spanish is in- 
finitely preferable, and general descriptive matter is worthless unless 
it is in the language of the country. Many well-known proprietary 
articles and food preparations of English and French make, in the 
long course of years, have established themselves so thoroughly that 
Spanish labels are not required, yet for the majority of goods they 
are desirable, and this is especially the case with new articles seeking 
a market. The Germans almost invariably have their goods labeled 
in Spanish, even where they are as well known as the English and 
French articles. 

TRADE-MARKS AND ADVERTISING. 

In the introduction of a new article the very first step should be 
to register the trade-mark. The trade-mark regulations of the differ- 
ent countries are not illiberal, but they are not framed to make busi- 
ness easier for negligent manufacturers abroad. So it happens that a 
good many mineral waters, beverages, and similar products Avhich 



WEST COAST OF SOUTH AMERICA. 6S 

are universally known can not get into South America under their 
own trade-mark name because some native has appropriated and 
registered it for an inferior local pr '>duct. 

Advertising is as essential in Spanish America as in the United 
States, but it has not yet been reduced to a science. The newspapers 
are by far the best medium. Their circulation is small, but they have 
the advantage of being thoroughly read. Whether the paper is pub- 
lished in the morning or in the afternoon, no one is too busy to read 
it from the first column on the first page to the last column of the last 
page, and the advertisements are rarely overlooked. Display adver- 
tising is still the chief feature, the small ads not being used except 
for a limited number of purposes. Any good selling article of mer- 
chandise takes a display. Newspaper advertising rates are relatively 
cheap, especially under contract for a given time, and the preference 
is for yearly contracts. Usually publishers can be depended on for a 
strict adherence to their contracts. Local merchants recognize the 
value of this medium, but it is desirable that they should receive en- 
couragement from the exporters whose goods are handled. 

There are no general advertising agencies through whom business 
can be done with a group of newspapers, but in all the larger cities 
the facts as to circulation, the classes of readers, etc., are easily ascer- 
tained. Some large merchants follow the plan of American dealers 
and publish special papers of their own in which reading matter is 
varied with the advertising of the articles of merchandise that are 
handled. These publications are circulated without subscription 
charge. At Trujillo, in northern Peru, there is a newspaper of this 
class, and there is another one at Cuzco, in southern Peru, which is 
the distributing center for a population of 250,000. Either of these 
journals would compare favorably with those of a similar kind in the 
United States. In all the large cities there are illustrated weeklies 
and monthlies in which colored " comics " and cartoons are popular 
advertising features. 

LrrHOGRAPHS, BILLBOARDS, AND CATALOGUES. 

After the newspapers the most successful advertising is by means 
of lithographs. These should be highly colored, even gaudy. They 
are quite extensively employed, and in most of the countries form an 
item in the customs schedule, being dutiable. The duty, however, is 
not heavy enough to discourage their use. For agricultural imple- 
ments, lithographs are especially valuable. They require to be dura- 
ble, and generally should be prepared so that they may be hung up, 
instead of being merely tacked to the wall. 

There is some advertising by means of billboards and posters in 
most of the west-coast cities, but its utility is limited. Usually it is 
subject to rather stringent municipal regulations and the privilege is 



64 BEPORT ON TBADE CONDITIONS 

farmed out. In Lima the concession is held by an American. Street- 
car advertising does not appear to meet with much favor, though it 
has some utility. Advertising by means of variable electric signs, 
etc., has not been much exploited, though its novelty appeals to the 
Spanish American. Little attention is paid to window displays as a 
means of advertising goods. 

The value of catalogues and circulars as advertising mediums is 
doubtful, especially when sent out miscellaneously. Some of the 
consuls make an effort to classify and display the catalogues and 
trade papers which reach them, but it is impossible for them to handle 
all the printed circulars. 

Where this kind of matter is sent to addresses at random, procured 
from the commercial directories and similar sources, in nine cases out 
of ten it is a dead loss. Where it is not held in the post-office for 
insufficient postage or dumped in the scrap heap on account of torn 
wrappers, it is often left unopened. Bushels of it may be seen in 
some of the big importing houses. Usually a clerk looks at the 
wrapper with the sender's address, and if the matter is from some 
firm which is known it is opened, but otherwise no heed is given it. 
It must also be kept in mind that in the South American countries 
mail matter is registered much more generally than in the United 
States. The safe rule would be for exporting or manufacturing 
firms first to secure attention by means of a letter, and then to register 
the printed circulars they send. While this may seem expensive it is 
an actual saving, because it insures the matter being received and 
opened. Letters usually do not need to be registered. 

A POINTED EXAMPLE. 

The value of carefully prepared descriptive matter in Spanish was 
illustrated to the writer at one of the interior points, where a large 
importing firm was going to make a trial importation of disk plows. 
It had the catalogues and the descriptions from a number of manu- 
facturers, but all except one of these were in English. The member 
of the firm who was handling the matter had lived in the United 
States and read English very well, but when it came to understand- 
ing the description of the way to handle disk plows he grasped it 
much better from the Spanish booklet. Moreover, his assistants, who 
would have the actual placing of the order, and would have to give 
instructions to the overseer of the estate where the plows were to be 
used, did not read English. So the order was placed with the firm 
which in organizing its export business had not neglected the essen- 
tial element of Spanish circulars for Spanish-speaking countries. 

The best advertisement of any article is of course the thing itself, 
and some one to tell about the thing, and how it can be used ; or, if 



WEST COAST OF SOUTH AMERICA. 65 

machinery, how it should be worked. That means the sample and 
the commercial traveler. In an interval of five years between visits 
to the west coast it has been a great satisfaction to note the advance 
made by American manufacturers in providing for this market by 
employing competent drummers. In several instances which came 
to notice the principals themselves were making trips with a view 
to learning the general requirements and then to sending out their 
own men. This was the best possible method, but since it is not 
always practicable, the next thing is to provide intelligent traveling 
agents. It is no reflection on the American drummer to repeat that 
the one who is successful at home is not necessarily the best man to 
send abroad. The essential requirement is that of a traveled gentle- 
man who knows the language, and who either intuitively or through 
experience can adapt himself to local customs. 

REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL TRAVELERS. 

The club is an important element of intercourse in commercial af- 
fairs. All the west-coast cities have societies to which visitors may be 
admitted with proper introduction, and commercial travelers should 
provide themselves with letters which will insure them the privileges 
of the clubs. A further requirement in business intercourse is not to 
be in a hurry. One large importer in the interior of Peru was known 
to change an order from Berlin to New York because the American 
drummer who approached him not only spoke Spanish excellently, 
but calmly settled down in the city and made his campaign in a leis- 
urely manner. It only took a fortnight in this instance, but the 
drummer stated that he w as prepared to stay three months, for he 
knew the value of the business that he wanted. It has lasted for years 
and is now one of his most valuable assets. 

An evolution of the drummer which is now going on is that of the 
manufacturers' resident agent. Several of these agents have estab- 
lished themselves at a number of cities, and all are doing well; but 
every one of them had had long experience as a traveling man in 
South America and knew thoroughly the requirements and the pecu- 
liarities of the trade. These manufacturers' agents aim to secure a 
noncompetitive but fairly extensive line of goods which will not be 
too large for them to push individually. Some do their own travel- 
ing, while others employ subagents. Though their sales are made on 
commission, usually they have capital of their own and can meet the 
conditions of the exporters in regard to cash with orders or time 
drafts. 

In every case these manufacturers' agents are able to give the spe- 
cific instructions in regard to invoices, packing, etc., w^hich are so 
essential to foreign trade and which usually are so calmly ignored by 



66 REPOBT ON TRADE CONDITIONS 

American shippers. Some of them have elaborate printed forms 
which, when followed, save a great deal of unnecessary correspondence 
as well as time. Observance of the instructions contained in these 
forms should be impressed by factories and exporfiing commission 
firms in the United States on their shipping departments. The 
agents who have located themselves in the Spanish- American coun- 
tries know the weak points in the shipments and their suggestions are 
made to correct them. For a factory seeking to introduce its goods 
these agents advise that plenty of time be taken in paving the way — 
at least a year — ^before inviting trial orders. 

VALUE OF EXPORT AGENCIES. 

Some European houses, notably French ones, have export sales 
agencies on the same principle as the American manufacturers' 
^-gents who have established themselves, but much more thoroughly 
organized and directed from Paris. There are many advantages in 
this system. It centralizes the business for export at a given point 
and insures cooperation at reduced expense. A suggestion has been 
made for the establishment of an American export agency with 
Panama as the base, and with a warehouse with stock to fill orders 
and from which samples could be supplied to traveling salesmen. 
No steps, however, have been taken toward carrying out the idea, 
which would require the cooperation of manufacturers in a dozen or 
more different lines. Lima would be another central point for the 
establishment of a warehouse by a group of manufacturers. 

An important point in South American business is that the num- 
ber of small American manufacturers who are reaching out for it is 
increasing. For them the first thing to know is the best way in 
which they can get a foothold for their specialties. South of 
Ecuador it may be said that the bulk of the import trade is controlled 
by not more than ten great firms, only one of which is American, and 
even it has European connections. The majority of the firms are 
English, though there are several strong German ones. The big 
houses have large capital and unite commerce, shipping, and develop- 
ment enterprises. In addition to doing a business in importing and 
exporting general merchandise, they are either joint owners of ship- 
ping lines or are agents of the steamship companies, and in that 
capacity it is not easy to distinguish them from partners. 

Some of these houses are engaged in the exploitation of mines, in 
irrigation enterprises, in sugar and cotton plantations, and in rail- 
way building. This mixing of all kinds of business is an outcome of 
the conditions which obtained more than half a century ago when the 
shipping companies or firms went into mercantile business in order 
to build up the commerce for a carrying trade. Once in the mercan- 
tile business they put capital into development enterprises because 
their own money was all that could be procured for these purposes, 



WEST COAST OF SOUTH AMERICA. 07 

and development of resources was necessary in order to develop 
trade. They have continued along these collateral lines until, with 
many of the houses, it is difficult to differentiate their interests. The 
headquarters are generally at Lima and Valparaiso, with branches 
at all the ports of any importance, and also in Bolivia. 

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF TIIE SYSTEM. 

For the manufacturer seeking west-coast trade this system has ad- 
vantages and disadvantages. Some of the importing firms will take 
only exclusive agencies, while others make no discrimination and will 
handle any goods that are offered them, but without pushing sales. 
Where an American manufacturer or commission agent establishes 
relations with one of these big houses the advantage in dealing with 
an established firm is recognized. The benefit of its prestige and its 
knowledge of local business requirements is immediately secured. 
There is also the most decided benefit of dealing with a firm whose 
credit is unquestioned and of avoiding the losses which are incurred 
or the risks which have to be taken in dealing with smaller concerns 
whose business is purely local, and whose credit and capital are both 
limited. 

The disadvantage is that houses having so many lines of goods can 
not always be relied on to push any particular line. They merely 
handle goods for which a demand exists and they are not likely to 
enlarge the market. As shipowners or ship agents they are also likely 
to give themselves the best of the rates. Moreover, in the cases of 
firms which have exclusive agencies the new article which is com- 
petitive can not secure a foothold through the medium of these estab- 
lished firms, and the manufacturer is compelled to seek other means 
of introducing it. The combination of shipping, trading, manufac- 
turing, and farming will some day disintegrate, and trade and in- 
dustry follow more normal lines, but that is not likely to occur soon, 
though its signs are visible. Manufacturers therefore should inform 
themselves of the character of these great firms and determine 
whether to seek the west-coast market through them or through 
separate agencies. 

In the case of machinery there is a greater field for selection, be- 
cause, while the big importing houses handle machinery, there are also 
many houses which make a specialty of it and deal very extensively. 
There are also engineering firms which specialize in the various kinds 
of machinery. But for general merchandise the choice is rather 
limited. Some of the large American mining and railway companies 
are now making their purchases direct through their purchasing 
agents in the United States. 

VARIETY OF GOODS HANDLED. 

The variety of goods which may l)e handled by a single firm is 
infinite, including dry goods, provisions, and iron and steel products. 



68 REPORT ON TRADE CONDITIONS 

One wholesale firm, which does not handle textiles, gave me the fol- 
lowing list of goods imported from the United States by them, 
though their commercial connections are English, for which they were 
finding a wide market: 

Wire nails. Bolts and nuts. 

Barbed wire No. 12. Tinned meats. 

Galvanized staples No. 9. Axes. 

Varnished wire No. 16. Cane knives. 

Galvanized wire No. 20. Picks and handles for picks. 

Turpentine, " Pine Tree." Lubricating and machine oils, 

Salmon. Preserved meats. 

Sisal rope. Oj'sters. 

Hosin. Tinned California fruits. 

Hams. Hoofing. 

Wheelbarrows. Safes. 

Scales. American whisky. 

Plows. Box shooks. 

Chains. Railway ties. 

Shares and land sides for plows. Sugjir claritiers. 

Lard. Chairs. 

EXPANSIVE MARKETS. 

It may be said that there is hardly an article for which a market 
may not be found. New wants are created among the Indians of the 
Andean plateaus as easily as on Fifth avenue in New York. There 
is scarcely an out-of-the-way place in which some line of imported 
goods can not be sold. The drummer for a New York house dealing 
in laces and embroideries went up to Bolivia among the Indian popu- 
lation and in a short time established a good business, notwithstanding 
that his line was a comparatively expensive one. The explanation 
was the Indian woman's love for finery. On Sundays and festival 
days they appear togged out not only in brilliant colois but in really 
fine garments. Since there is a large number of holidays the occa- 
sions when this finery can be used are frequent, and one outfit does 
not last an Indian woman her lifetime. When it is considered that 
there is a population on the Bolivian 2:)lateau of 1,000,000, it will be 
seen that this is a market not to be despised. The very fine high- 
laced shoes, some of which are imported, and some of which are of 
native manufacture, and all of which sell from $12 upward, is another 
illustration of purchasing ability and of wants which are highly 
civilized. The same love of finery also exists among the Indians of 
Peru and Ecuador, and they manage to find means to gratify it. 

FIELD FOR MANUFACTURERS. 

Closer touch should be kept by manufacturers in the United States 
with the sales agents or others to whom they assi<ijn certain territory, 
in order to see whether these agents are fully responsive to the interest 
that may be awakened in their products. Many manufacturers take 



WEST COAST OF SOUTH AMERICA. 69 

the necessary steps to make their wares known and create a demand 
for them, but when letters of inquiry come they merely reply, refer- 
ring the inquirer to the agent who has control of that territory. 
Then they put in operation their system of " follow up " letters in 
order to keep the prospective customer on the hook. Meanwhile no 
attempt is made to learn whether the agent who has the territory is 
attending to the inquiries. 

A large dealer who saw an opportunity for increasing the sales of 
woven wire fencing gave an amusing illustration of this carelessness. 
He had written to the factory stating his wants, and received a reply 
referring him to the New York agent who controlled sales in that 
district. He at once wrote to the agent, but received no reply, 
though letters and literature kept coming from the factory all bearing 
the earmarks of an enterprising " follow-up " system. The follow- 
up letters should have been sent to the New York agent; but ap- 
parently the factory did not think of this, for the prospective cus- 
tomer never heard from him. Numerous other instances of this ap- 
parent lack of cooperation between the factories and their agents in 
the United States who control foreign territory might be given. 

PAUIiTS TO BE CORRECTED. 

American manufacturers in getting over one fault are committing 
another. So much has been said about dumping surplus stocks and 
inferior articles that the subject does not call for reiteration. The 
practice of sending second-rate stock to South America was so preva- 
lent a few years ago that it had become a by -word whenever Amer- 
ican trade was spoken of, and it was one of the drawbacks to more 
extended sales. While this practice has not entirely ceased, there has 
been such a noteworthy improvement and such a commendable spirit 
shown to supply good articles, that there is no longer occasion for 
wholesale censure. But manufacturers in the United States should 
not go to the other extreme and insist on supplying a better article 
than is wanted. On general principles it may be true that the best is 
none too good, but in the case of South America, where customs 
change slowly and where the best is not always wanted, it should 
not be supplied. 

The Spanish- American merchant knows his customers just as the 
merchant in the United States knows his patrons. When, therefore, 
he calls for an article of a good quality but not of a superior quality, 
he means just what he says. So far as it is profitable he may lead to 
higher things in the way of the best articles for his customers, but he 
will not seek to force their preferences nor will he be forced by the 
foreign manufacturer. He is getting away from the cheap German 
goods, and that is progress enough for the present. 
H D— 60-2— Vol 95 7 



70 KEPOBT OS TRADE COXDITIOSS 



MmDumzxs ug pbofttSw 



One pncdoe whkh it is diflkoh for Amencmn mann fa c lui g rs to 
meet is that of middleinen's high profits. In a varietT of articles, 
particolarlT clothing, household wares, and food stuffs, traveling 
mksanaen att where mach larger sales could be made if retail prices 
were lower. Knowing that the middleman is getting 100 per cent, 
tber nrgeium to fix a lower price for the consumer with the aasorance 
that increased sales wiU mcMne than make up the decreased percentage 
of pn^t, but the Spanish- American practice always has hem smaD 
aaks and high profits, and the merchant is very stubborn about re- 
TCTsing his position. The middle class is not large, but it is a growing 
class in all the% countries, and very many articles which are suitable 
for it remain luxuries on account of the extortionate profits of the 
retailer. 

In only a few instances are the manufacturers able to enforce a set 
price. .SofTie of those whose boots and shoes are sold on commission 
do it, and in a few other spe.ial lines a set price determined by the 
manufacturer is obtained. For general merchandise products the 
only remedy I can suggest is a persistent campaign of education on 
low prices by the manufacturers in their printed matter, in their 
correspondence, and in the intercourse of their traveling salesmen 
with buyers. 

PACKING AND TRANSPORTATION. 

Xothing new can be said about packing, but some old directions, 
suggestions, warnings, cautions, and remonstrances may be said 
again briefly. The leading points are very simple. Packing as for 
domestic orders will not do. Goods require much rehandling. Even 
where they are sent through the Straits and transshipment avoided 
they are certain to receive hard treatment before they reach their 
destination, especially since many of them have to be transported 
over the mountains. 

The west coast is a rough coast. Almost no freight is landed at 
whar\'es or docks. Almost all freight has to be lowered from the 
steamers into li/^ters and small boats. At almost all landing ports 
during the greater part of the year smooth waters are unknown. The 
unloading usually is done in the midst of a heavy surf, and a drop 
of 8 to 12 feet for packages from the steamer to the lighter is no 
unusual thing. At the jetties or piers there is equally rough handling 
with the cranes and other appliances for unloading the lighters 
where unskilled hand labor is not the sole means. Then there is the 
reloading on the cars, and for large quantities of goods a subsequent 
imloading and reloading on mules and other pack animals which 
carry the freight over steep moimtain trails. Whether shipments 
are via the Igthmna or the Straits, a part of the voyage of the cargo 



WBST COAST OF 80TTTH AMEBIGA. 71 

must be through the Tropics, with their hot, humid atmosphere, and 
its destructive appetite for poor packing cases. 

These simple facts should impress om exporters the importance of 
strong packing cases. Brittle pine lumber should not be used and 
cases should be bound with strap iron. At the same time these should 
be light, since in many instances the customs duties are assessed on 
gross weight. Machinery parts, of course, should be labeled and 
duplicates be sent in separate cases, and castings should be carefully 
secured. All boxes and crates should be numbered, and in addition 
to the consignee's mark it is well to have the gross weight marked in 
kilograms, since this facilitates the customs entry. 

INSTRUCTIONS AND REGULATIONS. 

The instructions issued by the Panama Bailroad Steamship Line, 
and which have been printed by some of the railways in the United 
States and made obligatory on shippers over their lines, are so perti- 
nent that I quote them : 

Ck)mp1aint8 have come to ns recently so persistently concerning the inade- 
quate packing of goods that we feel compelled to bring the matter to the atten- 
tion of our patrons. 

European manufacturers have learned by experience that adequate packing 
is an excellent investment, as contents reach destination in good shape, whereas 
American manufacturers are neglectful in packing for export, to the detri- 
ment of merchants, transportation companies, and the manufacturers them- 
selves. 

We ask the cooperation of all shippers and consignees in an effort to dimin- 
ish frail packing, as it is to their benefit as well as to that of the transportation 
lines to have shipments delivered in good condition. 

We shall hereafter refuse packages too frail to hold contents or not in condi- 
tion to withstand necessary handling during the voyage, as we decline to 
assume responsibility for the shortcomings of packers. 

Boxes or cases weighing four hundred (400) pounds or less must be of mate- 
rial three-fourths (f) of an inch in thickness or greater; boxes or cases weigh- 
ing over four hundred (400) pounds must be of material at least one (1) inch 
in thickness. 

All packages to be bound with steel or hickory straps at least one (1) inch 
wide. 

Special attention is called to the fact that ours is a water route with trans- 
shipments, and hence better packing is required than if the cargo were to be 
transported with little or no rehandling. 

There is room for improvement on the part of commission agents 
in ordering goods from the factories. In many instances the fac- 
tories do not know where the goods are consigned, and if the commis- 
sion agents notified them and stated the requirements of the packing 
this would be likely to receive attention. 

A SERIOUS EVIL. 

For one trouble in west-coast shipments exporters are not respon- 
sible. This is the great amoimt of ^every, especially of small {Mkck- 



72 BBPOBT ON TRADE CONDITIONS 

ages. It is universal, and while it is deplored no remedy has yet 
been found by the steamship companies, which are the heaviest losers, 
both because of the losses they have to make good and on account of 
the controversies with shippers. But while exporters are not to 
blame for this condition, they can mitigate it and save themselves 
trouble and loss by following the directions of the importers. The 
latter, having to contend with the evil, seek to lessen it by providing 
means of avoiding the knowledge of the contents of the packing cases. 
For instance, a case of prepared chocolate, if not stolen outright, i^ 
apt to lose part of its contents. But if it is shipped in a plain box 
and is not known to be chocolate, there is less danger. 

One of the greatest losses is in shipments of boots and shoes. 
Some importers insist on measures being taken to disguise the con- 
tents of packing cases of this kind because otherwise a certain nimi- 
ber of pairs are likely to be purloined, and frequently mates are not 
taken, so there is a double loss. Until the steamship companies and 
the companies which control the lighterage devise complete protec- 
tion the only suggestion that can be made is to repeat the importance 
of heeding the directions of the importing firms. This, however, 
should be done in all cases. 

PROMPTNESS IN SHIPMENTS. 

Prompt shipment is another point which must receive more consid- 
eration if the markets are to be enlarged and maintained. The 
American manufacturers, it sometimes seems, are sinners in this 
respect from choice as much as from indifference. The number of 
cases brought to my attention in which importers have been exas- 
perated to the point of canceling orders by the failure to fill them on 
time have been almost as numerous as the instances of bad packing. 
In the nature of present transportation facilities the inevitable delays 
are bad enough. American exporters should not make them worse 
by giving the home market orders preference over those from abroad. 
They may be sure that in every instance in which they neglect the 
foreign order they are losing future trade. English and (jerman 
exporting houses are so prompt in meeting the requirements of their 
South American customers that the contrast with the methods of 
many manufacturers in the United States is a constant argument 
against buying American goods. 

UTILITY OF PARCELS POST. 

The utility of the parcels post as a trade getter is not appreciated 
in the United States. Treaties are in force with Ecuador, Peru, 
Bolivia, and Chile. Packages up to 11 pounds in weight can be sent 
at the rate of 20 cents a pound. Many specialties produced in the 
United States could be introduced and a permanent sale maintained 
through the medium of mail orders. 



WEST COAST OP SOUTH AMBMCA. 78 

The parcels-post business of England and France with the west- 
coast countries is very large, and the variety of articles carried in 
this manner is surprising. In Chile, in a recent year, the value of 
the parcels-post importations was 1,113,000 pesos, or about $350,000. 
In the other countries it is proportionate. The shipments from Eng- 
land and France are not through any central agency, such as the 
mail-order houses of the United States, but by independent concerns 
which forward only their own products. In this respect the mail- 
order houses of the United States would have a decided advantage. 
One reason, as I am informed, why they have not heretofore taken 
it up has been their doubts as to the value of the market, but the 
experience of European firms should be conclusive on this point. 

A more practical objection appears to be the diflSculty of getting 
out catalogues in Spanish on the comprehensive scale which obtains 
in the United States, since the catalogues themselves are so expensive 
that a general distribution of them would not be feasible. But a care- 
ful study of the average of the wants that obtain in Spanish- American 
countries which could be supplied through the mails undoubtedly 
would enable a relatively small Spanish catalogue to be provided. 
It would be found that many importing houses as well as individual 
customers would avail themselves of the opportunities offered by 
these catalogues. The growing number of Americans engaged in 
mining and railway building who are scattering all through South 
America, and who have many wants which could be supplied directly 
from the United States, seems to offer a practical basis for beginning 
the business. 

The customs regulation of the different countries regarding im- 
portations through the mails are not burdensome, and in all of them 
international money orders can be obtained by would-be purchasers. 
Some mail-order business is now done with Mexico, and the conditions 
in other Latin- American countries are enough alike to enable the 
Mexican business to be broadened. In 1907 there were 4,340 pack- 
ages of merchandise dispatched from the United States to Qiile as 
against 1,710 packages in 1901, thus showing a decided growth. 
No business was reported with Ecuador, Peru, or Bolivia. 

MEANS FOR SECURING LARGER TRADE. 

The means at hand for getting a larger share of the growing west- 
coast business should be known in detail by American manufac- 
turers and exporting agents. There are not only the general facts, 
such as contained in this report, but a mass of specific information 
has been gathered for the benefit of special lines of trade. The for- 
eign trade opportunities published in Daily Consular and Trade 
Beports often indicate the market for a particular article at a particu- 
lar time. But through the Bureau of Manufactures the permanent 



74 BEPOBT ON TRADE CONDITIONS 

information is also available, which looks to steady trade and offers 
the means of reaching it. Full commercial directories, lists of cham- 
bers of commerce, and similar lists are on file. In addition to these 
are the lists indicating various dealers and their special lines, with 
suggestions^ sometimes of a confidential character, furnished by the 
special agents and consular officers. 

In justice to the consuls it is suggested that manufacturers who 
seek further points on subjects concerning which consular reports 
have been made and lists of addresses given should communicate 
directly with the Bureau of Manufactures. The complaint of the 
consuls is not unreasonable that, after making reports on given sub- 
jects which are published and are supplemented by the details as to 
names of dealers, firms, etc., furnished to the Bureau, they receive 
many letters asking for additional information or for the addresses 
which are already on file in Washington. They should be relieved 
of the burden of answering these letters, which are usually due to the 
carelessness of the writers in not noting the specific statements of 
what has been forwarded to Washington. The manufacturers them- 
selves who indulge in this careless habit also lose much valuable time, 
since a letter to the west coast requires from one to two months for 
an answer to be received, while a Washington reply can be looked 
for within two or three days. 

PREDOMINANCE OP EUROPEANS. 

The foreign nationalities doing business on the west coast are many, 
but the English and the German predominate. In its entirety Eng- 
land has the largest share of the commerce. The English shipping 
interests have by far the preponderance. In Peru most of the railways 
are under English control and also some of the best producing copper 
and other mines and some smelters. The majority of the large com- 
mercial houses are English. The banking capital invested is consid- 
erable. In Bolivia the English have some of the most valuable tin 
mines. They control the Bolivia and Antofagasta railway and are 
in miscellaneous trade. The English interests always have been pre- 
ponderant in Chile, both because, of the shipping and through owner- 
ship in the nitrate fields. They have a strong hold on commercial 
business and are interested in mining exploitation. Most of the agri- 
cultural enterprises, such as sheep raising in the Straits of Magellan 
district, have also been begun and carried forward by English man- 
agement 

GERMAN PUSH AND ENTERPRISE. 

The Germans are the only foreigners who have obtained much of a 
foothold in Ecuador. They have got into the production of cacao 
and are in commercial business. Such interests as the Germans have 
in Peru are of recent origin except the general trade, of which they 



WEST COAST OP SOUTH AMEBICA. 75 

have heretofore had a small proportion. Their mining investments 
are slight, though some of the ores are taken for smelting. However, 
their influence and their numbers throughout Peru are growing. 
By engaging in retail business they have transferred much jobbing 
trade from English to German houses. In Bolivia, while they have 
not employed much capital in productive enterprises, the general 
merchandise trade has been largely in their hands. It has been con- 
trolled by a few large concerns, some of which were affiliated with 
the German steamship lines. The German grip on the Bolivian ma- 
chinery market is being loosened by American competition, and in 
general trade in the future they are not likely to have a monopoly. 

In Chile German capital has been employed in large sums, and 
for half a century or more there has been a strong German commer- 
cial community. The colony which was establshed at Valdivia sixty 
years ago extended its influence all through the country, and German 
business interests have been strong at Concepcion, Talca, and other 
trade centers, as well as at Valparaiso and Santiago. The German 
investment in the nitrate fields is secondary only to that of the Eng- 
lish. The most significant of recent movements is the employment 
of German banking capital in railway enterprises on the west coast. 

riALIANS, FRENCH, AND CHINESE. 

The Italians have large representation in Peru and also in Chile. 
In Lima they are heavy real estate owners, heads of mercantile 
houses, own flour mills, and are interested in numerous other enter- 
prises, including steamship lines and banks. In Chile their interests 
are more distinctly commercial and they have their own banks, but 
in both countries their presence has resulted in a trade in which they 
provide not only for their own countrymen, but for all classes of 
inhabitants. In Ecuador they have a foothold in local trade. 

The only French commercial colony on the west coast is in Chile, 
though there are French commercial houses and some investments in 
other countries. The darsena or dock at Callao is controlled by 
a French company. French capital in the future promises to be 
quite potent in Chile and to furnish a market for French manufac- 
tures. The contract for building the new harbor at Valparaiso will 
undoubtedly increase the commerce of France with Chile. The ex- 
periment of the Creusot Works of erecting iron and steel mills at 
Valdivia and Corsal also means installations of French machinery 
and perhaps some increase of the permanent market for machinery. 

The Chinese colony is centered in Peru, where it numbers about 
50,000. In was started sixty years ago by the importation of coolie 
laborers. Its special wants are supplied by Chinese merchants, who 
are strong in the commercial community and exercise a marked influ* 



76 EEPOBT ON TRADE CONDITIONS 

ence in financial affairs. Hundreds of " tiendas " or little stores are 
owned by Chinese with small capital, who get their backing from the 
large houses. 

AMERICANS SPREADING OUT. 

Americans are now firmly planted on the west coast in so far as 
relates to development enterprises. They are spreading out with 
Panama as the base. The Guayaquil and Quito Eailway in Ecuador 
is an American enterprise. The gold mines in the Zaruma district 
are owned in New York. One leading mercantile house in Guaya- 
quil is American. The Cerro de Pasco Mining Company in Peru, 
with an investment which now approximates $20,000,000, is purely 
American. The Peruvian Mining, Smelting and Befining Company, 
at Eio Blanco, with an initial investment of $3,000,000, is American. 
The Inca Mining Company, which controls the gold mines of Santo 
Domingo, is American, and the same capitalists control the trading 
company which has the rubber concession, and has put a steamboat 
on the Tambopato River after building wagon roads and trails to 
open up that region. There are also other mining enterprises which 
are operated with capital from the United States. The only railway 
owned by American capital is that of the Cerro de Pasco Company, 
but American management is predominant in the operation of the 
State railways controlled by the Peruvian Corporation. 

In Bolivia the railway system which the Speyer-City Bank syndi- 
cate is building, in conjunction with the Bolivian Government, rep- 
resents the investment of $15,000,000 capital from the United States, 
with the probability that after the completion of the present sys- 
tem more lines will be built with fresh capital. Some tin mines 
already have been bought by American companies, and there is a cer- 
tainty of much larger mining investments in tin, silver, and copper 
mines as the railway system provides transportation facilities. The 
exploitation of the Lake Titicaca oil fields, both in Peru and Bolivia, 
is in American hands. 

AMERICAN INFLUENCE GROWING. 

In Chile copper mines are controlled by American capital; some 
capital has been put into the placer gold fields in the south, and 
some of the silver mines are to be exploited by Americans. Capital- 
ists in the United States have not yet entered the nitrate fields, 
though from time to time rumors are heard of their intention to do so. 

The actual investments in mining and railway enterprises and the 
part taken in developing the west-coast country by Americans already 
has added considerably to the market for the products of the United 
States. With so many Americans now engaged in development enter- 
prises and with their natural preference for American machinery 



WEST COAST OP SOUTH AMEBIOA. 77 

and American articles of consumption these goods become known to 
the native population also. The increase in the number of Ameri- 
cans on the west coast means also the increase of distinctively Ameri- 
can wants. Every American may be considered an advance agent for 
all kinds of American goods. That the commercial interest of the 
United States is not larger and that here are so few American mer- 
cantile houses is due to the slowness with which Americans engage 
in commercial business in foreign countries. However, it is in- 
evitable that firms shall grow up whose capital and whose manage- 
ment are American, while at the same time the European and the 
native houses will be the more disposed to handle American goods. 

CONCLUSION. 

This knowledge leads to a natural conclusion. Trade conditions 
on the west coast may be summed up in a nutshell. It is not nec^- 
sary to await the opening of the Panama Canal for the United States 
to get increased business in the commercial area that is tributary to 
the seascoast line from Panama to Valparaiso. The development in 
the way of railway building, harbor works, exploitation of mines, and 
enlarging agricultural areas is already providing a larger market 
and is resulting in greater purchasing power for the inhabitants. 

The resources and industries of the west-coast countries are such 
that they will always be exporters of mineral and tropical agricul- 
tural products and importers of manufactured articles rather than of 
raw materials. Iron and steel products, such as railway material 
and mining machinery, and a wide range of minor manufactures such 
as hardware, will have an increased demand. Electrical machinery 
will have a much larger market with the utilization of the water 
power of the Andes. The textiles also will have a continuous sale, 
and breadstuffs, particularly flour, and packing-house products, such 
as lard and tinned meats, will have an indefinite market. 

The shipping facilities are already in process of betterment, the 
means of communication are being shortened, and mail and passenger 
service, both so important in facilitating international trade, are be- 
ing improved. The customs tariffs are regulated on a definite prin- 
ciple and the financial systems for the most part are such as to secure 
stable exchange. Competition is keen, but it is of a character which 
alert American business men can meet, and their commerce can be 
extended by following the suggestions which have been outlined. 
There is a permanent west-coast trade which within a few years will 
exceed $300,000,000, and by proper exertions the United States can 
have more than the $50,000,000 of it which now is held because the 
march of circumstances is drawing these coimtries closer commer- 
cially to the United States. 



APPENDIX. 



TRADE TRAVEL ROUTES. 

In traveling alon^ the west-coast countries there is little choice 
of seasons, since so much of the region lies under the Equator. Never- 
theless there is some difference in localities which makes it desirable 
to select certain periods for the visit. Guayaquil's most pleasant 
season is from June to August^ but from June to November the city 
is not unpleasant, since the rainy season usually does not begin till 
December. At the end of the continent, where there is a complete 
reversal of the seasons and the northern midwinter is midsummer, 
as in Chile, the visit may be made according to preference, though 
the summer usuallv is chosen. The winter is less severe than in me 
same latitude north of the Equator. 

The trans-Andean route between Buenos Aires and Valparaiso 18 
usually open from November till May, but the completion of the rail- 
way within the next two years will render this route available 
throughout the twelvemonth. Many travelers now take the steamer 
to Buenos Aires and cross the mountains or follow around^ through 
the Straits of Magellan coming up the coast, but the majority go 
from New York or New Orleans to Colon, and after crossing the 
Isthmus continue down the west coast by the vessels of the Pacific 
Steam Navigation Company or the Chilean line. 

The points of interest to commercial travelers and the tributary 
trade districts are stated below. Detail information regarding steam- 
ship itineraries is not given, since the schedules of the different lines 
vary, and these are always to be had from the New York offices. 

COLOMBIA. 

Buenaventura is the leading west-coast port of Colombia, and is 
reached by the smaller coasting steamers or the two lines. The dis- 
tributing center of this region is Cali, a city of 15,000 inhabitants, 
three days inland by railway and mule trail. About 30 miles of rail- 
way is in operation. Buenaventura is the export point for the gold 
of the Choco region. Its imports are mining machinery, railway 
material, and general merchandise. 

Tumaco is the port for southern Colombia and is reached also by 
the coasting steamers. Its exports are straw hats and its importe 
mining machinery and merchandise. 

ECUADOR. 

Quayaquil, the commercial center and leading port, is reached in 
three days by direct steamers from Panama. The Kosmos steamers 
in* both directions also call. 

7S 



79 

Quito is 290 miles by railway from Guayaquil and the Journey is 
made in two days, the night stop being at Riobamba. Ibarra, the 
distributing point north of Quito, is 90 miles distant and is reached 
by mule trail. ^ Cuenca is the most important distributing center of 
the south. It is 90 miles from the main line of the Guayaquil and 
Quito Railway, and is reached by mule trail and wagon road. 

Esmeraldas. Bahia Caraquez, and Manta are sm^l ports north of 
Guayaquil, wriich serve local territory. They are reached by the 
coasting steamers from Panama or by transshipping at GuayaquiL 
Zaruma in the southern district is reached overland, the small coast- 
ing steamers from Guayaquil making the landing place in a ^ort 
voyage. 

FERU. 

Tumbez, the most northerly port, is on the Tumbez River and is at 
the entrance of a rich agricultural region. Panama steamers do not 
make regular stops and reliance is had on the auxiliary steamers of 
the two mies and by coasting vessels from .Guayaquil or Paita. 

2iOrritos and Tulara are in the district of oil production. They 
are reached by coasting vessels and direct oil steamers from Callao. 

Paita is the leading port in northern Peru and has a good harbor. 
It is the quarantine station for vessels from the north. The railway 
runs to Pmra, 60 miles. Piura is the center of the cotton-growing 
industry, tihe fine wool cotton being produced in this region only. 
This district is also the field of extensive irrigation canal systems. 

Eten is the port of the rice district and has short railways running 
to Ferrenafe and Cayalti. It is also the northern stopping point for 
the auxiliary coasting steamers, which run as far south as Valparaiso. 

Pacasmayo is the outlet for sugar production and the entrepot for 
the Amazon trail. The railway runs to Yonan and is being extended 
farther into the interior. Cajamarca, Moyabamba, and other im- 
portant interior towns on the Amazon route are served through 
Facasmayo. 

Salaverry is the port for Trujillo and the surrounding sugar 
country. The railway runs to Ascope and beyond. Trujillo is an 
important trade center. 

Chimbote, Supe, and Huacho are small ports with short railway 
spurs for lateral valleys extending to the foothills of the mountains 
and are reached by the coasting steamers, which include them in the 
regular itineraries between Callao and Eten. 

Callao is the central port of Peru and is 8 miles from Lima. All 
of the importing houses whose headquarters are at Lima have local 
branches m Callao. The Central Railway runs 138 miles to Oroya, 
in the heart of the Andes. The most important stations on this rail- 
way are Matucana, Ohicla, and Casapalca. Big smelter works are 
located at Rio Blanca and Casapalca. From Ticlio, at the entrance 
to the Galera tunnel, a short railway spur runs to the Morococha 
mines. 

Oroya is the inter-Andean railway crossroads. A line runs to 
Cerro de Pasco 83 miles north and a prolongation is being made south 
to Huancayo. This southern prolongation passes through the rich 
agricultural valley of Jauja. Ayacucho, an important interior town, 
is reached by mule trail through the Huancavelica mining district. 



80 APPENDIX. 

Cerro de Pasco is the headquarters of the Cerro de Pasco and nu- 
merous independent mining companies. The permanent population is 
10^00. The smelter is located 8 miles from the town, but all commer- 
cial business, distribution of supplies, etc., is fromi Cerro. A branch 
railway line 25 miles in length runs to the coal mines at Gollaris- 
quisca. 

Tarma is an important place on the Amazon watershed and is at 
the entrance of the Amazon Kiver region. It is reached by wagon 
road and mule trail from Oroya or Cerro de Pasco in five hours. 

The railway journey from Callao or Lima to Cerro de Pasco is 
made in one day, the train leaving Lima at 6 o'clock in the morning 
and arriving at Cerro de Pasco at 9 o'clock at night. Most travelers, 
on accoimt of soroche or mountain sickness, find it preferable to stop 
over night at Matucana. Cerro de Pasco is 14,200 feet and the Galera 
tunnel 15,665 feet above sea level. 

Cerro de Azul is a small port 90 miles south of Callao, and is the 
center of a rich cotton and sugar district. The regular steamers call 
for freight and passengers. 

Pisco is an important port and is the outlet for the lea Valley, 
which is noted for its agricultural and fruit products. The railway 
runs from Pisco to lea, 40 miles. 

Mollendo is the most important port of Peru after Callao. All 
southern Peru and much of Bolivia is served through it. The South- 
em Railway extends to Puno, on Lake Titicaca, 325 miles. 

Arequipa, a town of 35,000 inhabitants, 107 miles from Mollendo, 
is the distributing center for southern Peru and is the headq[uarters 
of many leading importing firms, and also exporters of minerals, 
rubber, and wool. Trains leave Mollendo for Arequipa daily. 

Cuzco is the center of a thickly populated agricultural region and 
serves the commerce of the districts reaching to the navigable rivers 
of the Atlantic watershed. Most of the Arequipa commercial houses 
have branches in Cuzco, but there are some independent concerns. 
Trains leave Arequipa triweekly, branching from Juliaca and 
through Sicuani to Cnecacupe, 70 miles from Cuzco, to which the 
railway is being extended. The existing means of transport between 
Cher*acupe and Cuzco are mules and stage coaches. 

Puno, on Lake Titicaca, is the Peruvian customs port and is the 
distributing center for the surrounding agricultural district. 

Ho is the most southerly port of Peru and is the outlet for the 
Moquegua agricultural district. 

BOLIVIA. 

Bolivia is accessible by railway through either Mollendo or Anto- 
fagasta. Panama passengers enter at Mollendo and leave at Anto- 
fagasta, making the through trip by rail, a distance of about 1,150 
miles. 

Guaqui is the Bolivian customs port on Lake Titicaca. Trains 
leave Arequipa semiweekly for Puno, connecting with the boats for 
Guaqui. The voyage across the lake takes twelve to fifteen hours. 

La Paz, the seat of government, is on the railway 50 miles from 
Guaqui. The city is the headquarters of many large importing 
firms. Sorata, the Yungas region, and the tropical slopes are served 
from La Paz. 



APPENDIX. 81 

Oruro is the prospective Bolivian trade center. It is on the central 
plain 143 miles from La Paz and 168 miles from Guaqui by railway, 
the road branching at Viacha. It is also the terminus of the Anto- 
fagasta and Bolivia Railway from Antofagasta. From Mollendo 
to Oruro the distance is 600 miles; from Antofagasta 575 miles. 
Oruro is the heart of the tin-mining industry. 

Cochabamba is the center of a good agricultural district, 100 miles 
by stage route from Oruro, but a railway is to be built. 

Potosi is the center of the silver-mining region and has a large com- 
merce. It is reached by stage line, but a railway is to be built con- 
necting it with Oruro. 

Sucre, the titular capital, is reached from Chillapata, on the rail- 
way line, by stagecoach. It is the richest city in Bolivia and serves 
a somewhat isolated district. 

Uyuni is a junction point on the Bolivia and Antofagasta Railway. 
The Pulacayo silver mines are 9 miles distant at Huanc^aca, and are 
reached by a railwaj spur. Uvuni has several large distributing 
warehouses. The railway completing the connection between Lake 
Titicaca and Argentina will start at Uyuni and continue to Tupiza, 
in southern Bolivia. Some of the commercial wants of this southern 
district are now served from Uyum. 

Arica is under Chilean customs and administrative control. It is 
the outlet for the rich valley extending to Tacna, with which it is con- 
nected by a railway 40 miles in len^h. Formerly Arica was the 
entry port for a large section of Bolivia, the goods being conveyed 
across the Atacama desert by pack trains. The railways from 
Mollendo and from Antofagasta decreased this traffic, but Bolivia 
still maintains a customs agency, and small quantities of goods are 
imported and exported by this route. Arica's future importance is 
in the construction of the railway to La Paz. This will make it an 
active port during the construction period, and when the railway is 
completed it will be the inlet and outlet for the Corocoro copper fields 
and for general merchandise to Bolivia. Considerable expenditures 
also will nave to be made on harbor improvements. 

Pisagua is an important nitrate exporting point and the center of 
imports of supplies and general merchandise for the surrounding dis- 
tricts. The steamship may be left at Pisagua and the Nitrate Kail- 
wav be taken to Iquique, a day's journey. 

Iquique is the leading nitrate shipping port. Heavy imports of 
merchandise are made lor supplies for the nitrate workers and also 
machinery, railway material, etc., for the nitrate establishments. 
Most of the leading west coast mercantile firms have branches here. 
A number of small ports, some of which have short railway spurs to 
the nitrate fields, are between Iquique and Antofagasta and are 
served by the coasting vessels. 

Antofagasta is, after Iquique, the chief nitrate port. It is the be- 
ginning of the Antofagasta and Bolivia Railway. In addition to 
nitrate, shipments of copper and silver ore from tne mines in the in- 
terior are made througn this port. American smelting and refining 
interests are represented and tne largest ship supply house is Amen- 



82 AFVEITDUL 

can. The imports are general merchandise and supplies, mining ma- 
chinery, and railway material. 

Mejillones is a few miles north of Antofa^asta. It has a fine har- 
bor, in contradistinction to Antof agasta, and has been made a customs 
port by the Chilean Government. A spur of the Antof agasta and 
Bolivia Railway runs from Mejillones to the main line, and exten- 
sive terminal facilities have been established by the railway company. 
Mejillones, on accoimt of its good harbor, is assured of growth as a 
commercial port. Several Antofagasta houses have branches at 
Mejillones. 

Calama is the most important interior Chilean town on the Anto- 
fagasta and Bolivia railroad, and is 100 miles from Antofagasta. It 
lies in a narrow valley as distinguished from the surrounding desert, 
and has some agricultural production. Besides the nitrate establish- 
ments Calama is a center of copper mining. 

Caldera is the outlet for Copiapo and the surrounding district, 
with which it is connected by a short railway. 

Coquimbo is a port of some importance, and is a distributing center 
for general merchandise and an exporting point for ores. The 
Panama steamers stop at Coquimbo. 

Valparaiso is the largest city on the Pacific coast with the excep- 
tion of San Francisco. Its shipping business is very great. In addi- 
tion to supplying contiguous territory it is a port of transshipment 
for cargo irom Panama south and from the Straits of Magellan 
north. Most of the leading west-coast houses have their headquarters 
at Valparaiso. 

Santiago, the capital, with 350,000 inhabitants, is the largest west- 
coast city, and is five hours from Valparaiso by rail. It is a center 
of large jobbing trade which is usually carried on in connection with 
Valparaiso. Santiago is at the head of the central valley, and from 
it the railway may be taken as far south as Valdivia and Puerto 
Montt in preference to the coasting vessels from Valparaiso. 

Talca is an important agricultural and trading center south of 
Santiago on the railway. 

Concepcion, in the central valley, 350 miles from Santiago, ranks 
in commercial importance next to Valparaiso and Santiago. It is 
i-eached by the railway from Santiago and also by the short spur 
from the port of Talcahuano. 

Valdivia is the commercial metropolis of southern Chile, and is the 
seat of industrial establishments as well as of agriculture and com- 
merce. It is reached by a short railway spur from the port of Ancud, 
as well as by the railwav prolongation from Concepcion. 

Puerto Montt is at the head of the Chiloe Archipelago and has 
some commercial importance. It is the center of timber industry. 

Punta Arenas, in the Straits of Magellan, is the southernmost point 
on the continent, and is the headquarters for the sheep-raising in- 
dustry, as also placer gold mining. Pimta Arenas is a free port and 
has a large trade in supplying vessels. 



^tl ^^r^ } HOUSE OF RKI'HKKENTAXr V>:S [ ^^^J'2^7'S^ 



COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE: 

GERmANY, AUSTRIA-HUNGARY, SWITZERLAND 



By 
W. A. GRAHAM CLARK 

Sp«til Aient or the Departmenl of Cammtrcc tnd Labor 



WITH REPORTS FROM VARIOUS CONSULAR (OFFICERS 



JANUARY 4, \<m 

Refenv<l to tht* Cmntnittw on Intoti&tat^a and Fort^ni tViintnerea 
ami onliTfsl to Ik* iirint<Hl wilh illiintratii*n« 



WASHINGTON 

CaVERNMENT PRINTING OFFJCE 
1909 



CONTENTS. 



Paffc. 

Letter of submittal 5 

Introduction 7 

Grrmany U 

Exports of cotton goods 13 

Growth of manufactures 19 

Cotton mills 27 

Employees' compulsory insurance 36 

Trade organizations 45 

Textiles from cotton wasti^ 49 

Embroideries and laches 61 

Barmen district 61 

Plauen district 72 

Ribbon weaving 82 

Knit-goods manufacture 90 

Reports from consular officers 98 

Aix la Chapelle 98 

Bamberg 100 

Breslau 101 

Chemnitz 102 

Crefeld 103 

Dusseldorf : 104 

Eibenstock 104 

Freiburg 107 

Glauchau 109 

Hanover 110 

Leipzig 112 

Magdeburg 1 13 

Munich 114 

Plauen 114 

Stuttgart 119 

Zittau 120 

AUOTRIA 121 

Cotton mills and equi[)ment 1 23 

Wages and lal)or conditions l2Si 

Sales agreements 136 

Reports from consular officen- 143 

Carlsbad 143 

Prague 146 

Reichenberg 147 

Hungary 149 

Cotton factories 151 

SWTTZEBLAND 159 

Cotton goods production 161 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Textiles from cotton waste: Vage. 

Fig. 1. Ring spinning frame with drawing 55 

Fig. 2. Rolls and roller stand of ring frame 56 

Fig. 3. Intermittent second draft arrangement <jf ring frame 57 

Fig. 4. Tubular cop machine 58 

Figs. 5, 6, and 7. Details of operations of tubular cop machine 59 

Embroideries and laces: 

Fig. 8. Guide grooves for (A) round braid, (B) flat braid, (C) stripe 

braid, and ( D) Barmen lace 64 

Fig. 9. liegular style of machine used in making Barmen lace 66 

Fig. 10. Guide grooves in toj) plate of machine shown in Fig. 9 66 

Fig. 11. Vertical bobbin holder. Fig. 12. Bobbin carrier, showing outside 
tension weight. Fig. 13. Courses of bobbins in making three- 
line lace 68 

Fig. 14. A typical lace factory at Plauen 78 

Ribbon weaving: 

Fig. 15. First type of ribbon loom 84 

Fig. 16. Second type of ribbon loom 85 

Fig. 17. a, «, German right-hand twist; ft, ft, Americiin right-hand twist.. 87 

Facing page. 

Map showing location of the cotton-manufacturing industry in Germany 20 

Interior of a Saxon homo, showing an old-fasliionod hand loom 24 

C>n(* of the many Saxon weaving mills 26 

A lO-yard sdiiflli machine in use ai Plauen: the largest single machine made. 76 

Aniomatir' lace-making machines used at Plauen 78 

4 



LETTER OE SUBMITrAL. 



Department of Commerce and Labor, 

Bureau of Manufactures, 
Washington^ Octoher 22^ 190S. 
Sir : I have the honor to submit herewith a series of reports from 
Special Agent W. A. Graham Clark on the cotton-manufacturing 
industry in Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Switzerland. 

The methods and machinery used in the manufacture of cotton 
textiles, notably those specialties which find a large market in the 
United States, the wages paid, and other matters incidental to the 
cost of production, are described in appropriate chapters in such a 
maimer as to be of value and interest to American manufacturers. 
To these reports have been added a number from consular officers in 
various sections giving additional matter of value. 
Respectfully, 

John M. Carson, 

Chief of Bureau, 
To Hon. Oscar S. Straus, 

Secretary of Commerce and Labor. 



COrrON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 



INTRODUCTION. 

Although cotton manufacturing is an old industry in Germany, 
having been carried on by hand for many years previous to the intro- 
duction of machinery, it was not until 1879 that any great advances 
in production were made. For a long time Germany obtained the 
bulk of its cotton goods abroad, mainly from England, but its output 
has steadily grown in importance until now it is only exceeded by the 
United Kingdom and the United States in the extent of its 
manufactures. 

The rate of growth in the diflFerent sections has not been the same. 
Saxony is the leading State in cotton manufacturing and has nearly 
trebled its spindles in the last twenty years, but its increase has been 
even greater in special lines like knitting and embroidering. West- 
phalia, on the Rhine, has shown the most remarkable progress in the 
number of spindles, having in 1905 nearly seven times as many spin- 
dles as in 1887. The total number of spindles in the Empire in 1887 
was 5,054,795, which consumed 1,006,983 bales of cotton, and in 1905 
they had increased to 8,832,016, with a consumption of 1,761,369 bales 
of cotton, an increase of approximately 75 per cent both in spindleage 
and cotton consumption. There are 21 tow^ns having more than 
100,000 spindles each, and these 21 towns united have more than half 
the spindles in Germany. The number of looms in operation in 1905 
was estimated as 231,199. The weaving industry is more scattered, 
and there are more than 50 towns with over 1,000 looms each. The 
average spinning mill has 26,500 spindles, and the average weaving 
mill 364 looms. 

GERMAN VERSUS AMERICAN EXPORTS OF COTTON GOODS. ^ 

The importance of Germany's output of cotton goods is shown by 
the fact that next to Great Britain it is the largest exporter of such 
goods in the world. The German export trade is devoted more par- 
ticularly to special lines, such as knit, embroidered, braided, and 
similar products, rather than to the regular cotton cloths and yams. 

In the calendar year 1907 Germany exported cotton goods to the 
value of $89,015,570 and cotton yarns to the value of $7,886,566, or 
a total of $96,902,136. This total would doubtless have exceeded 
$100,000,000 for the year but for the financial depression in the best 
foreign markets during the closing months. 



8 INTKODUCTION. 

In the same period the United States exported $294,012 worth 
of cotton yarn, $14,900,421 of cotton cloths, $5,147,748 of wearing 
apparel, and $3,401,299 of other manufactures, or a total for cotton 
manufactures of $23,742,480, a little less than one- fourth the amount 
of similar exports from Germany. Statistical tables include also 
$2,579,582 worth of cotton waste among American exports of manu- 
factured goods, which can not be considered as a credit item to the 
industry, but rather as a debit. The largest share of the cotton waste 
and linter exports goes to (jrermany, where they are converted into 
valuable textile products. The exports of raw cotton from the 
United States to Germany alone in 1907 reached $131,353,656, or 
over five times the value of the export of cotton manufactures from 
the United States to the entire world. 

THE AMERICAN MARKET CONCENTRATION OF SPECIALTIES. 

The German export of manufactured cotton goods is of interest 
to the United States, not so much for its competition in foreign mar- 
kets as for its competition with American cotton goods in the home 
market of the latter. It is largely due to the market afforded in the 
United States to German cotton manufacturers that their export 
business has increased with such strides, having advanced from. $54,- 
500,000 in 1809 to $97,000,000 in 1907. At present Germany occupies 
the third place in supplying the vast amount of cotton textile manu- 
factures purchased abroad by the United States, being surpassed 
only by the United Kingdom and Switzerland. This trade has been 
steadily increasing yearly, and in the fiscal year ended June 30, 1907, 
Germany sent $18,212,531 worth of cotton manufactures to the United 
States, over two-thirds of which consisted of knit goods, laces, and 
embroideries. 

Each special branch of cotton manufacturing in Germany tends to 
concentrate in some particular section and around some particular 
town. Chemnitz is known for hosiery, Plauen for embroidered laces, 
Gera for fine dress goods, Crimmitzschau for vigogne yarn, Augsburg 
for fine spinning, Mulhausen for fine weaving, Elberfield for colored 
goods, Crefeld for velvets, and Barmen for braided work. 

NATIONAL INSURANCE LAWS — TRADES UNIONS. 

Paternal laws have been enacted in Germany of more far-reach- 
ing character than those adopted by any otlier nation, and prominent 
among such laws are those in regard to compulsory insurance of 
workmen, which apply to all workers in Germany, textile or other- 
wise. Every worker, whether male or female, who receives under 
2,000 marks ($476) a year has to insure against sickness and against 
old age or invalidism, and has to be insured by his employer against 
accident. 



INTRODUCTION. 9 

Nearly one-tenth of the German workers are now estimated to 
belong to some trades union. The rapid increase of unions among the 
workers has within the last few years led to similar organizations 
being formed among the employers for mutual protection. 

IMPORTS OF COTTON INTO AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 

The imports of raw cotton into Austria-Hungary in 1907 amounted 
to about $50,000,000, of which 67 per cent, or $33,500,000 worth, was 
supplied by the United States. Nearly the whole of the American 
cotton is imported via Bremen, Germany, and is included in the 
American exports to Germany, the direct shipments into Austria- 
Hungary last year, according to United States statistics, being but a 
trifle over $6,000,000. The total imports of raw cotton in 1907 showed 
an increase of over $7,500,000 over the previous year, owing to the 
expansion in the home consumption of cotton goods, though there 
has also been a steady growth in the export trade. 

The exports of cotton manufactures from Austria-Hungary in 1907 
amounted to about $12,500,000, of which less than $300,000 worth 
was sent to the United States. 

COTTON MANUFACTURING IN AUSTRIA. 

Cotton manufacturing is the leading industry of Austria, and is 
steadily advancing in importance. It is estimated that on January 1, 
1907, there were 3,512,122 spindles in operation, to which about 
600,000 spindles were added during the year, making the total over 
4,000,000 spindles. The majority of the spindles are mule, this class 
being estimated as about double the number of ring spindles. The 
quality of the production has also been raised, and the mills now pro- 
duce yarns and cloth that were formerly exclusively imported. 

The majority of the mills are small, and are mostly of private own- 
ership, there being but 22 mills operating over 50,000 spindles each. 
The tendency is for companies owning several small plants to grad- 
ually build up the ones best located and drop the others. The most 
important mills are located in Bohemia, which now contains about 
60 per cent of the mills of Austria. 

There is great variation in wages between the different sections 
and between the town and country mills in the same section. From 
wage lists obtained at various mills it would seem that 50 cents per 
day might be taken as the average cotton-mill wage in Austria. 

GOVERNMENT AH) TO MILLS IN HUNGARY. 

The manufacture of cotton goods is yet in its infancy in Hungary. 
On January 1, 1907, the number of spindles was estimated as 139,082, 
to which additions^were made during the year so that the total num- 
ber reached perhaps 200,000. The present consumption of cotton is 
about 50,000 bales a year. Mills make mainly coarse goods, Cabots, 



10 INTRODUCTION. 

and some colored goods. The skilled help employed comes mainly 
from Austria. 

In order to accelerate the growth of the cotton industry the Hun- 
garian Government grants a number of important concessions to new 
mills in the way of exemptions from various classes of taxes, reduced 
rates and other privileges from the state railways, and a state sub- 
sidy equal to one-fourth of the capital stock, payable in ten yearly 
installments. It is expected that these measures will result in the 
industry being largely increased in the next few years.' 

PRODUCTION OF SPECIALTIES IN 8AVITZERLAND. 

The Swiss cotton industry is an old one, and Switzerland was one 
of the first countries to take advantage of the English inventions in 
the early development of cotton manufacturing. Swiss cotton mills 
now stand in the front rank in the production of fine yarns and cloth, 
and in some lines their only competitor is Great Britain. However, 
the cotton mills have remained almost stationary for the last ten 
years, and only in special lines of manufacturing, such as the em- 
broidery business, has there been any progress. The advance in this 
direction has been of great help in enabling the hiills to find an out- 
let for their cloth and yarn. 

At the beginning of the present year there were in operation 1,499,- 
170 spinning spindles, with 0,900 operatives; 117,782 doubling spin- 
dles, with 2,342 operatives; and 22,709 looms, with 13,854 operatives. 

About 60 per cent of the raw cotton used in Sw^iss mills is Ameri- 
can, the imports from the United States in 1900, the latest figures 
available, being 30,111,268 pounds. Tlie imports of cotton goods 
are steadily increasing, owing to the embroidery industry. 

The imports of manufactured cotton goods into the United States 
from Switzerland during the past two fiscal years ended June 30 
have been as follows: 



Articb's. 1907. 



1908. 



Cotton cloths $738,213 

Knit goods 250, 002 

Laces and embroideries 13,979,808 



$560,005 

263,966 

13,209,483 



' 14,9(^,083 14,042,454 



Importations of miscellaneous Swiss cotton manufactures aggre- 
gate about $500,000 annually in addition to the foregoing. 



GERMANY 



11 



EXPORTS OF COTTON GOODS. 



REVIEW OF THE VAST AND GROWING TEXTILE TRADE EXCEEDED IN 

IMPORTANCE ONLY BY GREAT BRITAIN. 

In the calendar year 1907 Germany exported cotton yarn to the 
value of $7,886,566, and cotton goods to the value of $89,015,570, or a 
total of $96,902,136. If it had not been for the financial depression 
in her best markets during the last months of the year this total 
would have been considerably over $100,000,000. In the same year 
the United States exported $294,012 of cotton yam, $14,900,421 of 
cotton cloths, $5,117,748 of wearing apparel, $2,579,582 of cotton- 
mill waste, and $3,401,299 of other cotton goods, or a total for cotton 
manufactures of $26,323,062. Next to Great 'Britain Germany is the 
largest exporter of cotton manufactures in the world. 

Cotton manufacturing is an old industry in Germany, but it was 
not until about 1879 that there began the development of the modern 
German cotton manufacturing industry, and not until some ten jrears 
later that the export business began to attain such large proportions. 
Since then it has steadily, though with occasional setbacks, increased 
until it has reached its present strength and occupies the proud posi- 
tion of having in the last year exported nearly four times as much 
manufactures of cotton as did the United States. 

GERMAN TEXTILE SPECIALTIES. 

The German export of manufactured goods is of interest to the 
United States, not so much for its competition with American cotton 
fabrics in foreign markets as for its competition with American cot- 
ton goods in the home market of the latter, and it is largely due to 
the market afforded German cotton manufacturers in the United 
States that their export business has increased with such strides. A 
striking instance of the extent to which their factories depend on the 
American trade is now shown at Chemnitz, Plauen, Crefeld, Barmen, 
etc., where I have found factory after factory running short time and a 
good many closing down owing to the falling off in American orders. 

There are two noticeable points about the German export trade in 
cotton manufactures. One is that it does not depend on regular cot- 
ton cloths and yarn, but more on what might be called special lines, 
such as knitting, embroidering, braiding, etc. Another is that Ger- 
many does comparatively little business in cotton manufactures with 
uncivilized or semicivilized countries, but depends mainly on Europe 
and America for her markets, looking especially to the great cotton 
manufacturing centers of Great Britain and the United States. 
After these two countries Germany sells the next largest amounts to 



14 



COTTON FABRICS IK MIDDLE EUROPE. 



Austria-Hunffary, the Netherlands, Russia, and other European 
countries, and smaller amounts to India, Chile, Argentina, and Brazil. 
To all other countries of the world, including China, her shipments 
of cotton manufactures are very small. Roughly speaking, three- 
fifths of the cotton exports go to Europe, one-fin:h to North America, 
and the remaining one-fifth to the rest of the world. 

COTTON IMPORTS — UTILIZATION OF LOW-COST FIBER. 

A large proportion of the exports of German cotton manufactures 
consist of cheap goods and Germany uses a large amount of cheap 
cotton. Next to Japan it is the largest importer of Indian cotton. 
Ordinarily Germany imports some 70 per cent of her cotton from the 
United States, 20 per cent from India, 8 per cent from Egjrpt, and 
2 per cent from other countries. In 1907 the total amounted in value 
to $127,765,064, distributed by weight as follows: 



Imports from— Pounds. 


Imports from— 


Pounds. 


United States. 714,719,291 


Togoland 


498.765 


British India - - - i 238,045,885 


Haiti 

Gferman West Africa 


368,288 


Egypt - ' 80,298,993 


827,786 


Dutch India _ 1 6,588,858 


UnclasslAed ___ 


1,023,818 


Mexico 3,691,039 

Turkey in Asia 1 2,256,235 






1,050,026,874 


China _ 2,207,967 | 

1 





Part of the Indian cotton is used in the German home trade and 
part is exported in the shape of yarn to Hungary and other places, 
though a large portion is mixed with American cotton and used to 
lower the price of export goods. 

Germany can not compete with England on very fine goods, with 
Switzerland on very fine embroideries, with the United States in a 
pure sized sheeting, nor with India on cheap yams, and the Empire 
can not compete with Italy on cheap colored cottons to any very 
large extent. Germany has therefore confined export textile manu- 
facturing largely to the making of certain specialties, like hosiery, 
gloves, etched lace, edgings, braids, etc. 

The main cotton manufactures exported from Germany in order 
of value are (1) colored goods, (2) nosiery, (3) loiitted gloves, (4) 
lace, (5) yarn, (G) embroidery, (7) trimmings. The knit goods 
industry is one of the most important of the export producing lines, 
and its steady growth accounts for the increase of shipments or 
cotton manufactures to the United States. 

EXPORTS DOUBLE IN A DECADE. 

In the last ten years Germany's export of cotton goods has about 
doubled. The steady progress made is shown by the following table, 
the amounts representing millions of dollars : 



Description. 



1899. 



Ootton goods I 49.05 

Cotton yarn 5.45 

Total - i 64.50 



1900. I 1901. 



58.24 
6.92 



52.31 
6.78 



65.16 59.09 



1902. 


1903. 


1904. 


1905. 

90.49 
8.11 

98.60 


1906. 

93.68 
7.64 

101.32 


61 .09 
7.54 


n.78 
7.74 

79.52 


80.18 
7.09 

87.27 


69.23 



1907. 



89.00 
8.00 



97.00 



GERMANY — EXPORTS OF COTTON GOODS. 



15 



The imports of cotton manufactures into Germany for the same 
years, in millions of dollars, were as follows: 



Description. 


1899. 


1900. 


1901. 


1902. 


1903. 


1904. 


1905. 


1906. 


1907. 


Cotton goods 


7.74 
13.23 


8.38 1 
14.97 1 


7.47 
11.67 


8.26 
12.19 


8.64 
14.30 


9.68 
15.90 


10.71 
14.54 


13.33 
19.61 


14.50 


Cotton yarn 


29.17 


Total—- 


20.97 


23.35 1 


19.04 


20.45 


22.94 


25.56 


25.25 


32.94 


43.67 



EXTENT OF THE YARN TRADE. 

In regard to the imports it is seen that the principal item is yam. 
Those mainly imported into Germany are fine yams for use in special 
lines like embroidery and lace making. The exports in this branch 
consist mainly of thread and of coarse yarns. The numbers of the 
regular yarns imported into and exported from Germany — not con- 
sidering vigogne and special yarns — were, in pounds, as follows for 
the year 1907: 



Kind. 


Single yarns. 


Ply yarns, single twist. 


Unbleached. 


Bleached, dyed, or 
printed. 


Unbleached. 


Bleached, dyed, or 
printed. 




Imports. 


Exports. 


Imports. 


Exports. 


Imports. 


Exports. 


Imports. 


Exports. 


Under No. 11. 
Nos.lltol6. 
No8.17to21.. 
Noa.22to31- 
No9.32to46.. 
Over No. 47— 


4,148,810 
6,600,980 
7,120,683 
9,706,857 
13,374,533 
17,484,332 


2,970,992 
938,243 
569,964 
755,311 
374,680 
66,781 


918,186 
499,426 
63,034 
31,517 
43,419 
7,715 


3,670,542 
892,400 

1,379,701 
900,554 
952,501) 
245,525 


255,884 

118.726 

216,874 

1,684,297 

5.8.73,824 

19,175,461 


230.006 
119,898 
144,362 
197.919 
81.768 
322.665 


126.950 
36,366 
31,076 
27,550 
17.632 
34.824 


417.668 
324,649 
453.804 
408,842 
450,038 
992.682 


TotaL. 


58,436,195 5,675,961 1,563,297 | 8,041,294 


27,300,066 ' 1.096,710 | 274,398 3,048,573 



The largest quantities imported are seen to be gray yarns above 
No. 47, part single and part doubled. The exported yarns are seen 
to be mainly the coarse numbers. The bulk of the yarn imported (in 
1907, 71,404,700 pounds out of 88,381,282) comes from Great Britam, 
with small quantities from Switzerland, India, and France. The 
yarns exported go mainly to European countries, Holland, Great 
Britain, Austria-Hungary, etc., and there are comparatively small 
shipments to other countries. They do a small business in this line 
in Turkey and Argentina, but very little in China, India, etc. 

LAST year's imports AND EXPORTS. 

The following table shows the weight and value of cotton and 
cotton manufactures imported into and exported from Germany in 
1907: 



Doscription. 



Imported. 
Pounds. Value. 



Cotton in bales 1,050,026,374 

Bleached cotton - 370,052 



Total cotton. 



Roving and slubblng _ 

vigogne yarn _ 

Single yarns: 

Bleached, dyed, or printed.. 

Unbleached _ 

Ply yarns: 

Single twist, unblenchc*! — 

Single twist, bjoarhod, dyed, or printed— 
Oable twist, nnbleachod 

Oable twist, bleached, dyed, or printed 



1.0.50,. 390, 426 



8,155 



$,436,195 
1,563,297 

\ 300,066 

274,398 

58,406 

31.788 



^27,765,064 
64,204 



127,819,328 



1,190 



16,290,624 
800,118 

12,208,448 
83,300 

19.516 



Exported. 
Pounds. Value. 



112,333,031 
4,126.227 



116,458,258 



46.604 
1,123,820 

6.676,961 
8,0a,204 

1,096.710 



$13,804,238 
023,660 

14,427,798 



8,890 
176,882 

1,011.262 
1,787.880 



,51^ \ 






16 



COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 



Description. 



Ootton thread 

Unclassified yams.. 



Total yam, etc>_ 



Unbleached cloths, weighing per square me- 
ter— 

80 grams or over 

40 to 80 grams 

Under 40 grams 

Dressed or bleached cloths 

Cloths dyed, printed, or colored— 

Knitted and netted stuffs — 

Gloves 

Stockings or socks 

Underclothing 

> Fishing nets 

Other knitted or netted goods— 

Lace of all kinds 

Embroidery on cotton foundation 

Velvet and plush tissues 

Fire and other hose and girths 

Furniture and upholstery goods 

Open woven tissues for curtains 

Wicks, woven or plaited 

Tulle__ _ 

Edgings, ribbons, tapes, etc.— 

Ootton felts.-- 

Rope, cord, or twine 

Unclassified 



Total cloth, etc 

Total cotton manufactures- 



Imported. 



Pounds. 



708.887 



88,381,142 



10,077,790 
2,144,712 

331, on 

2,259,320 

2,616,148 

64,218 

12,342 

85,705 

40,113 

406,418 

9,918 

619,544 

387,684 

1,984,702 

97,196 

311,646 

40,994 

7,714 

1,088,525 

105,131 

16,971 

42,758 



22,640,590 



Value. 



$353,668 



29,290,898 



3,917,718 

1,036,014 

819,g72 

1,097,894 

1,276,870 

24,038 

29,274 

34,034 

19,278 

101,026 

6,902 

2.007,054 

1,036,490 

973,896 

36,414 

252,518 

60,452 

2,380 

2,130,814 

113,526 

5,712 

10,234 



14,493,010 



43,783,908 



Exported. 



Pounds. 



7,033,184 
39,672 



27,149,973 



8.871,679 

2,016,219 

292,250 

7,936,384 

58,306,226 

696,743 

4,743,008 

19,660,121 

7,984,431 

611,769 

2,834,564 

4,556,329 

3,146,430 

2,602,704 

2,511,678 

1,250,990 

716,080 

811,267 

135,987 

147,448 

246,716 

125,406 

193,732 



124,726,193 



Value. 



$2,850,962 
27,608 



7,886,566 



1,302.096 

978.182 

282,268 

3.770,872 

25,210,388 

270,606 

11.267,872 

18,929.330 

3,699.284 

267,512 

1,974.686 

9,098,026 

6,716,598 

2,279.802 

812.294 

738.276 

511.938 

L28.718 

205,632 

113,288 

75,208 

.82,844 

254,899 



9,015,670 



96,902.136 



DISTRIBUTION OF FABRIC PRODUCTIONS. 

As noted in the statistics the cotton goods go mainly to other 
European countries and the United States, with smaller quantities to 
other regions. Of the small amount of gray goods shipped the largest 
consumers are Great Britain and Switzerland. Included in this are 
muslins, shirtings, and some sheetings. The bleached goods consist 



of muslins, calicoes, and similar goods, besides smaller amounts of a 
wide range of varieties. The largest market is the United States, 
then Great Britain, Switzerland (mainly muslin for embroidery 
foundation), Argentina, etc. The goods comprised under the head 
of colored, dyed, and printed goods amount to over $25,000,000 and 
are scattered abroad more widely than any of the other products of 
the German cotton mills. The main markets found for these goods 
and the amounts sent to each in 1907, in pounds, were as follows: 



Country. 



Pounds. 



-;l- 



Country. 



United states— - I 1.011,124 |' HoUand.. 

Great Britain 1 7,401,472 il BrazIl-„. 

India I 4,739,022 l| Turkey... 

Argentina J 4,142,198 Ij Chile 



Pounds. ■ 



Country. 



3.419,065 
3,341,586 
8,113.150 
2,934, l&i 



I 



Pounds. 



Switzerland ' 2,673,232 

Roumania I 2,398,518 

Belgium 1.893,677 

Egypt _. I 1,332,638 



Included under this heading is a wide range of goods from the 
coarsest checks and stripes to Jacquard work. The bulk of these goods 
is of medium grade. Some of the prints shipped from Mulhausen 
are very fine goods and rival those of the English and French. Under 
the head of knit goods, the gloves are taken by Great Britain and the 
United States; of the hosiery half goes to the United States, and of 
the knitted underclothing over half is taken by Great Britain. Of 
ihe Jace exported over f> " ' ^ <^s to the United States and nearly a 



GEKMANY EXPORTS OF COTTON GOODS. 



17 



third to England, while of the embroidery over a third goes to Great 
Britain and nearly a third to the United States. These laces are 
mainly the Plauen etched lace, while the embroidery is mainly of a 
cheaper grade of work than that produced at St. Gall. Velvets and 
plushes exported go to Russia, United States, India, etc. Furniture 
and upholstery goods find their best market in Great Britain. Edg- 
ings, ribbons, tapes, etc., go to Great Britain and the United States. 
The foregoing brief classification of the main countries buying 
Germany's cotton goods shows what an important position is held by 
the American trade. The United States takes one-half of the hosiery 
exported from Germany, one-third of the gloves and a third of the 
lace, besides large quantities of other cotton manufactures, especially 
those produced on the braiding machine and the ribbon loom. 

LARGE SHARE IN IMPORTATIONS OF UNITED STATES. 

Germany occupies the third place in supplying the vast amount of 
cotton textile manufactures bought from abroad oy the United States 
every year. This is shown by the following table giving details of 
American purchases of the leading articles from the four countries 
which together supplied three-fourths of the $79,524,943 worth of 
cotton manufactures imported into the United States in the calendar 
year 1907 : 



Oountry. 



United Kingdom. 

Switzerland 

Germany — 

France 

Other countries. - 

Total 



Cloth. 



111,642,816 

692,323 

688,708 

1,183.801 

370,815 



14,427,058 



Knit 
goods. 



$117,313 

267,513 

8,384,830 

400.643 

38.878 



9,209,177 



Laces and 
embroid- 
eries. 



$7,256,131 
15,674,414 

5,341.332 
12,260,861 

1,010,625 



41.448,368 



It is seen from this that in the main Great Britain ships to Amer- 
ica cloth and laces, Switzerland only embroideries, and France mainly 
laces, while Germany ships largely knit goods and embroidered laces. 

The textile exports from Germany to the United States have been 
steadily increasing for some years, the increase being mainly repre- 
sented in the knit goods line, which more than makes up for decreases 
in some other lines. The following figures show how the knitted 
goods and stitched goods have been increasingly imported into the 
United States from Germany in the last few fiscal years ending 
June 30: 



Description. 



Cloths: 

Plain 

Bleached, dyed, or printed 

Clothing, not including knit goods, 

but including gloves 

Knit goods 

Laces, embroideries, etc 

Plushes, etc 

Yam and warp. — — 

Another _ 



Total. 



1908. 



$1,878 
608,467 

1,487,016 
5,472,059 
4,640,612 



864,121 
1,677,184 



14,180,286 



1904. 



14.991 
632,613 

1,722,961 
6,449,908 
4,546,646 



419,016 
1,481,667 



14.166,606 



1906. 



$16,090 
638,287 



604,843 
381, a26 



376,499 
,060.380 



14,882,763 



1906. 



$10,954 
632,196 

1,795,224 
6,388,371 
6,044,161 



666,783 
1,137,936 



16,460,616 



1907. 



$13,961 
663,689 

2,521,467 
7,830,966 
6,426,817 
248,653 
434,600 
1.179,106 



18,212,581 



H. Doc 1270, 60-2 2 



18 COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 

METHODS CONDUCIVE TO SUCCESS. 

Germany's vast sales of cotton manufactures to the United States 
are largely due to the fact that German manufacturers ship special 
lines and cater to the demand in these lines. Thus in etched laces 
there are at Plauen large numbers of designers continually getting 
out new samples and the manufacturers are willing to make up any 
size orders desired and pack as desired. In hosiery there are new 
varieties coming out all the time ; likewise in gloves, hat braids, pas- 
sementerie, etc. The German designers frequently get- ideas from 
the United States, but their willingness and ability to make small lots 
of a large number of special designs is one factor that has had a great 
deal to do with their American sales. 

Germany sends out large numbers of commercial travelers and 
these men are usually good linguists and well versed in their business. 
They meet the buyer personally, offer long credits in such countries 
as Turkey and Egypt, cater to the buyer's taste as to marking, pack- 
ing, etc., and are very persistent in their efforts to make sales. Other 
factors that have largely helped German sales in some sections, 
especially in South America, have been the presence of large colonies 
or German emigrants. The increasing merchant fleet of Germany 
offers a ready means of shipment under their own flag to any part of 
the world, and the Germans are more and more following the prece- 
dent so long followed by England of the banker working hand in 
hand with the merchant m developing foreign fields and establishing 
branch banks wherever good trade prospects are to be found. The 
latest instance of this is the chain of banks now being established by 
German capital in the leading towns of the Levant, 



GROWTH OF MANUFACTURES. 



NUMBER AND EXTENT OF THE FACTORIES — PROFITS REALIZED ^FAY AND 

PRIVILEGES OF EMPLOYEES. 

In the manufacture of cotton goods Germany holds third place, 
1>eing only exceeded by the United Kingdom and the United States. 
In the exports of cotton goods Germany is only exceeded by the United 
Kingdom. Raw cotton is the largest single import of Germany, and 
manufactured cotton the largest export. In 1907, the imports of raw 
cotton amounted to 933,938,168 pounds, valued at $113,391,530, and 
the exports of cotton manufactures amounted to 151,916,167 pounds, 
valued at $97,002,136. The average value of the cotton imported waj? 
12.14 cents per pound, and the average value of the manufactured 
product was 63.84 cents per pound. 

Cotton manufacturing is an old industry in Germany, and before 
the introduction of machinery there were well-known centers of weav- 
ing, knitting, braiding, lace making, etc., in Saxony and on the Rhine. 
The German people were slow to avail themselves of the introduction 
of modern machinery, so that many local hand industries were stifled 
by the flood of machine-made goods from other countries, and for a 
long time Germany obtained the bulk of its cotton goods abroad, 
mamly from England. The unification of the <jerman Empire in 
1870 awakened the national spirit, and, encouraged by a firm central 
Government, there began an agitation for the manufacture of cotton 
goods at home. The 1,500,000 spindles taken over with Alsace- 
Lorraine put the German industry ahead of the French, and this lead 
was further widened by the increased momentum in the cotton-manu- 
facturinff industry about 1879. Since then there has been no very 
remarkable spurts, but a gradual and steady growth. 

INCREASED PRODUCTION BY STATES. 

The rate of growth in the different sections has not been the same. 
Saxony is the leading German State in cotton manufacturing, and has 
nearly trebled its spmdles in the last twenty vears, but its increase has 
been even greater in special lines like those of knitting and embroider- 
ing. The State that has shown the most remarkable progress is West- 
phalia on the Rhine, which had nearly seven times as many spindles in 
1907 as it had in 1887. That part or Hanover near the cotton center 
in northern Westphalia shows a large comparative increase, and so 
does Wurttemberg, both of these having more than doubled their 
number of spindles. Bavaria and the Rhine Province also show sub- 
stantial increases ; Alsace a very slight increase. The Alsatian mills, 

19 



'20 



COTTON FABRICS IX MIDDLE EUROPE. 



however, have advanced further than the others in the direction of 
fine goods, which can be seen from the fact that while they have in- 
creased in spindleage 10 per cent there has been a 4 per cent decrease 
in their consumption of cotton. 

The following statistics, furnished by the Bremen Cotton Bourse, 
shows the number of spindles and the amount of cotton consumed in 
the several kingdoms and provinces of Germany in 1887 and in 1905 : 





1887. 


1905. 


Increase. 


KinGrdoms and provinces. 




Cotton 
consumed. 




Cotton 
consumed. 




Cotton 




jSpindles. 


Spindles. 


Spindles. 


consump- 
tion. 




Number. 


Bales. 


Number. 


Bales. 


Percent. 


Percent. 


Saxony 


541,122 


90,506 


1,321,288 


225,000 


144.2 


148.6 


Saxony, vigogne spinning -. 


460,447 


102,200 


628,025 


163,085 


88.4 


69.6 


Bavaria — 


924,312 


161,516 


1,578,084 


300.000 


71.0 


85.7 


Alsac?e-Lorraine — 


1,876,000 


250,000 


1,511,586 


240,000 


9.9 


«4.0 


Westphalia 


285.828 


59,500 


1,172,222 


265,300 


810.1 


329.0 


Rhine Province — 


435,802 


165,580 


1,051,362 


287,090 


58.5 


73.4 


Wurttemberg 


354,548 


54,390 


706.585 


115,000 


99.3 


111.4 


Baden _ 


398,172 


58,562 


468,784 


80,134 


17.7 


86.8 


Hanover _ 


105,000 


18,3.50 


211,740 


48,425 


101.6 


164.0 


Silesia _ 


75,064 


21,500 


109,320 


28,316 


45.6 


81.7 


All others 


99,500 


24,880 


73,020 


19,020 


«26.7 


•30.0 






Total—. 


6,054,795 


1,006,983 


8,832,016 


1,701,369 


74.7 


74.9 




c 


Decrease. 











The German Empire is composed of the 3 free cities of Hamburg, 
Bremen, and Lubecic ; of the 4 kingdoms of Saxonjr, Bavaria, Wurt- 
temberg, and Prussia (the latter having 13 provinces) ; 7 prince- 
doms, 6 grand duchies, 5 duchies, and the Imperial Province of 
Alsace-Lorraine. Cotton manufacturing is almost exclusively con- 
tained in the four kingdoms and the Imperial Province. East of 
Saxony, with the exception of a few towns in Silesia, there is no cot- 
ton manufacturing, and in the Kingdom of Prussia itself there is 
practically none except in the two western provinces. 

THE CENTERS OF MANUFACTURE. 

German cotton manufacturing is more scattered than the English, 
Swiss, Italian, or East Indian, but there are three well-defined cen- 
ters — the Saxon, the Alsatian, and the Westphalian (see explanatory 
map, in which the main and lesser cotton-manufacturing towns are 
indicated by ringed and solid dots, respectively). 

The first section lies north of the mountains of northern Bohemia, 
and consists of the Kingdom of Saxony and the Upper Franconia 
Province of Bavaria. In regard to general cotton manufacturing, 
including not only spinning and weaving, but knitting, embroider- 
ing, lace making, cotton-waste manufacture, artificial flowers, etc., it 
is the most important section of Germany. It contains some 3,000,000 
spindles, and its most important towns are Hof, Baireuth, and Bam- 
berg, in Upper Franconia, and Chemnitz, Mittweida, Plauen, Plane, 
Werdau, Crimmitschau, Zittau, and Zwickau, in Saxony. The sec- 
ond section lies in the extreme southwest corner of Germany, between 
the cotton-manufacturing districts of East France, Switzerland, and 
the Austrian Vorarlberg, and contains some 4,000,000 spindles, un- 
equally distributed between Alsace, Baden, Wurttemberg, and Bava- 
rian Swabia. The main cotton-manufacturing towns are Mulhausen, 
Gebweiler, and Logelbach, in Alsace; Augsburg and Kempten, in 
Bavaria; Unterhausen in Wurttemberg; and Lorrach in Baden. 



., V 



"''' ^^^^^•■' 



GERMANY GROWTH OF MANUFACTURES. 



21 



The third section lies in the northwest corners of the Prussian 
Rhine and Westphalian provinces, and has 2,500,000 spindles. The 
main centers are Gronau, Rheine, Bocholt, and Epe, in Westphalia, 
and Rheydt, Munchen-Gladbach and Mulfort, in the Rhine Province. 

There are in Germany 21 towns having more than 100,000 spindles 
each, and these 21 towns united have more than half the spindles in 
Germany. These towns, with the number of spindles and looms in 
each, are as follows: 



TOWDS. 



'Splndlea. Loams 



M ulh aussK, _- .__^ -^ ^_ 

AugsIiurE^ ^-^^ ^ ^, 

Oronau.^ , 

RJielrie, , — .^, ,,„, 

Rheydt- ..^^.. ^ ... 

Hof -^. . .-.,,. 

WerdaP-^ , . - 

Munahcn-Gliidbach ... ^.- . 

Gebweni)r_._^^___,_^^ ^_, 

Leipzig' ,.^. .__--. 

BficboU, ,-, ..,.,_. ^ 



530,300 
600,676 

400,728 

J!04,000 
210j:i2 
197.220 



TOWIIB^ 



8^797 Chemnitz 

D.«30 1 JWittwddtt,„- 
1,055 ' LoKtflbfluli-— - 
5,175 I, Cflmrnitsehaii. 

4,421 1| Balr«uth 

8,169 I Bamberg...... 

^-. ._._,! FsUceuau 

St4JJ?t ' Kempten 

'i»ffi7 i' FlflUP. ,,.^ 

7.SiS i 



SlilndlM. Looma. 



Ifl5,»0 
ISS,OQ[» 

iia>«» 

142,.VJO 
14U€a2 
125,000 
107,000 
10S,S08 

lo&.om 

100,440 



1,807 
l,7«l 
9. 253 






The weaving industry is more scattered, and there are more than 50 
towns with more than 1,000 looms each. 



LEADING MILL TOWNS. 



Mulhausen in Alsace is the most important town in Germany as 
regards spindles and looms. Nowhere m Germany is the cotton in- 
dustry better organized than at Mulhausen, and this place has be- 
come noted for its fine muslins and print goods. One of the main 
products of this place is a fine cotton print known locally as a 75/26 
print, but which we would call a 24/26 print — that is, with 24 warp 
and 26 filling ends per i inch. These are made 31 to 32 inches wide, 
and some of them are exported to the United States. Having a large 
local trade, Mulhausen is not a great export center, though it ships 
some fine bleached goods and fine prints to the neighboring sections 
of France and supplies muslin for St. Gall embroiderers. Mills are 
scattered throughout the country around Mulhausen. These mills 
do not build the ugly tenements as seen everywhere in Saxony, but 
house their help in cottages containing each one or two families. 
The operatives enjoy more privacy and have more real home life than 
is seen in most textile sections of Germany. Frequently only one or 
two of the family work in the mill, while the others tend a farm. 
Besides Mulhausen, the other two large textile centers of Alsace are 
Gebweiler and Logelbach, though there are a score or more of smaller 
towns of more or less importance clustered in this vicinitv. 

Next to Mulhausen the largest cotton mill town is Au^burg, in 
the province of Swabia, in Bavaria. This is one of the important 
towns of South Germany. It has about 95,000 people, and lies at 
the junction of the Wertach and Lech rivers, 38 miles northwest of 
Munich. Contrary to the custom of Mulhausen, where practically 
no water power is used, the Augsburg mills are run mainly by water 
^''^er. Canals traverse the town and the mills are situated on 
I canals on the outskirts of the town. A manufacturer estimates 
; Mulhausen spins average No. 36s, and Augsburg average No. 26s. 
:Gronau, in Westphalia, has only six mills and is a little village of 
*fl|f SySOO inhabitants, but is the third largest cotton-iailV \Ay«w \sl 




22 



COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 



Germany. This is mainly due to the fact that the largest cotton- 
spinning mill is located at this point. 

One of the densest cotton-mill centers is that made by the three 
close neighbors, Rheydt, Munchen-Gladbach, and Mulfort, in the 
Rhine Province. These three towns, of 40,000, 60,000, and 8,000 in- 
habitants, respectively, have together 719,037 spinning spindles, 
75,000 twister spindles, and 12,914 looms. 

SPECIALIZING CENTERS — GENERAL STATISTICS. 

Chemnitz stands twelfth in number of spindles, but is one of the 
most important cotton manufacturing towns in Germany. Its im- 
portance is due to the fact that it is the center of the German knit 
goods manufacture. Plauen is a town with no spinning and few 
looms, but is also an important cotton-manufacturing center, owing 
io its etched lace and embroidery work. Very little machine-made 
lace is made in Germany, but the largest factory of this kind is at 
Dresden. Except for this, and for the manufacture of artificial 
(lowers, Dresden is not important as a cotton manufacturing center. 
Werdau and Crimmitzschau, in western Saxony, are important as 
being the center of the large vigogne yarn spinning business. Bar- 
men, in the Rhine Province, is noted for its braided work and for its 
manufactures on the ribbon loom. Crefeld is noted for its velvet 
manufacture and velvet dyeing; Elberfeld for its dyeing; Munchen- 
Gladbach for its colored goods, etc. 

Comparatively few of the German mills have both spindles and 
looms, and in the big centers the mills specialize on either spinning 
or weaving, as is the custom in England. The more remote mills in 
the country sections of Alsace and the Rhine usually weave their 
own yarns. 

CONDITION OF THE INDUSTRY. 

The following table shows the status of the German cotton manu- 
facturing industry at the end of 1905, giving the details of the indus- 
try in each State: 



states. 



Saxony* 

Bavaria— 

Alsace.— — 

Westphalia 

Rhine Province 
Wurttemberg— 

Baden 

Hanover 

Silesia 

All others 

Total 





Spinning 




Spinning 


and 


Weaving 


mills. 


weaving 
mills. 


mills. 


96 


7 


54 


16 


13 


53 


16 


32 


43 


17 


18 


36 


42 


24 


121 


11 
10 


17 
13 


48 
28 


1 


7 


18 


9 


5 


45 


/ 


6 


47 


225 


142 


403 



Spindles. 



1,968,580 

1,577,632 

1,536,562 

1,456,636 

1,275,355 

761,440 

526,804 

225,000 

133,930 

268,270 



Twister 
spindles. 



89,824 
38,086 
16,550 
47,892 
110,454 

6,380 
16,580 
17,400 

1,250 
25,000 





Bales of 


Looms. 


cotton 




con- 




sumed. 


39,236 


388,065 


81,092 


300,000 


39,919 


240,000 


25,729 


255,800 


24,408 


287,090 


] 9.352 


115,000 


16,744 


80,134 


5,024 


48,425 


16,540 


28,315 


13,15^3 


19,020 



9,730,209 370,016 231,109 j 1,761,369 



" Includes 60 mills on vigogne spinning with 608,950 spindles. 

This table shows that Saxony has practically no mills that combine 
both spinning and weaving, while Alsace has the largest number of 
these. By dividing 9,730,209 spindles by 367 spinning mills and 
231,199 looms by 635 spinning and weaving and weaving mills it is 
apparent that the average spinning mill in Germany has 26,500 spin- 
dles and the average weaving mill 364 looms. Bavaria, with an aver- 
age of 54,400 spindles to the mill, is seen to have mostly large mills, 



GERMANY GROWTH OF MANUFACTURES. 



23 



while the Rhine Province, with only an average of 19,300 spindles, is 
seen to have a great number of small mills. The Bavarian weaving 
mills average twice the size of weaving mills on the Rhine. 

The foregoing table does not correspond exactly as to the number 
of spindles with that previously given by the Bremen Cotton Bourse, 
but was made up at the end of the year 1905 by W. Rieger, of Stutt- 
gart, and this is 'he latest complete table that can be found in Ger- 
many in regard to cotton-mill statistics. There has not been a table 
made up by anyone since 1905, though the president of the German 
section of the International Federation of Master Cotton Spinners 
and Manufactijrers' Association estimates that on March 1, 1908, 
there were in Germany 9,592,855 spindles in operation, and 455,946 
being installed, or a total of 10,048,801. He furnished me with a 
table showing that the 9,191,940 spindles estimated by him as being 
in operation on August 31, 1907, had consumed during the previous • 
twelve months the following number of bales of cotton from the 
several countries, counting 2 round bales of American as equal to 
1 square bale: American, 1,135,538; Indian, 380,367; Egyptian, 
98,615 ; all other, 46,660 ; total, 1,661,180. 

REPRESENTATIVE MILLS AND THEIR EMPLOYEES. 

Both spindles and cotton consumption as estimated by this asso- 
ciation are lower than the detailed figures showing the number of 
mills and the spindles of each that were compiled by Mr. Rieger in 
1905, and since for the calendar year 1907 there were used in Ger- 
many — as shown by the imports less the reexports — 933,938,168 
pounds of cotton, net weight, as compared with 812,050,576 pounds 
in 1905, or 15 per cent more, it is probable that the estimated figures 
of the association are too small. 

The German department of the interior informed me that they 
had no recent figures, and that those of W. Rieger, of Stuttgart, for 
1905 were the most recent that they knew of. 

There are twelve cotton mills in Germany with over 100,000 spin- 
dles each, and two of these have each over 200,000 spindles ; five mills 
have more than 2,000 looms each, and 35 have more than 1,000 looms 
each. The following are the largest German cotton mills: 



OompaDy. 



Town. 



Qerritt van Delden & Co 

Leipsiger BaumwoU-Spinnerel 

Baumwollspinnerei am Stadbach 

Vogtlandlsche BaumwoUsplonerei 

Kullmao & Ole _ 

Ohemnltzer Aktlen-Splnnerel 

Mittwdda BaurawoIIspinnerei— _. 

Mechanisebe BaumwoII-SpInDere! u n d 
Weberel. 

Do - 

Georg Lieberman... 

E. J. Olalss Nachfolger _ 

O. Kttmpers SShne 

Hartman & flls -I - „ 

Ulrich Gmlnder __.. 

Herzof EtabllBsements 



Ofonjiu 

Leipzig.. „_, 

Au^rsburg 

Unf „ 

MittweJiJfl 

Augsburg-.^. 



BnmbcTg' 

Rhelne__^^ 

Miinnter-.^ 

RiMitlltjraii^ 

I.'ik'i'lbiK-h— - 



PfOVilKfl, 



Wi>9tpbalia.- 
Saxonr 

,do„_. 



Atsoce-.— ^__. _ 

Saxony ^^ 

.„._do ^ 

Bavaria„^„^,_ 

..-„do „.. 

8jfcxony_. 

--.-df>.- „- 

Westphaira 

Al^acv. .-.. 

Wufttcinborg^, 



Spindles. LoozEU, 



I 



sso.ono L, — 

aw. 000 I .._._^ 

148*316 ' „_ 

144,780 1 . 

14^,000 I 1,700 

ua,ooo !,, 

110,000 L _..,,„. 



135,000 I 
107,600 
105,000 
10&,0O0 
51.900 

85.000 



S.OOO 



1.400 


2.«D 


t,mi 


2.0i>0 



The most important cotton mill in Germany, also the best paying, 
as shown by its published dividends, is the Augsburg Mechanische 
Baumwoll Spinnerei und Weberei at Augsburg, in Bavaria. This 
mill has 126,940 spindles running on average No. I7s Engl\^\\.^ ^\A 



24 COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 

2,920 looms, of which 520 are on bleached goods, especially printers, 
and 2,400 on heavy gray goods. It employs some 3,000 operatives, 
and its annual pay roll amounts to about $450,000. Water power is 
used, with supplementary steam power. It uses nearly 30,000 bales 
of cotton and produces some 12,000,000 pounds of yarn and 30,000,000 
yards of cloth yearly. The mill was founded in 1837, and its capital 
stock is now 3,600,000 marks ($856,800), while its 4 per cent bonded 
indebtedness is 500,000 marks ($119,000). The m 11 has a large re- 
serve fund, and a special sinking fund, and has 200,000 marks 
($57,600) reserved for the pension and relief of employees. The divi- 
dends distributed by this mill to its stockholders for the seven years 
ended with 1903 were, in consecutive order, 20.4, 14.6, 16, 23.5, 17.5, 
23.5, and 28 per cent, or 143.5 per cent in the seven years. 

THE LABOR QUESTION. 

Heating and ventilation in this mill is carried on by means of 
flues built in the wall, the air goin^ up the flues on one side and being 
drawn down to the basement again through the flues on the other 
side. Separate dressing rooms with clothes lockers are provided for 
the men and women on each floor. There is also provided a large 
hall with tables and chairs where the operatives can eat their 
lunches. Coffee and milk is sold in the morning, hot soup at noon, 
and beer at 4 o'clock. A demi-liter (about a pint) of coffee with 
milk is sold at 7 pfennigs (1.67 cents) ; a portion of soup with vege- 
tables and, occasionally, with meat, is sold for 30 pfennigs (7.14 
cents), and beer sells for 20 pfennigs (4.8 cents) a liter (1.05 
quarts) . This is almost cost price, and any profit over expenses goes 
to the workers' pension fund. Operatives are lodged partly in tene- 
ment houses and partly in cottages. A lodging of three rooms and a 
kitchen rents for 100 to 140 marks ($23.80 to $33.32) a year. Until 
1906 this mill ran an 11-hour daj, but it then changed to 10 hours. 

This 9.1 per cent decrease in time was allowed by a 7.85 per cent 
decrease in production. In regard to wages at this mill, the picker 
room hands and the carders get 50 to 70 cents a day ; on two 900 self- 
actor mules the spinner averages about 90 cents a day, the piecer 71 
cents, and each of the two creelers 35 cents a day. Weavers, on an 
average, run three looms apiece, and make about 80 cents a day; 170 
of the looms have the Northrop attachment. At this mill a man is 
supposed to serve a two-years' apprenticeship before he can do as 
simple work as that of running three looms on plain goods. He has 
to sign a two-years' contract to this effect. He first works as extra 
assistant to a weaver for six months, then he is given one loom, which 
is run under the supervision of the regular weaver, who receives 
a certain percentage on the wages made. Then he is given two 
looms under the same conditions, and it is not until the new weaver 
has been working for two years that he is considered a full-fledged 
weaver and allowed to enjoy the fruits of his labor without division. 
During the first six months the mill usually pays the apprentice 24 
cents a day. 

DOUBTFtTL, RESULT OF THE APPRENTICESHIP SYSTEM. 

After all this elaborate apprenticeship system it is doubtful if 
the weaver is as good as the young American weaver who comes 
in from the farm and in a few months at most is getting off 
the required production along with the others. All fines and pen- 



GERMANY GROWTH OF MANUFACTURES. 25 

alties are paid to a sick fund. Besides the regular Government 
insurance, this mill has special insurance funds of its own for the 
relief of the sick, for old age and invalid pensions, for the relief of 
widows, etc. 

The pension fund of this mill provides a pension after 20 years 
of service equal to 30 per cent of the annual wages; this is augmented 
2 per cent every year up to 40 years service when it is 70 per cent. 
It is then augmented 3 per cent per year up to 50 years when the 
worker is entitled to a pension equal to his regular wages. Except 
in special cases a worker is not accorded a pension until he has 
reached the age of 50 years. 

By means of the two years' apprentice contract for weavers, and 
by means of the old age and other pensions for long service, this mill 
offers all inducements possible to insure the worker remaining at 
home. The German operatives do not roam about from mill to mill 
as is so much the custom in the United States, and therefore the 
mills are enabled to keep their processes more secret, and little 
improvements made at one mill are not so soon caught up and 
made general among other mills. According to law, the mill is 
supposed to pay one-third of the yearly premiums on the workers 
insurance, the workers paying the other two-thirds, but this 
mill voluntarily pays two-thirds, as do a good many other mills, 
only leaving one-third to be paid in to the Government by the 
operatives. 

LARGEST SPINNING MILLS. 

Wliile the foregoing is the most important cotton mill in Germany 
it does not have the largest number oi spindles, the first place in this 
respect beinff held by the mill of Gerritt van Delden & Co., with 
220,000 spindles, located near the Holland border, in Westphalia, at 
the little village of Gronau. 

The mill with the next largest number of spindles is the Leip- 
ziger Raumwoll-Spinnerei, at Leipzig- Lindenau, in northern Saxony. 
This mill makes a specialty of combed and carded Egyptian yarns 
of all numbers, from 10s to 120s. The annual consumption is some 
28.000 bales of cotton. The capital is 3,000,000 marks ($714,000). 
Besides regular and special reserve funds there is a fund for the pen- 
sion and relief of workmen amounting to 110,000 marks ($26,180). 
The dividends paid by this mill in the six years ended with 1906, 
were consecutively 12.5, 12.5, 12,5, 14, 16, and 16 per cent, or a total 
of 97.5 per cent. Each operative commencing work at this mill is 
given a copy of the mill rules and regulations and has to agree to 
abide by these by signing his name in a special register. About a 
third oi the employees belong to unions. This mill em})loys quite a 
number of Poles and Bohemians. At the mill dining hall there is 
sold every morning before work commences coffee, milk, and cocoa, 
to induce the workmen to refrain from taking a morning dram of 
spiiits. Bathing at least once every two weeks is obligatory at this 
mill. On the envelope containing his fortnight's wages each work- 
man finds a card indicating the day and hour that he is to report at 
the bath house. Sick insurance calls for 3J per cent of the wages, but 
the workman pays 2;\ per cent of this, and the factory IJ per cent. 
Where this sum does not cover the expenditures, as often happens, the 
factory voluntarily makes up the deficit without calling on the 
workers. 



26 



COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 



A PROSPEROUS YEAR PRIVATE AND STOCK COMPANIES. 

In regard to the dividends paid by the two foregoing mills it 
should be stated that these are not to be taken as averages for German 
mills. A list that was published of the results of 40 leading German 
cotton mills shows that in 1906-, 5 out of the 40 declared over 20 per 
cent dividends, 17 others paid over 10 per cent, 15 paid between 4 
and 10 per cent, and two lost money. This was an exceptionally 
prosperous year. 

The bulk of the German cotton mills are private companies. The 
most recent figures show that of the spinning mills some 75 per cent 
are private companies, also 66 per cent of the combined spinning and 
weaving mills and 98 per cent of the weaving mills. Bavaria, which 
has the largest mills, also has the largest percentage of incorporated 
stock companies — in fact, the majority of the Bavarian spinning mills 
are stock companies. In Westphalia, on the Rhine, and in Saxony 
nearly all mills are private companies. The weaving mills in Bavaria 
as well as elsewhere are practically all private companies. 

Of the 231,199 looms m Germany in 1905 it was estimated that 
about 40 per cent were on colored goods, 30 on hea\y gray goods, 
20 per cent on calico and similar goods, and 10 per cent on fine goods. 
Goods are made from the finest yarns most largely in Alsace, then in 
Saxony, and then Bavaria. 



RESISTS OF THE SHORTER WORKDAY. 

As it is frequently claimed that the shorter the working day the 
more intense is the work, it is interesting to see w^hat result was ob- 
tained in Bavarian cotton mills by the reduction on January 1, 1906, 
of the working hours from eleven to ten. The following statistics 
have been published showing the decreased consumption of cotton and 
the decreased production at seven of the leading mills of Augsburg: 



Mills 



Mcchanische Baumwoll-Spinncrei un<l -Wt'beroi: 

Cotton consumed bales. . 

127,000 spindles on No. 17, yarn produce<l kilos.. 

BaumwoU-Spinnerel am Stadtbach: 

Cotton consumed bales. , 

147,000 spindles on No. 2:^, varn produced kilos.. 

Haunstettcr Spinnerei und Wcberei: 

Cotton consumed bales. . 

39.000 spindles on No. 31 i, yarn produced kilos. . 

Mcchanische Baumwoll-Spinrierei und Weberei: 

Pieces produced number. , 

3,000 looms, cloth produce<l meters. 

Haunstetter Spinnerei und Weberei: 

Pieces produced number. 

960 looms, cloth produced meters. 

Mechanische Weberei am Fichtelbach: 

Yam worked kilos. 

1,210 looms, cloth produced meters. 

Baumwoll-Weberei Zoschlingsweiler: 

Yarn worked kilos. 

970 looms, pieces produce<l number. 



1905. 



28,447 
5,381,000 

2fi,213 
5,105,000 

4,773 
927,000 

445.670 
28,670,000 

185,310 
11,537,000 

1,120,000 
12,302,400 

1,087,017 
183,000 



1906. 


Per- 
centage 
decrease. 


26,792 
4,957,400 


6.82 
7.85 


24,011 
4,866,600 


8.40 
5.78 


4.590 
871,200 


3.84 
6.01 


423,960 
27,100,000 


4.87 
5.4« 


175,440 
10,955,000 


5.34 
5.07 


1.012,100 
11,718,200 


6.95 
5.22 


1,007,400 
175, 870 


7.37 
.3.88 



This shows that in these mills a decrease of the working hours from 
11 to 10 or 9.09 per cent resulted in a decrease in the consumption 
of cotton of 6.02 per cent, a decrease in the production of yarn of 
6.54 per cent, and a decrease in the production of cloth of 4.92 per 
cent. 



COnON HILLS. 



COST OF BUILDING A COTTON MILL VARIOUS ^lATTERS INCIDENTAL TO 

FACTORY MANAGEMENT. 

If the total number of spindles in Germany be divided by the total 
number of mills containing spindles, the average number of spindles 
per mill is 2G,500. Data are furnished herewith in regard to the cost 
of building and operating a mill of 30,000 spindles. A concern at 
Mulhausen in Alsace has a capital of 18,000,000 francs ($3,474,000), 
and is the only firm in Germany that makes a complete line of cotton- 
mill machinery and that contracts to build and equip cotton mills 
ready for operation. This company is therefore the best authority 
on the cost of such mills: Its president furnishes the following data : 

For a cotton mill of 30,000 spindles to spin warp yams of say 27/29 
French counts (equal to 32/34 English counts), and filling yarns of 
say 36/38 French counts (equal to 42/45 English counts), the cost 
of construction, without the ground itself, will range between 50 and 
CO marks ($11.90 to $14.28) per spindle, complete. The cost will 
vary between these two extremes according to the outlay considered 
necessary for the house of the manager, the storehouses, and the 
accessories. Taking the average of 55 marks ($13.09) per spindle 
this amount will ordinarily be made up as follows: 



Description. i Cost. 

t _ 

"! " 

Splnninsr machinery proper _ 

Spinning accessories, cans, belting, etc 

Steam engine, lighting an<l heating equipment _ 

Building and sheds..: _ - - 

Misoenaneous expenses _ - 



Total. 



Marks. 


DoUars. 


25 


5.05 


5 


1.19 





2.142 


12 


2.856 


4 


.952 


65 


13.09 



For a weaving mill of 500 looms the expense will be about 1,000 
marks (mark=23.8 cents) per loom, viz: 



Description. i Cost. 



Looms 

Preparatory and sizing machinery, etc.. 

Steam plant, lighting and heating 

Building - 

Miscellaneous expenses. 

Total 



Marks. 


Dollars. 


400 


95.20 


50 


11.90 


2,tO 


69.50 


200 


47.60 


100 


23.80 


1,000 


238.00 



In the foi^egoing figures the cost of the land is omitted as being too 
variable a factor to average, but for the ordinary German cotton mill 
located just outside of a town this might be estimated at 5 marks a 
square meter ($1.19 per 10.76 square feet). 

27 



28 COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 

NUMBER AND APPORTIONMENT OF OPERATIVES. 

The wages paid in cotton mills in different parts of Germany vary^ 
as also does the number of operatives required for a given number of 
machines or for a given production. For mills on similar goods and 
similarly located wages are lowest in Saxony and highest in Rhine. 
The mills around Augsburg seem to afford a fair average for the Ger- 
man industry as a whole. For a 30,000 spindle mill there is required 
under average conditions the following workers : 

For general oversight: One obermeister ^superintendent); one 
vorarbeiter (foreman) in the opening and mixing room; one meister 
and one untermeister (boss grader and second hand) in the card room; 
one spinnmeister (boss spinner) for every 10,000 to 15,000 mule 
spindles, and one throstlemeister (boss spinner) for every 10,000 to 
15,000 ring spindles. 

Mixing room : One man for every 6 bales daily, and one girl for 
every 12 bales daily, to pick and bundle the bagging and do similar 
light work. 

Picker room: One man to every two openers, one man to every 
two pickers or lappers, one man for the waste machine, and one lap 
carrier for every 12 bales daily. 

Cards : One card grinder to every 24 cards, one operative to every 
8 cards, and one can girl to every 16 cards, the cards making 165 
pounds in ten hours. 

Draw frames: One girl to 16 deliveries for fine slivers, to make 
No. 30s and above, and one girl and an assistant for coarse numbers. 

Fly frames : One operative to every 80 slubber spindles ; one opera- 
tive to 120 intermediate spindles on hank rove under No. 1.4 — above 
this number there is required one helper to every two frames; one 
operative to every 144 spindle fine irame under 3J hank roving, 
with the addition of one helper for every two frames making over 
No. 4 hank roving. 

Mule spinning: For every two mules containing 1,800 to 2,000 
spindles one spinner, two piecers, and two creelers, if on numbers 
under 20s; for finer numbers for a similar number of spindles one 
spinner, one piecer, and one to two creelers. 

Ring spinning: One girl spinner to every 300 to 400 spindle warp 
frame on No. 20s; one girl for every 380 spindle frame on filling, 
with one young assistant for every two frames; for every two spin- 
ning frames one girl doffcr. 

There is required one engineer and one assistant in the engine 

room, one dynamo tender and one transmission tender and machinist, 

one fireman and one coal passer for every 200 horsepower, one head 

• machinist and two assistants, one wood turner and carpenter, one 

gate keeper, etc. 

The operatives per 1,000 spindles average between 6 and 8. 

FUEL USED BY GERMAN COTTON MILLS. 

The German cotton mills are mainly steam plants. Some of the 
mills in Bavaria and Baden, near Switzerland, including most of 
the mills at Augsburg, use water power, and a few in upper Fran- 
conia are operated either wholly or in part by water power, but with 
these exceptions the bulk of the mills are operated by steam. There 
are 97 square miles of lakes in the 29,000 square miles of Bavaria 



GERMANY COTTON MILLS. 29 

and the length of the rivers included in this Kingdom is 44,285 miles. 
In the highlands of Bavaria there is abundant water power available., 
estimated at over 300,000 horsepower, but this is as yet little utilized^ 
It is expected that the State will acquire the legal right to ex- 
propriate vested rights in the more important rivers and streams and 
will develop the water power for commercial purposes. Electricity 
is beginning to be largely used in mills; at JPlauen, for instance, 
every lace factory in the town is operated by current obtained from 
the city power house. 

Germany produces a considerable part of the fuel that it consumes 
and also exports about 10 per cent of its production to neighboring 
countries. Lignite is largely used in the form of briquettes. 

Germany produces about 15 per cent of the coal output of the 
world, and is the largest single producer after the United States and 
the United Kingdom. The German production in 1907 was as fol- 
lows, in metric tons (2,204.6 pounds) : Stone coal, 143,222,886; brown 
coal, 62,319,802; coke, 21,938,038; brown coal briquettes, 12,890,461; 
black coal briquettes (pressed lumps), 3,524,017; total, 243,895,204. 

The main coal basins for Germanv are found at Ruhr in the Rhine 
province, in Upper and Lower Silesia, and at Bonn in the Rhine 
jjrovince. These three centers produce 55, 25, and 12 per cent, respec- 
tively, of the total ; the remainder coming from Zwickau-Oelsnitz in 
Saxony, Zweibrucken in the Palatinate, Munich, Dresden, and Bay* 
reuth. 

The lignite is produced mainly at Halle, in the province of Saxony, 
and at Bonn, in the Rhine province, these two places producing 66 
and 14 per cent, respectively, of the total, the remainder being ob- 
tained irom Saxe-Altenburg, in Anhalt; Leipzig and Dresden, in 
Saxony ; Braunschweig, Silesia, Magdeburg, and Hesse. 

MILLS LOCATED NEAR FUEL SUPPLY WHERE COTTON IS OBTAINED. 

The old mills were located for water power, while the new are 
located with reg;ard to the nearness of a luel supply and for trans- 
portation facilities. The coal mines of the Rhine region have had 
a great deal to do with the increase of cotton manufacturing in the 
Rhine and Westphalian provinces, and similarly the coal mines in 
Saxony and Silesia have been of great advantage to the cotton and 
other manufacturing industries or those sections. 

Cotton is obtained by the German cotton mills through cotton 
brokers at Bremen and IJnmburg, with smaller amounts through the 
ports of the Low Countries and Dantzig. Bremen is by far the largest 
cotton import center on the Continent, and ships cotton not only to 
all parts of Germany and to Austria and Switzerland, but as far in- 
land as Moscow and northern Italy. It seems strange that any cotton 
should be imported by Italian mills from Germany, but it is due 
to the fact that Bremen is the largest import center, and always has 
cotton on hand ready for shipment as desired, and that there are many 
brokers from which to order, while there are few cotton brokers at 
Genoa, and in the entries at that port there is frequently serious delay, 
owing to the congestion of the insufficient railway accommodations 
inland. During 1907 nearly 250,000 bales of cotton, valued at over 
$14,000,000, were supplied by German brokers to neighboring nations. 
There are large cotton storage warehouses at Bremen and the storage 
rate is low, so that many mills in different parts of Germany keep 
their purchases stored here and have monthly shipmfttAs» \xvaL^^ ^*^ 



30 



COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 



needed, while the smaller mills buy in weekly or monthly lots from 
the brokers as desired. The brokerage charged is one-half of 1 per 
cent, paid in equal proportions by the buyer and seller. American 
cotton is imported on c. i. f. terms, 6 per cent, sixty days with 1 per 
cent weight allowance. Cotton is sold at Bremen for spot or future 
delivery, but there is no dealing in " futures " at Bremen and but little 
at Hamburg. 

INLAND AND EXPORT FREIGHT RATES. 

The inland freight rates on cotton from Bremen and Breraerhaven 
to the main cotton manufacturing centers of Germany and Austria 
are as follows per 100 pounds : 



Prom- 


To— 


Prom- 




Bremen. 


Bremer- 
baven. 


Bremen. 


Bremer- 
haven. 


To- 


Cents. 
8.64 
16.52 
20.41 


Cents. 
10.04 
18.58 
21.81 


Munchen-Gladbach. 

Chemnitz. 

Mulhausen. ! 


Cents. 
22.79 
26.82 
80.93 


Cents. 
24.06 
27.97 
39.10 


Augsburg. 

Prague. 

Vienna. 



The following are the rates now (April, 1908) being paid by Ger- 
man cotton piece-goods exporters to the various countries of the world 
on piece goods exported from Bremen : 



Destination and basis. 



New York • per 85.310 cubic feet— 

Rio de Janeiro— do I 

Montevideo _ do ' 

Buenos Aires do ; 

Valparaiso.- _" _— do ! 

Mollendo do 

Yokohama do ' 

Hongkong __.do : 

Shanghai do 1 

Singapore do 1 

Rangoon.. - per 40 cubic feet.. 

Calcutta - do 

Bombay - do 

Alexandria per metric ton. J 

Smyrna _ do 

Constantinople do j 

Athens _ do 

Beirut do 

Naples — i)er 35.316 cubic feet.. 



Rate. 


Deviation from rate. 


$5.00 




13.09 


10 per cent rebate. 


9.62 


Do. 


9.52 


Do. 


14.28 


Do. 


14.28 


Do. 


10.115 


5 per cent rebate. 


10.115 


Do. 


10.71 


Do. 


8.926 




8.52 


Plus 5 per cent primage. 


4.866 


Do. 


4.866 


Do. 


9.733 


Plus 10 per cent primage. 


9.733 


Do. 


9.733 


Do. 


9.733 


Do. 


lO.Ofi 


Do. 


3.57 





<* These rates are by mail steamers ; by fast steamers the rates are $7.50. 



TEXTILE PRINTING PRICES. 



Mulhausen, in Alsace-Lorraine, is noted for its fine prints. I ob- 
tained while there the prices charged by three separate establishments 
for printing. These were as follows, per meter (1.09 yards) : 



Description . 



Cotton: 

82-lnch goods, 1 and 2 rollers. 

66-lnch goods, 1 and 2 rollers - 

82-incb goods, 1 and 2 rollers, using heavy colors 

with ground. — 

Mousseline de laine, 30-incb: 

1 roller 

1 roller, with heavy colors and ground 

2 to 8 rollers 

9 to 12 rollers 



Establishment Establishment Establishment 
A. B. I O. 



Cents. 



4.97 to 
9.45 to 11.19 



3.11 
6.00 

3.S2 

3.86 
4.85 
8.46 



I 



Cents. I 
8.97 to 4.46 
5.97 

5.52 to 6.22 

4.72 

6.97 

6.47 to 11.90 

10.46 to 11.94 



I 



Cents. 



3.86 
6.47 



4.10 



5.47 
7.73 to 6.22 
5.72 to 10.45 
9.95 to 11.44 



GERMANY COTTON "MILLS. 81 

The rollers are furnished by the printer, the engraving design by 
the merchant with his cloth. The charges include the necessary 
bleaching before printing and the finishing and folding up after 
printing. Damaged pieces are charged half price. 

It is mteresting to note that very often German cotton piece goods, 
say prints, can be bought cheaper in foreign countries than at the 
price they are being retailed for in Germany. 

RULES REGULATING WORK IN A GERMAN COTTON MILL. 

The rules that are posted up in every German factory, according 
to the requirements of the law, throw a good deal of light on the 
methods of work in the different sections. The following are the 
rules of one big German cotton mill, and are taken from a recent 
publication by a French authority, who wrote a report on German 
factories, but are similar to rules I have seen in factories in Saxony 
and Westphalia: 

1. Every worker on his admission to the factory receives a copy of these 
regulations and must sign a declaration showing that he has received this copy 
and accepts the conditions as a contract of worlc according to the provisions of 
the law. 

2. Anyone desiring to obtain worlc at the factory must first show a quittance 
from the invalidity insurance fund and the certificate of dismissal from the 
last establishment at which he worljed (minors must show their record boolc). 
He must be examined by a doctor and the admission is temi)orary only for 
two weeks. At the expiration of two weeks and on a certificate from the doctor 
showing his state of health he may then be accei3ted by the management, and is 
enrolled as a member of the sick fund. In the case of apprentices their fathers 
or guardians must sign the contract. 

HOURS OF WORK — CONDUCT OF EMPLOYEES. 

3. The regular hours of work are from 6 in the morning to midday and from 
1 o'clock to 6 in the evening; on Saturdays and the eves of holidays to 5 in the 
evening. Women who have households to manage may on demand quit at 
11.30 o'clock in the morning. The hours of work and the rests allowed minors 
are shown by paragraphs hung on the walls of the workroom. Adults are not 
entitled to these rests. The commencement and the end of work hours are 
announced by signal. 

4. On Sundays and legal liolidays the factory does not run. Adult employees 
may be held to perform, after the cessation of work and on Sundays and holi- 
days, such special work as is authorized by law. 

5. It is forbidden to enter or leave the factory by other than the regular 
entrances. The gates are oi>ened fifteen minutes before the commencement of 
work. It is forbidden for women and children to commence any work before 
starting. time. Those tardy and those leaving before the stoppage of the ma- 
chines are punished by fine. Leaving during the hours of work is not allowed 
except by the authorization of the sui»erintendent and this authorization carried 
to the gate keeper. 

6. Obedience is due to 8ui)eriors and the work prescribed must be executed 
with good will. It is forbidden to make a noise in the halls or to assault a 
fellow worker. When a worker presents himself at the mill in an intoxicated 
condition he loses his work and salary for that day; on a rer)etition of the 
offense he is discharged. No worker has the right to enter rooms other than 
that in which he works. During the midday rest and after work no worker 
has the right, unless by si>ecial authorization, to remain in the factory. 
Machines and appliances used by a workman must be kept in good order. 
Modifications or repairs must only be made by the foremen or on their direct 
orders. It is forbidden to introduce strangers into the factory. 

PRECAUTIONS AGAINST ACCIDENTS CARE OF PROPERTY. 

7. The rules shown on the wall as to precautions to be taken to avoid acci- 
dent must be followed strictly for the interest of the worker. It is strictly 
forbidden to clean machinery or shafting while in motion. EacU 'wqt>i&t NSk 



J|{ t^iTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 

^ ,., ,^r,jf, Us his sljniature that he will take notice of these precautious 

■ V ^V'tkiM-^'^^H^t take care of all material delivered to them and must 

• hn» 111- .Mi»d dtMXisIt waste made in the places provided. It is forbidden to 

^''ic r\M\\ «iiv ohj4Vt, however valueless, waste or anything else, and workers 

'ir«i HiU'w tlMMiiA^lvt^ to be examined if such is found to occur. Offenses will 
N «iiriii)itt(>1 it> the courts. To throw cotton, waste, etc., in the cabinets or 
..II \hv str«vt will be ct>usidered as damage within the meaning of the law of 

ji \\';iior-closets and their surroundings must be left in good order. Clothes 
.Mild bwskots bnnight to tlie factory must be kept in their proper places. It is 
forl»idden to smoke in the factory or the courtyards, and it is forbidden to 
oarr>- matcht^s in tlio |HH»kets within the factory. Pii)es, lanterns, and matches 
must iH* left with the pUe keei)er, who will take care of them. Everyone must 
<>bsi^rxo tlu^* prevnuitions oirefully to avoid danger of fire, and any disregard 
of tlu^si^ ruU^ rtitails tlie immediate exclusion of the offender without appeal. 

li\ K<hhI and drink must not be introduced into the workrooms except at 
the i»n^TllHHl hours — that Is, from 8 to 8.30 o'clock in the morning and from 
;>.;*> to 4 oVUvk in the afternoon. It is abs(>lutely forbidden to bring brandy 
into tlie factory. Any tnitlic or coll^*ting, etc., is absolutely forbidden, and 
after one warning rt^sults in dismissal. 

r.VYMKNT OF WAGES AND FINES — QUIT NOTICES. 

II, \Vag\\^ |»ald are determineil according to the tariffs shown on the walls. 
\\\Nivers aiv |»ald inn* cut. The tines levied for deterioration of merchandise 
or danmv:** to other objtH'ts thniugh the negligence or by the fault of the 
woiker are dtHlucttnl from their pay and given to the sick fund. 

r.\ A^HMmts art* made up every fortnight on Saturday evening and are paid 
the ue\t Satiiniay, with the deductions authorized by law. Tlie worker must 
\erh\v his wagt»s and make any claim Immediately, for later claims will not be 
allow^Hl, so as ti> avoid the mixing of strangers into matters concerning the 
wnkies of employees. 

10. lu caso the factiu'y Is not able to run and the management has thereby 
lo ivl'\isr work to the i>penitlve, the factory can not be held liable for damages, 
such st\»p|mge being due to accident to the motors or similar cause. As far 
as the l;nv |HMMults such time will l)e made up by extra work overtime. 

11. The operative can not claim payment for hours that he did not work, 
even though It was not due to his fault. 

lo. Two wiH»ks' notice of termination of contract may be given by either 
eUiplo.ver or empU>y4H\ but such notice must be given on Saturday, when the 
accouniM «n» uunle up. at the office between 4 and 5 o'clock in the afternoon. 
The uotla* will be better If signed by a superior and given to tlie worker at 
tlu» luMir hauu»il, i>r given by the worker to the office, as the case may be. 
t)ultilnn NNork at the fiictory without due notice or valid excuse is held to be 
a breach oT contract, and in accordance with the law of work there will be 
i*Mulue\l a week's wagt»s to be turned over to the sick fund, and a civil action 
uui.N alM» be InstltutiMl hi the courts if considered advisable. Besides the 
pio\ ImIouh of tlu* law <»f work, disregard of the regulations for avoiding accidents 
^'UlallH luiuaHlhite illscharge without notice. 

IMNISIIMKNT FOR OFFENSES — EMPLOYEES* PENSION FUND. 

Itl, t>ttenH*N< coniiulttcHl under the present regulations or under the provisions 
of the law of work nuiy be punished by fines. Separate fines can not exceed 
half a da>'H \Na«eH. t»\tH»pt that acts of violence against his inferiors or fellow- 
NNorkuien, rudt»nt»s8 toward his sui)erlors, grave Impropriety, and offenses against 
Older may be punlshtHl by a fine (npial to a day's wages. Tsually for the less 
MMious ra^t^M the offendiT Is first only warned, on rei)etitlon he is fined. The 
obllMallon to pay fines levlini Is not annulUHi by the fact of giving notice. 
All Iliads dtMlucttHi fnuu the wages go to the sick fund. 

17. All fines antl tltnlui'tions are fixed by the foreman of €»ach room and 
holMUatlou glvt»n to the worker. He has the right to appeal to the sui)erin- 
teudent, who finally dt»chles. 

IS, .\n.v wta'ker can be admltt(Hl to the pension fund founded for the benefit 
of the op<»rallves after five years of service if there is no opiwsltlon to his 
aduilNMlon, The pivmlums for this fund are paid by the factory at their own 
coMi wlihout an> tUnluctlon from wages. Payments may be made to a savings 



GERMANY — COTTON MILLS. 88 

fund, which pays 4^ per cent interest. Deposits may be made of from 1 to 
30 marks (23.8 cents to $7.14) a week. When an account reaches over 1,000 
marks ($238) the rate of interest is decreased or the total deposit is returned. 
19. These regulations, drawn so as to conform to the law, after having been 
brought to the attention of the regular workers* committee of the sick fund, 
were submitted to the higher authorities, approved by them, and will be enforced 
strictly. 

GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS. 

In Germany there is no law limiting the hours that may be worked 
by men, but there are numerous detailed provisions in regard to the 
employment of women or children, the conditions of employment, 
holidays, payment of wages and fines, protection from acciaents, etc. 
The general law was passed July 26, 1900, and stricter provisions 
added December 16, 1907. The following extracts from the law are 
reproduced to show under what legal conditions German cotton mills 
operate : 

Contracts may be freely made between employers and employees, and these 
contracts are legal unless they violate some provision of the law. The opera- 
tive is not compelled to work on Sundays or holidays, and factories are for- 
bidden to run on such days. Holidays are fixed by the authorities of each 
province according to the local customs, but the Government prescribes at least 
forty-eight hours each for Christmas, Passover, and Pentecost. New Year*s 
Day, Easter Monday, Ascension Day, Whit Monday, and Repentance Day (mid- 
dle of November), are usually given, and in some sections many more, includ- 
ing dates connected with the birth and the accession of the ruler. Operatives 
may be employed on Sundays and holidays at the works where specially per- 
mitted by the authorities. These special cases include urgent work in the 
public Interests, to take inventories prescribed by law, for repair and mainte- 
nance work difficult to effect during the week, for work impossible to effect 
during the week and the nonexecutionof which would Injure the goods, and for 
the inspection of the work done during the week. 

EMPLOYEES* RECOBD BOOKS AND CERTIFICATES. 

Each worker under age must have a record book, in which is given his Aame, 
date and place of birth, the name and residence of his legal representative, 
and the signature of the worker. This book is signed and stami)ed by the 
authorities and is retained by the employer until the exi)iration of the contract 
made by the worker, when it must be returned to him. When the worker 
enters the factory the employer must write in ink the date and the nature of 
the employment, and when the employee quits the employer must write the date; 
also any change of class of work in the meantime and the last class of work 
performed. Observations advantageous or disadvantageous to the worker are 
forbiddden. 

On his departure a worker may demand a certificate relative to the dura- 
tion and nature of his work. If the worker demands it, the certificate must also 
mention his conduct and his services. It is forbidden for the employer to draw 
attention to the worker by adverse remarks or by marks made on the certificate 
or to give in regard to the worker any other report than that given in the text 
of the certificate. 

PAYMEWT OF WAGES AND FINES — COMPLEMENTARY INSTRUCTION. 

Wages must be paid in currency or legal tender, and must not be paid on 
Sundays. It is forbidden to furnish merchandise on credit in lieu of wages 
with the exception that food and combustibles may be furnished at net cost 
and lodgings furnished at the customary local rents and payments for these 
deducted from the wages due. Workers' wages can be retained as indemnity 
for damages caused by an infraction of the contract, but must not exceed 
more than one week's wages at the fortnightly settlement, except in case of 
acts against fellow-workmen, of offenses against morality, or against regula- 
tions for the maintenance of order and security, and for the fulfillment of 
statutory provisions. In these cases fines may be imposed to the full extent of 

H. Doc. 1270, 60-2 3 



84 COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 

the wages due. All fines must be applied to the benefit of the factory workers 
and usually go to the sick fund, but this does not affect the right of the em- 
ployer to obtain legal compensation for damage. Particulars of all fines must 
be entered by the epiployer in a book, which is open to inspection by a Govern- 
ment oflacer. 

Where there are any workers under 18 years of age liable according to the 
law to attend a complementary course of instruction at schools under the care 
of the State or the commlinity the employer is obliged to grant such young 
workers the time necessary for this study and the time required is fixed by the 
administration. This includes also complementary instruction to females by 
lessons on sewing and the care of a household. 

HYGIENE AND SAFETY. 

The employer is responsible for seeing that the workrooms, motors, machines, 
and appliances are arranged so as not to endanger the health or life of the 
employees. Especially there must be good light, sufllcient space, arrangements 
to renew the air, and to carry away the dust, lint, waste, etc., resulting from 
the work. All moving parts of machines must be protected from the workers 
by covers, and all measures of precaution must be taken to avoid dangers 
inherent to the work, comprising the danger from fire. The employer must 
have regulations and instructions assuring the conduct of the work in a manner 
exempt from danger. The employers must maintain these regulations and they 
are required to see that their operatives keep order and act with propriety 
and morality. It is specially recommended wherever the nature of the work 
permits that the sexes be separated at their work. Separate clothes rooms, 
toilet rooms, etc., must be provided for men and women. Such rooms must be 
installed in sufficient numbers for the number of workers employed and ac- 
cording to the laws of hygiene. Where youthful workers are employed the 
employer must keep a special watch over them, to see that they keep the laws 
of hygiene and good manners necessary for their age. In certain cases the 
police are directed to inspect plants and direct alterations, such as providing 
halls in cold weather for the workers to take their meals in, etc. 

CONTRACTS BETWEEN EMPLOYER AND EMPLOYEE. 

Contracts between employer and employee shall ordinarily Include a pro- 
vision for two weeks* notice before the contract is terminated, but by special 
arrangement between employee and employer this notice in regard to termina- 
tion of employment may be of any duration desired, but it must be equally 
binding on both. 

The worker may be discharged without the notice required by his contract 
only under the following circumstances: False representations of the worker 
in making the contract; theft or other criminal acts; leaving work without per- 
mission or refusing to fulfill the contract; carrying fire or lights about con- 
trary to order; acts of violence or gross abuse directed against his employer, 
his family, or representative; willful damage to property of employer or fellow- 
workmen: inducing members of the employer's family or his rei)rosentative to 
behave in a manner contrary to law or morality; inability to continue work or 
a contagious disease. In such cases there is due to the worker no indemnity, 
l)ut in the first seven cases he can not be summarily dismissed without a first 
warning if the facts in question have been known to the employer for over a 
week. 

The oi)erative may quit before the completion of his contract in the following 
cases only: If he is incapable of continuing work; gross abuse by employer or 
his representative against the worker or members of his family ; the inducing, 
by employer or his representative, of members of the worker's family to behave 
in a manner contrary to law or morality ; nonpayment of wages in the pre- 
scribed manner; if the continuation of the work is dangerous to the health of 
life of the worker in a manner not included in the contract; unjustifiable 
prejudice; neglect to provide sufficient work for pieceworkers. 

An employer who engages a workman knowing that he has not fulfilled his 
contract with his former employer or who entices him away from such em- 
ployer is liable for damages therefor. 

POSTING OF REGULATIONS — EMPLOYMENT OF CHILDREN. 

There must be hung up in conspicuous places in every factory the rules under 
which the factory is operated, stating the hours of work, the intervals for 
meals, the time and manner of paying wages, the length of notice required for 



GERMANY COTTON MILLS. 35 

terminating work, and the conditions which render notice unnecessary, and 
particulars of punishments, including fines and the objects to which they are 
to be applied. Before promulgating any rules they must be submitted to a com- 
mittee of the worljmen for consideration, and then with any written amendments 
or objections from them submitted to a factory inspector and be approved or 
amended by him before issuing. After promulgation the rules are bhiding on 
both employer and employee. 

It is forbidden to employ children under 13 years of age. Children under 
this age are compelled to attend school. Between 13 and 14 years of age they 
may be employed if an inspector decides that they are no longer liable for 
school, but in this case they can not be employed over six hours a day. Youth- 
ful workers between 14 and 16 years of age can not work over ten hours a day. 
They must not be employed before 5.30 o'clock in the morning nor later than 8.30 
o'clock at night. They must have regular periods for rest. The children who 
work six hours must have at least a half an hour pause. Youthful workers 
between 14 and 16 must have at least an hour at midday and a half hour in 
both forenoon and afternoon. If they do not work over eight hours a day the 
short rests may be omitted if there is no continuous period of work over four 
hours. During these rests they are forbidden to stay in the factory and should 
be out in the open air. 

EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN — OVERTIME WOBK. 

Women must not be employed in the factory at night between 8.30 and 5.30 
o'clock, nor on the days before Sundays and holidays after 5.30 o'clock p. m. 
Women over 16 can work up to eleven hours a day, but not longer, and not 
over ten hours a day on Saturdays and the days before holidays. After Janu- 
ary 1, 1910, according to the law just passed, women can not work over ten 
hours a day. Women who have households to manage can leave a half hour 
before the midday stopping time, unless the midday rest is at least an hour and 
a half. Women who are accouched are forbidden to work for four weeks there- 
after and only within six weeks on a doctor's certificate. 

When an employer enga^s a worker under 16 he has to hand a written notice 
to the police, giving the hours of work, the time at which they commence and 
stop, the hours for rest, and the nature of the occupation. A copy of the law as 
it relates to work by minors must be posted up in rooms where such minors are 
employed. 

In case of urgent work and on demand from the employer the administration 
can authorize operatives over 16 to work as long as thirteen hours a day 
and up to 10 o'clock at night for two weeks. After January 1, 1910, the new 
law limits overtime to twelve in place of thirteen hours. This authorization 
can not include more than forty days in one year for any one factory. Au- 
thorization to work overtime more than two weeks running can only be given 
by the higher authorities, and more than forty days is only allowed in case 
the total number of hours per year, divided by the total number of days worked, 
does not exceed the maximum fixed by law — that is, eleven hours for adult 
women. The demand must be made in writing and a reply given within thre<; 
days. In case of the interruption of work by flood, fire, or accident, thero 
may be overtime worked for four weeks by permission of the higher author- 
ities; for longer than that only by special permission of the chancellor. 

GENERAL REGULATIONS. 

There is no legal regulation of the hours of work for men, but for women 
it is eleven hours, except on Saturdays and days before holidays, when It is 
ten, and as there are a large number of women employed in the factories, 
this practically fixes the working hours of the factory. Since the first part 
of 1906 there have been a large number of mills running only ten hours a day 
Instead of the legal eleven, partly because of demands made by the unions 
and partly from the altruistic attitude of some employers, which have forced 
others to follow to retain their workers. The real time Is less than the 
nominal time by from a lialf to three-fourths of an hour, as women are allowed 
to leave a half hour before midday, and this can not be counted against them, 
and in some cases the afternoon rests are not deducted. Under the restric- 
tions imposed by the new law with regard to women, etc., all German cotton 
mills in 1010 will be forced down to sixty hours a week as the maxlnnim. 
Factory inspectors of the Imperial Government are appointed to see that the 
law is carried out, and factories where women or youthful workers are em- 
ployed must be viaited once every six months. A few of tli^»fe Vaav^stot^ ^x«\ 



EMPLOYEES' COMPULSORY mSURANCL 



WORKINC} PEOPLE PROTECTED AGAINST ILLNESS, OLD AGE, AND ACCIDENT — 
PROVISIONS OF THE LAAV. 

Paternal laws have been enacted in Germany of more far-reaching 
character than those enacted by any other nation, and prominent 
among such laws are those in regard to compulsory insurance of 
workmen. Compulsory insurance applies to all workers in Germany, 
textile or otherwise, and some understanding of its ramifications is 
necessary in contrasting the position of both mill owner and opera- 
tive in Germany with those of other nations. Every worker, whether 
male or female, who receives under $470 a year, has to insure against 
sickness and against old age or invalidity, and has to be insured by his 
employer against accident. 

Sick insurance provides against temporary illness during a period 
not to exceed twenty-six weeks. Old age and invalidity insurance 
provides for prolonged illness after twenty-six weeks and for perma- 
nent incapacity through chronic infirmity or old age. Accident insur- 
ance provides for relief during temporary disablement, permanent 
support in serious disablement, burial expenses, and assistance to 
widows and orphans in case of death. 

Of the sick insurance two-thirds is paid by the employees and one- 
third by the employers; of the old-age and invalidity insurance half 
is paid by the employees and half by the employers, while the acci- 
dent insurance is borne by the employers alone. The sick insurance 
premium varies between 2 and 4 per cent of the wages paid, and the 
old age and invalidity premium amounts to about 1 per cent of the 
wages paid. The portion of this burden borne by the employee is 
therefore not heavy, but is nevertheless felt. 

The law in regard to compulsory insurance against accidents was 
enacted July 6, 1884, and this was followed December 1, 1884, by the 
law in regard to compulsory insurance against sickness. On June 
23, 1889, there was passed a compulsory law in regard to old age and 
invalidity, and this law was amended to its present form July 13, 
1899. 

SICK INSURANCE. 

This law has been modified three times since its inception, the last 
time in 1903. Every German worker, of both sexes, receiving under 
$476 a year must be insured against sickness, but this insurance may 
be either public or private. In the factories all workers are in- 



GERMANY — EMPLOYEES^ COMPULSORY INSURANCE. 37 

scribed as members of the sick insurance fund, unless they produce 
testimony that they are insured in a private company that meets the 
requirements of the law. At every pay roll two-thirds of the pre- 
mium required is retained by the company and added to the one- 
third paid by the company is turned over to the sick fund. 

A good many factories pay two-thirds of the premium and only 
leave one-third t^ be paid by their employees, but it is illegal for 
the employer to pay over two-thirds. In some few factories where 
the sick fund has been long established there is an accumulated fund, 
and the interest from this fund reduces considerably the premium to 
be paid. In other factories where there has been more sickness it 
sometimes happens that the full amount allowed by law does not 
suffice, and in this case the factory usually makes up the deficit vol- 
untarily. 

COLLECTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF FUNDS — SPECIAL INSURANCE. 

The funds of the sick insurance are collected and distributed in 
each district by trade associations of that district. A meeting is 
held by each association at least once a year and a committee ap- 
pointed to control the collection and distribution of the funds. The 
meeting is composed of delegates elected by the workers, usually to 
the number of 5 or 10 per cent of the insured that they represent, and 
the employers are represented in both meeting and committee ac- 
cording to their proportionate contributions, each factory being rep- 
resented. The regulations, after consultation with all interested, are 
laid down by the meeting and approved by the higher board of man- 
agement. This institution has legal personification and considerable 
powers of self-government, though under the superintendence of the 
State. Disputes are settled by local boards of arbitration formed in 
each district. For the furthering of their mutual interests several 
sick-fund institutions can form themselves into cooperative associa- 
tions. 

District sick insurance is an enlarged arrangement for complying 
with the demands of the law regarding compulsory insurance. All 
those belong to the district sick insurance who are not provided for 
in the other admissible forms of sick insurance. The management 
of the district sick insurance is undertaken by the representatives of 
the district. Under certain conditions a mutual sick-fund associa- 
tion can be formed for several districts. 

Membership in special sick insurance institutions, such as regis- 
tered charitable funds associations, builders' sick funds, etc., which 
comply with the requirements of the law, release one from the ordi- 
nary sick-insurance funds. 

Factories may set up a special sick fund for their own employees 
if the number of such employees are over 50, and this becomes obliga- 
tory on the request of the district board of management or of the sick 
institution to which the workmen belong. The employers can also 
be for^ to form such a sick fund among their employees if there 
is good reason to fear special danger of illness in their factories. 

CLASSIFICATION OF OPERATIVES — MEDICAL TREATMENT AND BENEFITS. 

As every worker is enrolled on some sick insurance fund, this 
means that before employment in Germany every worker has to be 
physically examined. He is then tentatively engaged, but the en- 



538 COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 

fakement is not considered binding until after two weeks' trial. If 
e is found to be incapacitated from work or suffering from any dis- 
ease, then the sick fund to which he belonged at his last place of 
work is compelled to charge themselves with nis relief or he has to be 
looked after by the sick fund of his community. 

The operatives are divided into eight classes, according to their 
wages per day, the first class having an average fpf 1 mark (23.8 
cents), the second of 1.50 marks (35.7 cents), and so on to the eighth 
class, which has an average of 5 markis ($1.19) a day. The sick bene- 
jBt amounts to 50 per cent of the wages of the class to which he be- 
longs, and is thus 50 to 250 pfennigs f 11.9 to 59.7 cents) per day. 
In special cases this indemnity is allowea to be raised to three- fourths 
of the average wages of his class. 

In case of sickness there is furnished gratuitously on the first day 
free medical treatment, with medicines, medicaments, bandages, 
spectacles, trusses, or other appliances that will enable the patient 
to continue at work or to hasten his cure. After three days there is 
rendered sick-benefit wages. This indemnity is payable every Sat- 
urday, and continues as long as the illness lasts, if not over twenty- 
six weeks. The sick-fund assistance ceases at the latest at the ex- 
piration of the twenty-sixth w^eek after the commencement of the sick 
payment. For continued illness after twenty-six weeks, whether tem- 
porary or permanent, the burden rests on the old-age and disability 
lund. 

TREATMENT OF SPECIAL CASES. 

In case of illness for which the patient himself is to blame, as, for 
instance, through fights, blows, drunkenness, etc., the associations or 
communities are to decide for themselves whether sick payment shall 
be rendered at all or partly. 

In case of maladies that it is impossible to treat advantageously at 
home, especially in the case of contagious diseases, the committee of 
the sick fund may have the patient treated at a hospital. In this 
case, if the patient is a single person, he only receives one-fourth of 
the sick benefit he would otherwise be entitled to, but is under no 
expense at the hospital. In the case of a married man, having a 
wife or family dependent on him, he may receive the full benefit as 
if treated at home, if circumstances justify it. In the Rhine province 
and some other sections the patient has the right to choose his own 
doctor. 

Women accouched receive sick benefit for six weeks. They are not 
allowed to work for four weeks and not until the full six weeks, unless 
on a doctor's certificate. 

DEATH BENEFITS — PREMIUMS AND TOTAL RECEIPTS. 

In case of the decease of a member of the sick benefit fund his family 
receives an indemnity equal to twenty times the average daily wages 
of the class to which he belonged, this indemnity therefore ranging 
between 20 and 100 marks ($4.76 and $23.80). Some sick funds give 
also in case of the decease of members of the family of one of their 
contributors. 



GERMANY — EMl>LOYEEs' COMPULSORY li^SlTRANCE. 89 

The maximum sick fund premium is fixed by law at 4 per cent of 
the wages, of which the employee is to pay two-thirds and the em- 
ployer one-third, but the premium is usually 2 or 3 per cent. 

The total receipts yearly by the sick funds amount to some 
250,000,000 marks ($59,500,000) and the expenditures to nearly as 
much. The largest expenditure is for sick indemnities to workmen, 
amounting to nearly one-half of the total, then for doctors, then, in 
their order, for medicines and appliances, hospitals and clinics, pay- 
ments to widows and orphans, etc. 

INVALIDITY AND OLD-AGE INSURANCE. 

Persons compelled to take this insurance are all workers of 16 years 
of age and upward, such as workmen in factories, laborers, daily 
paid workmen of all kinds, servants, journeymen, clerks, overseers, 
foremen, private teachers (with salaries under 2,000 marks, or $476), 
technical experts, etc. The exemptions are invalids, persons entitled 
to pensions, as, for instance, teachers employed by the State, etc., 
persons who do not work for regular wages but temporarily tender 
services from time to time, and those who obtain their board and 
lodging as payment for their work. On request the following persons 
can be exempted from this insurance : Those who already draw pen- 
sions or accident premiums, those over 70 years of age, those who are 
not employed more than twelve weeks a vear for wages; the latter, 
however, must have been already insurect for at least one hundred 
wrecks. The applications for release must be presented to the authori- 
ties in w^riting, and such persons receive a green card signifying their 
release from compulsory insurance. Compulsory insurance extends 
to those following a household occupation in the tobacco and textile 
industries. 

PREMIUMS AND METHODS OF PAYMENT — CLASSIFICATIONS OF INSURED. 

The payments of invalidity and old-age insurance premiums is 
divided equally between employer and employee, and it is a misde- 
meanor for the employer to pay more or less than one-half. Every 
insurer is supplied with a pocketbook containing a card available for 
one year. The card and the book give the name and the occupation 
of the insured. The card has lines for the inscription of the days of 
sickness and of military service. It is divided into 52 squares, destined 
to receive 52 stamps each of the value of the weekly contribution. 
Each week a stamp must be bought and pasted in, and this must be 
defaced by w^riting thereon the date. These stamps can be bought 
at the post-office or at certain special bureaus. 

Usually the employer deducts half the premium, pastes in the 
stamp for the full amount, and then returns the book to the em- 
ployee. The employer is forbidden to retain the book after pasting 
m and defacing the stamp. AVhen there have been 52 stamps put in, 
filling all the squares, the book is turned in and another one lurnished. 
There is allowed a maximum delay of two years in the filling in and 
delivery of the card before the workman loses his insurance rights. 
AA^eeks during which the employee was sick or in military service 
count as weeks of payment without pasting in any stamps, but a cer- 
tificate must l)e furnished to prove sickness. Also wn)men accouched 
ai-e allowed to count six weeks without stamps as payment weeks. 



40 



COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 



The insured are divided into five classes according to wages re- 
ceived, as follows: 

[100 pfennigs»l mark; 1 mark»23.8 cents.] 



ClasB. 


Annual wages. 


Weekly 
payments. 


Class. 


Annual wages. 


Weekly 
payments. 


First 


Marti. 
Under 850 


I^ennigs. 

20 
24 


Fourth 

Fifth.... 


MarU 
850tol,160 


Pfennigs. 


Second 


350 to 550 


Above 1 150 


86 


Third 


550 to 850 















RETURN PREMIUMS — TREATMENT ACCORDED THE INSURED. 

Half of the premiums paid are returned under the following 
conditions: In case of the death of the insured after he has paid 
at least two hundred weekly premiums; in case of invalidity due 
to accident, if the contributions paid for insurance against accident 
are more than those to which the insurance against invalidity have 
given the right, and the assured has paid at least 200 premiums; 
m case of the marriage of a woman who has paid at least 200 weekly 
premiums. 

Temporary illness up to twenty-six weeks is a charge on the sick 
insurance fund. After twenty-six weeks it becomes a charge on the 
old-age and invalidity insurance fund, and the patient has the right 
to all attendance, medicine, and appliances that may tend to ef^t 
a cure, such as massage treatment, treatment with special baths, 
operations from time to time by specialists, treatment in hospitals, 
sanitariums, houses of convalescence, etc. In cases of tuberculosis 
they are transferred to special tuberculosis sanitariums and given 
open-air treatment, etc. Convalescents are given food suitable to 
their case, even at their homes. If their illness incapacitates them 
for their former occupation they are maintained during their ap- 
prenticeship at another trade to which they may be suited. In this 
way many workers are prevented from becoming a permanent charge 
on their relatives or the State, and enabled to oecome able to again 
sustain themselves either wholly or in part. 

YEARLY REMUNERATION OF THE INVALID AND AGED. 

The yearly remuneration received by an invalid is divided into 
three parts : A fundamental sum corresponding to the class in which 
he was insured based on his regular wages; a sum that is obtained 
by multiplying the number of weekly payments made by a weekly 
coefficient fixed by law ; a fixed indemnity, furnished by the Govern- 
ment, which runs from 50 to 62 marks ($11.90 to $14.76). The 
fundamental sums and the weekly coefficients for the five classes 
previously noted are as follows: 



Class. 



First . . . 
Second. 
Third.. 



Fundamental 
sum. 



Marks. 



Weekly 
coefficient. 



Class. 



Pfennigs. 



Fourth . 
Fifth... 



Fundamental 
sum. 



Marhi. 



90 
100 



Weekly 
coefficient. 



Pfennigs. 
10 
12 



For example, suppose one has paid 800 weeklv premiums of class 
4 and then becomes incapacitated for work he will receive the follow- 
ing: The fundamental sum of class 4, 90 marks ($21.42) ; 800 pay- 
ments of dass 4, 10 pfennigs per payment, 80 marks ($19.04) ; 



GERMANY — EMPLOYEES^ COMPULSORY INSURANCE. 41 

indemnity from the Government, 50 marks ($11.90) ; total yearly 
return, 220 marks ($52.36). In this ease the insured after working 
sixteen years had paid 120 marks ($28.56) (the other half having 
been paid by his employer) and on becoming incapacitated for 
work, which might be at the age of 33, if he started work at 16, he 
receives for the balance of his life 220 marks ($52.36) a year. 

In regard to old age the conditions are: (1) Having attained an 
age of (0 years; (2) having paid at least 1,200 weekly premiums, 
which would take twenty-four years. As the law was only promul- 
gated in 1889, to take effect January 1, 1891, there has not yet been 
any entitled to the old-age pension under the second condition. For 
all persons who were over 40 years of age when the new insurance 
came into effect at the end of 1890, the waiting time of 1,200 pay- 
ments is shortened by as many years over forty as they were at that 
time, and in this case the year is considered to be of forty payment 
weeks. For example : A worker born in 1830 attained his seventieth 
year in 1900. He was 60 years old in 1890, or twenty years over the 
forty noted as the minimum. His waiting time was reduced from 
1,200 by 800 weeks, leaving him only 400 weeks to pay. 

The yearly sum paid as old-age pension is calculated on the basis 
of the number of weekly premiums paid times a coefficient fixed by 
the national administration for each class. The following are these 
coefficients: Class 1, 60 marks; class 2, 90 marks ; class 3, 120 marks ; 
class 4, 150 marks ; class 5, 180 marks. 

GOVERNMENT INDEMNITY PAYMENTS AND RECEIPTS. 

In addition the Government adds a fixed indemnity of 50 marks 
($11.90). For example, suppose a worker born in 1835: He was 55 
years old in 1890, and in 190^ when he became 70 years old, he 
demands an old-age pension. He has made 700 weekly payments, of 
which 100 were in class 3, 200 in class 4, and 400 in cl^ss 5. The 
payments in the lowest class are disregarded by the law, so his total 
payments under classes 4 and 5 amount to 1,020 marks ($242.76), 
and this divided by 600 to obtain the average, which is found to be 
170 marks ($40.76). Add to this the 50 marks ($11.90) of the Gov- 
ernment and we obtain 220 marks ($52.36) as the yearly old-age 
pension to be paid in this case. To obtain this yearly pension the 
worker has paid 100 premiums of 12 pfennigs each, 200 premiums of 
15 pfennigs each, and 400 premiums of 18 pfennigs each, or a total 
of 114 marks ($27.13) only. This is only half the sum that has been 
received as premiums by the Government, as it will be remembered 
that the employer pays the other half. 

The sum received by the Government yearly for the old-age and 
invalidity insurance amounts to some 200,000,000 marks ($47,600,- 
000), of which part is premiums and part interest on funds on hand 
and investments. The yearly distribution amounts to only about 
.150,000,000 marks ($35,700,000) a year, so that there is a yearly in- 
creasing surplus, which at present amounts to over 1,000,000,000 
marks ($238,000,000) , and this is exempted by law from being drawn 
on for any other purpose than that for which it was i)aid in. In 
1914, when the second clause of the old-age pension comes into effect — 
that is, of men being entitled to a pension who have paid in premiums 
regularly for twenty-four years — ^there will undoubtedly be a large 
draft made on this surplus. 



12 COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 

POPULARITY AND GOOD EFFECTS OF THE LAW. 

The old-age and invalidity insurance is very popular in Germany, 
and when the law was modified and extended m 1899 all classes voted 
in its favor, so that it was almost unanimously adopted. One effect 
it has had that is very noticeable from the statistics, viz, the decrease 
in the death rate. There is hardly any doubt but that this decrease 
is due to this law, especially the decrease in deaths from tuberculosis. 
The ordinary workman, relying on his own savings, is not able to 
secure treatment necessary to effect a cure, but under this law he 
obtains this free, and the large number of special sanitariums and hos- 
pitals erected by the Government for the treatment of special dis- 
eases have saved many lives, while the oversight exercised by the in- 
surance funds over the worker, by checking illnesses at the start, have 
saved many more. The associations, in furtherance of the health of 
the operatives, have invested large amounts from their surplus funds 
in erecting sanitary homes for the workers, and this also has been of 
great benefit. 

The old-age and invalidity insurance funds are administered by 
special associations and institutes which are established for large dis- 
tricts or for whole States. Each has a president, who has the stand- 
ing of a Government official, and an executive committee composed 
of an equal number of employers and employees, not less than five of 
each. The employees are not only represented on the district com- 
mittee, but on the central board and in the tribunals of experts. 
Each district has at least one arbitration board, with an independent 
chairman, nominated by the Government, and assessors representing 
equally employers and employees. General supervision is exercised 
by the imperial insurance office. 

Persons insured can choose a higher class than that to which they 
belong should they undertake to pay the extra cost. Optional insur- 
ance IS possible in all grades of wages. 

ACCIDENT INSURANCE. 

Insurance against accidents in Germany is a special organization 
and is a mutual insurance among employers. Groups are formed of 
the employers in certain industries in specific localities. Thus cotton 
and woolen manufacturers are placed together and are divided into 
five groups: South Germany, north Germany, Saxony, Silesia, and 
Prussian Rhine and AVestphalia. All workers must be insured by 
their employers if such workers make under 3,000 marks ($714) a 
year, the annual wages being calculated as 300 times the daily wages. 

The five textile associations, composed of all the cotton and woolen 
manufacturers in their respective districts, are legally incorporated 
bodies and have considerable powers of self-government. They fix 
their own regulations, and these are carried out by a duly appointed 
committee, but they are under the supervision of tHe imperial authori- 
ties. The committee is usually appointed for six years, and one-third 
of the members are renewed every two years. They fix the amount 
of indemnity in case of accidents, give orders to factories to install 
safety appliances, such as coverings for machines, etc., and can levy 
fines on factories which do not obey such orders. They decide on what 
measures are to be taken to fix the blame for an accident, direct what 
treatment is to be received by the injured, etc., and have the entire 
control of the receipts and disbursements of funds. 



GEBMANY — EMPLOYEES ' COMPULSORY INSURANCE. 48 

PROVISIONS, OPERATIONS, AND BENEFITS. 

The workers are not members of this association as they pay 
nothing toward it, it being entirely supported by the employers. The 
injured man, however, is supported for the first thirteen weeks at the 
cost of the sick-insurance fund to which the workers belong, and from 
which he receives a fixed daily indemnity. After the thirteenth week 
the Employers' Accident Association takes charge of the case. 

In case of an accident the emploj^er has immediately to notify the 
police and the accident association in writing. He has three days in 
which to make this declaration. The injured man is taken in charge 
by the sick fund and for the first four weeks receives one-half of his 
regular wages and from then up to the end of the thirteenth week 
two-thirds of his regular wages, tne sick fund paying one-half and the 
employer one-sixth. 

If the injured man is treated at a hospital and is married, he re- 
ceives one-fourth of his regular wages up to the end of the fourth 
week, and then one-third up to the end of the thirteenth week. He is 
then under the care of the Employers- Accident Association, and this 
association may request the sick fund to continue the treatment at its 
charge or it may take charge of the case itself. In this latter event 
the patient is specially examined by doctors. If judged necessary 
for his cure, he is sent to special baths, to mechanical-therapeutical 
establishments, to convalescent houses, etc. He is then examined 
anew and the degree of his incapacity is stated in percentage of total 
incapacity for work. If totally incapacitated for work he receives 
two-third of his regular wages, and if partially incapacitated, from 
15 per cent up, acc6rding to the degree of incapacity stated by the 
doctors in percentage. When not only incapacitated from following 
his trade, but totally helpless, he may receive the full amount of his 
regular wages. When out of work, in consequence of the accident, 
either part or full wages are paid, according to circumstances. 

RIGHT OF APPEAL FROM IISDEMNITY ALLOTMENT. 

The injured man has a right to appeal if he thinks the percentage 
stated by the doctors, and hence his consequent indemnity, too small. 
Also at any time for five years after the accident he has a right to 
demand increased indemnity if his incapacity increases, and, vice 
versa, the association has a right to cut down his indemnity if there 
is noted an improvement in his condition, such questions to be legally 
decided by boards of experts. After five years there can be no change 
without special authority from those higher up. 

The indemnities are payable by post monthly in advance. The 
funds necessary are supplied by assessments levied on the members of 
the association based on the expenses of the preceding year. If all 
the employers are in industries with equal risKs the assessment is the 
same for each, proportionate to his total wages paid. This is never 
the case, however, and each association fixes the percentage to be 
paid by each branch of the industry according to the percentage of 
accidents that their records show^ to come from this branch. Thus 
in cotton manufacturing most factories show the largest percentage 
of accidents to be from the electrical installations, then spinning 
plants, then bleaching, dyeing and finishing, then twisting plants, 
then weaving, then knitting, etc. The percentage to be paid by each 



44 COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 

manufacturer on his total wages is thus fixed according to whether 
he has spinning only or spinning and twisting, etc., being mathe- 
matically computed according to the ascertained coefficients, and 
these coefficients being changed each year according to the propor- 
tion shown by the preceding year. 

APPORTIONMENT OF ASSESSMENTS — ^PAYMENTS TO FAMILY OF ASSURED. 

It has been found in practice that there is rarely any great varia- 
tion in these coefficients — that is, in a certain district the proportion 
of accidents from spinning mills, from weaving mills, from dye 
works, from knitting mills, etc., will be found to show a remarkable 
conformity year after year, unless there is some important change 
made in the methods of work. Where one mill shows a much higher 
proportion of accidents than the average, this mill has its danger 
coefficient increased correspondingly, and the committee examines the 
mill to ascertain the causes of such accidents and may order special 
safeguards provided where found necessary. For spinning mills the 
ordinary assessment will be about 1 per cent of the total wages, 
whereas for weaving mills it is usually not much over one-half of 1 
per cent. 

In case of death from accident the family of the assured receives: 
Burial money equal to one-fifth of the average annual wages, and 
this sum must not be under 50 marks ($11.90) ; the widow is paid a 
yearly allowance of 20 per cent of the annual wages of the deceased 
imtil her death or remarriage, and two children under 15 years of 
age may receive 20 per cent each until they reach the age of 16; if 
there are other dependent relatives they may also get 20 per cent if 
in want, but the total allowance must not exceed 60 per cent. A 
widow who remarries receives one payment of 60 per cent in full of 
all claims on the fund. 

If it is proved that the accident was voluntary on the part of the 
worker he gets nothing, and there are severe penalties if a patient is 
found to be exaggerating his injuries to obtain a larger pension. 
Also, if an accident is due to the culpable carelessness of the employer 
in neglecting proper precautions then he is liable for all damages 
and the association is not held responsible. 



TRADE ORGANIZATIONS. 



ESTABLISHMENT AND OBJECTS OF WORKMEN'S UNIONS — ORGANIZATIONS 
AMONG THE EMPLOYERS. 

In 1731 organizations of workmen in Prussia were absolutely for- 
bidden by law. This law was partially repealed in 1848, but soon put 
in force again, and was not finally abolished until 1868. They then 
increased rapidly, and as many were socialistic, and even revolution- 
ary, in their scope the Government deemed them a menace and in 
1878 once more passed laws against such unions, which had the effect 
of suppressing large numbers of bodies of workmen. In 1890 these 
restrictions were finally removed and nearly one-tenth of the German 
workers are now estimated to belong to some union. Some unions 
were started from economic, intellectual, or religious motives, but 
practically all have become socialistic. 

There are now a great nimiber of unions and subunions, but the 
great bulk of these are embraced in the following five groups: (1) 
The " Free " or Social Democratic Gewerkschaf ten ; (2) the " Chris- 
tian" Gewerkschaften ; (3) the "German" or Hirsch-Duncker Ge- 
werkvereine; (4) the Evangelical Workers' Unions; (5) the Catholic 
Workers' Unions. 



The Social Democratic Gewerkschaften, or, as it is usually known ^ 
the Free Trades' Union, is by far the most important and embraces 
some 1,100,000 of the total 1,500,000 union operatives in Germany. 
Of the 60,000 women in Gertnan unions some 48,000 belong to thLs 
organization. It is also the union that appeals most strongly to tho 
textile workers, and of some 45,000 men ana 20,OjOO women of the tex- 
tile industry in unions, 41,000 men and 13,000 women are " Free " 
unionists. The largest group of workers belonging to the Free Union 
are the metal workers, then the masons, the wood workers, and tho 
miners, the textile CTOup ranking fifth. 

This union was K)unaed in 1867 and is the oldest of modem Ger- 
man trades unions, with the exception of the smaller unions of thcj 
tobacco workers, founded in 1865, and that of the typographers, 
founded in 1866. All three of these were started before the old law 
forbidding such organizations was abrogated. The headquarters of 
the Free Union is at Berlin. It is a very powerful body of workers 
and is carefully organized. Each class of workers is grouped by 
themselves, according to sections, and these again subdividea. For 
instance, all textile workers around Aufl^burff are entitled to join the 
textile branch of this union, but are submvided into the carders' union, 

45 



46 COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 

the spinners' union, the weavers' union, the hosiery workers' union, 
etc., and the head of the general union at each center reports to head- 
quarters at Berlin. 

The objects of this union are educational, economic, and social- 
istic. The educational part is devoted to the education of the worker 
along technical lines, supplementing the primary school education 
by lectures, conferences, etc., and arranging apprenticeships. The 
economic part looks toward the raising of wages and the fixing of 
uniform wage schedules among all workers on the same line of 
work; giving relief in case of strikes and lockouts, sickness, etc.; 
placing workers; organization of cooperative societies; construction 
of good dwellings for workers, etc. The socialistic part deals with 
the general amelioration of the condition of the workers, and is 
largely political. The annual assessment is from 8 to 16 marks, or 
say 3^ to 7 cents a week, and these assessments, with other sources 
of income, such .as investments, interest, etc., bring in over $5,000,000 
a year. The greater part of this sum is expended in sustaining 
strikes, agitating their propaganda by trade papers and other means, 
assisting the sick and invalid, relief to operatives out of work, 
funeral expenses, etc. The reserve fund is now about $4,000,000. 
The Social Democratic Gewerkschaften is supposed to be nonpolitical, 
but they usually work with the Social Democratic party, though they 
are not necessarily supporters of any one party, but are free to work 
with any party from which they can gain anything in furtherance 
of their aims. The Social Democrats are avowedly atheistic, and 
the Social Democratic Gewerkschaften is largely so. 

THE CHRISTIAN AND GERMAN UNIONS. 

This atheistic tendency of the Social Democratic Gewerkschaften 
is one of the main causes that led to the formation of the Christian 
Gewerkschaften. The center of this union is at Cologne, and they 
number some 225,000 members, of whom about 32,000 are textile 
workers. Their objects are not materially different from those of 
the Social Democratic Union, except that they emphasize their belief 
in religion, and their main objects are the amelioration of the con- 
dition of the working classes by cooperation among themselves, se- 
curing an impartial administration of the laws, and improving and 
extending them. 

The entrance fee of the Christian Union is 50 pfennigs (11.9 cents), 
but their yearly dues are higher than those of any other German 
union. These dues are varied according to the average wages re- 
ceived in the various trades, but run from about 15 to 30 marks 
($3.57 to $7.14) a year. Their yearly receipts are about $600,000, and 
they have a reserve fund of about $300,000. Most of the railroad 
and post-office employees belong to this union. In spite of their 
religious prejudices against the Free Union they work with it for 
the attainment of political ends. 

Another union that exercises a strong influence is that called the 
German or Hirsch-Duncker Gewerksvereine, the latter name coming 
from its founder. Doctor Hirsch. Their objects are especially the 
securing of higher remuneration for work performed. They also 
agitate for the modification of labor laws in favor of the working 
classes, the betterment of conditions of work ; they give aid in case 



GERMANY — TRADE ORGANIZATIONS. ^ 47 

of sickness or of stoppage of work, form cooperative societies, in- 
struct workers and give them free counsel, and interfere in cases of 
difficulties between workers and employers to settle the disputes and 
arrange wage schedules, etc. They are organized into different trades 
and these subdivided. Their total membership is about 115,000 ; only 
some 6,000 textile workers belong to this union. The object of this 
union was at first purely economic, but it is now more socialistic. 
The yearly dues are 10 marks ($2.38). Their reserve fund is about 
$800,000. 

EVANGELICAL AND CATHOLIC WORKERS' UNIONS. 

The Evangelical Workers' Unions, formed about 1880, are divided 
into five main branches, which lie in Westphalia, Rhine, Saxonv, 
Silesia, and Baden. Their object is to elevate the worker morally 
and intellectually, but their lines of work are not materially differ- 
ent from the three socialistic unions noted. They started as anti- 
socialistic, but most of their 150,000 members lean strongly toward 
socialism and are active politically. Their main strength lies among 
those engaged in commerce, such as clerks, bookkeepers, agents, em- 
ployees in hotels and restaurants, etc., and very little among factory 
workers. They run a paper to exploit their views, possess libraries, 
savings funds, relief funds, bureaus for consultation and for placing 
workers, etc. 

The Catholic Workers' Unions were started about 1885, and there 
are three main unions, those of the south, the east, and the west. 
Their objects are similar to that of the preceding unions, and they 
strive to raise the moral and intellectual level of their members 
within Catholic lines by means of religious and economic conferences. 
They issue a weekly paper, distribute tracts, and are active politicallv 
in furtherance of their aims. They work usually in conjunction with 
the Christian Workers' Union. 

ORGANIZATIONS OF EMPLOYERS. 

The rapid increase of workers' unions and their increasing in- 
sistence on shorter hours and higher wages has within the last few 
years led to similar organizations being formed among the employers 
for mutual protection. 

There have been organizations among German manufacturers and 
employers in general for a long time, but such organizations were 
mainly local or for commercial purposes, for fixing or changing 
tariffs, etc. In 1876 there was formed in Berlin a central union of 
the German industries, the object of which was to develop and ex- 
tend German trade. In 1904 the strike that broke out among the 
vigogne spinning mills at Crimmitzschau, in Saxony, fixed the atten- 
tion of manufacturers on the necessity of having a stronger organi- 
zation to combat unjust demands of workers, and, at the suggestion 
of the Saxon manufacturers, the committee of the central union of 
German industries called a meeting of German employers, which de- 
cided to create a central association of the united employers of Ger- 
many. Eleven members were appointed to draw up plans and act a» 
an executive committee in estaolishing the new association. Thej' 
immediately wired to all manufacturers and in forty-eight hours had 
collected some $75,000, and this was later added to largely. 



48 COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 

This Central Association of the United Employers of Germany is 
now strongly or^nized and in its scheme of defense it embraces all 
the industrial unions of Germany. It was comparatively easy to or- 
ganize the German manufacturers for the reason that tne insurance 
laws of the Government had already forced all those in a certain trade 
in a certain section to work together on boards to administer in- 
surance funds, examine injured and sick operatives, and to see that 
each factory had proper safety appliances, etc. They were, there- 
fore, accustomed to working together and when menaced by this new 
danger they organized quickly on the new lines suggested. 

This central union is composed of representatives from all the 
various German employers' unions, and they have subcommittees in 
each large industrial center representing all the employers' unions in 
that section. It is a principle among all these associations to try to 
avoid strikes and locKOuts by all means possible, and to this pur- 
pose to have conferences with their workers, but to refuse absolutely 
to listen to representatives of outside organizations of workers. 

OBJECTS AND RESTRICTIONS. 

The special object of this central union of the employers' associ- 
ations is announced to be as follows: To protect employers against 
unjustifiable demands of workers' unions ; to protect those who desire 
work; to extend and develop the bureau for supplying employers 
with operatives; to execute decisions relative to strikes; to take 
charge of the legal protection of its members in all cases in which 
fundamental principles are at stake. 

The central union endeavors to gain the adhesion of all manufac- 
turers. It has a bureau for supplying information to members con- 
cerning movements of workers and their qualifications, and in regard 
to the causes and progress of strikes and the means to combat them, 
etc. Manufacturers may be refused the right of joining this union 
if their factories are isolated and at a distance from industrial cen- 
ters, or for other reasons considered just by the majority of the 
executive committee, and members may be dropped who refuse to 
conform to the rules or the decisions of the executive committee or 
who by their acts endanger the interests of the association. 

There is a general meeting once a year and funds are supplied 
according to a fixed assessment. Every member is supposed to work 
in the common interest by refusing to pay excessive wages, refusing 
demands for a reduction of the hours of work at his factory alone, 
refusing to employ workers who have quitted another employer in a 
manner unjustifiable or illegal, refusing systematically all interfer- 
ence by workers in the management of the factory and especially in 
regard to the employment and discharge of workers, and to conform 
fully to lockout decisions of the committee. 

One of the most recent conflicts between the employees and the 
employers' associations resulted in the victory of the former. This 
.was in regard to the amendments to the working law which were 
passed in December, 1907, and where the workers' unions, against the 
strong protest of the manufacturers, had the law modified so that 
after January 1, 1910, women can not work over ten hours a day, 
instead of eleven, thus reducing the maximum weekly factory hours 
to sixty, the substituting of twelve for thirteen as the legal hours per 
day in cases of temporary overtime permitted in certain cases, and 
other provisions along the same line. 



TEXTILES FROM COnON WASTE 



SKILLFUL METHODS OF UTILIZATION BY MANUFACTURERS — IMPROVED 
MACHINERY REQUIRED BY THE MILLS. 

In Germany the manufacture of cotton waste into a great variety 
of finished products is quite an industry. Not only do the mills manu- 
facture the waste from German cotton mills, but they also import 
cotton waste from all sections of the globe and, in many cases, ship 
the manufactured article back to the country from which the waste 
was bought. The cotton waste imported is listed as cotton linters, or 
as waste from cotton mills. The following table shows the import of 
cotton linters into Germany for the year 1907 : 



Country. 



Pounds. 



United states 38.0»,ai2 

British India. 14,460,806 

China I 2,680,284 

Dutch India 888,663 

Egypt 1 914,440 



Country. 



Pounds. 



Oreat Britain 1,128,228 

All other countries. ^ 2,240,402 

Total .-- 60,881,225 



Of the linters reexported, 6,158,417 pounds, the bulk goes to waste 
mills in northern Austria and the remainder to other neighboring 
countries. 

The waste from cotton mills — sweeps, flyings, strips, etc. — imported 
into Grermany for 1907, and the cotton-mill waste exported to other 
countries during the same period, is shown by the following table : 



Coimtr7. 


Imported. 
S,40e,3T3 

ie.i7»,5a4 

4,063, 2H 
1,<J25J42 

1,551,836 


Exported. 

6,083,701 
14,540,449 
4,843,510 


Ooontry. | Imported. 

1 


Exported* 


Uoited SCateiL^ - 


pomtd*. 


Poiindf. 


Auftrla , 

BelEfum^ , .._,..,. 

Brittib tndla. , ^ 


KetberJaadff- -,. t0t»te,6Q7 

Switzerland- - „, , 4,5i7,fit3 
AJl other countrifa-. „J 2.487.8*7 




Fraoce. . . . ^^ 

Great Britain 

Italy- -..- ^- , 


6,132.014 
012, 4« 




TotaL*^ ^ — . 7i,I70,99D 


!»,aH,OM 



It will be noticed that several countries both ship waste to and im- 
port waste from Germany. France and Austria, for instance, ship 
waste to Germany from various places, while Bohemian waste mills 
import waste from the German mills near at hand, and Alsace- 
Lorraine ships some waste over the French border. Germany buys 
all kinds of cotton waste from the United States, but especially soft 
waste, such as sweepings, flyings, and strips. Some of this goes into 
the manufacture of coarse towels, scrubbing cloths, dish rags, Blankets, 
etc.^ which is then exported back to the United States or to the Phil- 
ippines. 

H. i>oc 1270, 60-2 * 49 



50 COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 

COTTON-WASTE CLOTH — VIGOGNE YARN. 

Ten samples of this class of goods, which are made from American 
waste manufactured in Germany and then sold in the United States, 
are transmitted with this report. In some of these articles both 
warp and filling are made from cotton waste, while in others the 
warp will be jute, coarse linen, or other strong material and the filling 
cotton waste. The yams employed are usually between number .75 
and number 6, while in some of the finer grades the waste yams used 
run up to 8s or 10s or even higher where mixed with cotton. The 
cotton waste shipped hj Germany to the United States is mainly hard 
waste for use in machine wiping, etc. 

" Vigogne " yarn might also be considered in connection with cot- 
ton-waste spinning. This also is an important industry, and there are 
over 600,000 spindles making vigogne yam in Saxony. The real 
vigogne yam consists of wool mixed with cotton and the proportion 
varies from 20 per cent wool and 80 per cent cotton to 2 per cent 
wool and 98 per cent cotton, and is used in cheap hosiery, in imitation 
wool cloths, etc. In place of the wool, very often wool waste is used 
either in whole or in part. The less wool used the greater the profit, 
where it resembles wool when finished. A large portion of this so- 
called vigogne yarn now made in Saxony is not really vigogne, but 
is imitation yarn and in this case cotton waste is substituted for the 
wool and this is manufactured on wool cards and worked so as to look 
like the genuine material, unless inspected at short range. The pro- 
portion of cotton, of cotton waste, and of wool (where this is used) 
varies according to the grade of material desired and is kept a close 
secret by the respective manufacturers. It is, however, simply a 
question of using the cheapest mixing that will obtain the particular 
result desired. 

In the ordinary waste spinning where not over No. 6s is spun there 
is ordinarily used the two-card system, while for higher numbers, and 
always for vigogne, the three-card system has to be employed. With 
this exception the manufacture of vigogne or imitation yam does 
not materially differ from the ordinary waste processes. 

METHODS OF MANUFACTURE. 

In the following notes a few brief details in regard to the manu- 
facture of waste as carried on in German waste mills, cost and produc- 
tion of the machines ordinarily used, and the wages paid operatives 
are given. 

There are two main kinds of cotton waste : (1) Hard waste, or waste 
in which there is some twist, is made on the spinning; and subsequent 
machines, and consists of cop bottoms, reel waste, twister waste, etc.; 
hard waste has to be run through some machine to tear it up and take 
out the twist in this way before it can be reworked ; it is graded 
according to cleanness, whether white or colored, and according to 
the machine on which it is made; (2) soft waste, which includes all 
waste of the machines up to the spinning frame, such as motes, card 
fly, flat and cylinder strips, clearer waste, clean sweepings, oily waste, 
etc. 

There are two main systems of machinery generally used in the 
manufacture of cotton waste — the condenser and the couer. The first 



GERMANY TEXTILES FROM COTTON WASTE. 51 

resembles the wool system and the latter is more similar to the cotton 
system of manufacture. The condenser is best for soft yarn and 
gives a soft and full yam that can be used for warp and filling for 
blankets, flannelettes, cleaning cloths, auilts, etc. The coiler is best 
for waste yarns that are intended to be narder twisted and to be used 
for filling for towels, cloth to be. printed or dyed, for twine, rope, etc. 
The condenser system is the one used in the majority of the German 
waste mills. Here, as elsewhere, some regular cotton mills manufac- 
ture their waste into coarse yarns, but, except in the case of very large 
mills, this is not usually to be advised, for waste manufacturing is 
a separate branch of the industry and to get the best results it should 
be in a mill by itself. 

PURCHASE OF COTTON WASTE MACHINERY EMPLOYED. 

The German waste working mills buy cotton waste by sample from 
German waste dealers, who in turn bujr from the German cotton mills 
or from waste dealers- in other countries. The terms of commission 
and discount seem to vary according to the country from which 
brought, and also according to the individual dealer, there being no 
uniformly observed rules. Dealers in French waste usually give 2 
per cent discount, thirty days. From England the terms are the same 
for cotton waste as for cotton yam and are according to the Man- 
chester terms of sale. Dealers in American waste stated that their 
usual commission was three-fourths to 1 per cent, sometimes up to 
li per cent, and that drafts are made, with bill of lading attached, 
for three months, nineteen days' sight. 

In Germany the waste from the mills does not usually have to be 
transported far and is shipped in sacks weighing some 25 kilos (1 
kilo=2.2 pounds). From other countries the waste comes in pressed 
bales weighing 200 to SOO kilos. From the United States the waste 
bales are of the same size as cotton bales, about 500 pounds. Usually 
6 or 7 per cent is deducted for covering. 

In the usual cotton-waste mill in Germany using the condenser 
system the following machines are employed: (1) Opener (Baum- 
woUoffner) ; (2) picker (BaumwoU-Schla^aschine) ; (3) double 
automatic waste cards (Automatischer Zweipeigneur-Krempelsatz) ; 
(4) waste mules (Streichgam-Self actor). 

In addition some have reels or other machines for putting the yam 
up in special shapes. Instead of the mule some use a tubular cop 
machine, and others use a waste ring spinning frame for making 
yam for specific purposes. 

OPENER AND PICKER MACHINES. 

In the type of opener ordinarily used, a drawing of which has 
been sent, the waste is first mixed by hand, very often white waste 
from a wadding mill being mixed with dirty sweepings to lighten 
up the color, or other mixing made as desired, according to the grade 
or yam to be produced. This is then fed into the spout, and after 
being partially cleaned falls off the moving lattice at the other end, 
the cleaning being done by horizontal revolving blades, made very 
similar to the ordinary (Jrighton opener for cotton. One size of 
this opener Is about 55 by 105 inches, weighs about 4,850 pounds, and 
sells for about $400 ; the other size is about 70 by 150 inches, weig^« 



52 COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 

8,800 pounds, and sells for about $500. There is a double opener, 
which is about 70 by 315 inches, weighs some 17,000 pounds, and costs 
about $1,050, but is similar in its action to the others. In some of 
the openers the waste is pushed in through the spout by hand and 
in others it is spread by hand onto a movable lattice, which feeds 
it into the machine. The driving pulley is usually run at 1,000 
revolutions per minute. 

In a combined opener and picker, illustration of which is for- 
warded, the cotton as it comes from the opener is laid on a lattice, 
which feeds it into the picker, where it is fanned and beaten. The 
machine is similar in its general action to the regular cotton-mill 
picker, but instead of a beater with blades a cylinder is here used, 
covered with short projecting spikes. The cotton is not rolled into 
a lap, but is run up a moving lattice and allowed to fall to the floor, 
whence it is then carried to the hopper of the automatic double card, 
as described later. The picker is about 68 inches wide (for a work- 
ing width of 40 inches) and 160 inches long, weighs about 6,800 
pounds, and costs $650. The driving pulley is usually run at about 
1,000 revolutions per minute. It takes about 3 horsepower to oper- 
ate, and has a production of 3,300 pounds per day of ten hours. The 
combined opener and picker in Question has the same width as the 
single opener, is about 19 feet long, weighs about 14,500 pounds, 
and costs $1,125 at Chemnitz. One workman is required per machine, 
and gets 36 to 48 cents a day. 

WASTE CARDS. 

One of the largest Saxon machine firms and one that ships a good 
deal of machinery to the United States is at Chemnitz. One oi its 
specialties is waste cards. These, as shown in illustrations forwarded, 
are simply modifications of the woolen-card system. For making 
cotton-waste yams up to No. 4s this firm recommends the double card. 
The action of the cards is clearly shown in the catalogue illustration 
and requires little explanation. The cotton from the oreaker card is 
conveyed in an open lap to the roving card, where it is separated into 
slivers and wound up into numerous adjacent sections or cheeses on 
four lap sticks. The two cards work together, and one girl (usually 
at 48 cents a day) is the only help employed. The width is usually 65 
inches, and the total weight of the two cards is 42,000 pounds. This 
machine makes 40 slivers on each lap, or 160 slivers total, and the pro- 
duction per ten hours is 550 to 660 pounds, or enough to supply some 
600 mule spindles. The cost is $3,350 at Chemnitz; seapacking 7 

Eer cent extra, The freight on machinery from Chemnitz to Ham- 
urg is 2.5 marks per 100 Kilos (59^ cents per 220 pounds), and from 
Hamburg to New i ork is $5 per metric ton. Insurance is 50 pfennigs 
per 100 marks (12 cents per $23.80 hundredweight). 

For making cotton-waste yams between No. 4s and 8s the firm rec- 
ommends a one-comber system. This set of cards is also 65 inches 
width, it weighs complete 36,000 pounds, and costs at Chemnitz $2,856. 
It makes 140 slivers total on the four laps and produces 350 to 400 
pounds of Nos. 4s to 8s yarn in ten hours, or enough to supply 600 to 
650 mule spindles. 

For yams Nos. 6s to 12s the three-card system becomes necessary, 
and especially for vigogne yam, which is very often made without 
wool, using only cotton and cotton waste. The three-card system 



GEBMANY — TEXTII*ES PROM COTTON WASTE. 58 

weiffhs complete 45,000 pounds and costs $3,570 at Chemnitz. The 
production on Nos. 6s to 12s is 275 to 330 pounds in ten hours, or 
enough to supply 700 mule spindles. There are 140 slivers to the tour 
laps and the width is usually 65 inches, though any width, number of 
laps up to 6, or any numhier of slivers to the lap, can be made as 
desired. 

TANDEM THBEE-CARD PROCESS — HOPPER FEEDER. 

A tandem arrangement of a three-card set is made by a manu- 
facturer at Verdau. These cards are 65 inches wide and make 120 
slivers at a time. The cost at Verdau, packing not included, is $2,737. 
Running on No. 6s the production per day of ten hours is given as 
496 pounds. Waste mills using this system at Verdau employ one 
girl at 48 cents a day to run the set. 

To consume the production of such a card set there are necessary 
two self-actors of 300 spindles, each with ^ge of 1.9 inches: The 
price of such a self -actor as made at Verdau is $857 at that place, and 
to attend such a self-actor two girls are employed at 48 cents each. 
For every 1,000 to 1,500 mule spindles a spinner is necessary at $1.19 
a dav. 

The waste cards are not supplied with laps, but are connected 
direct to a hopper feeder. The ordinary hopper feeder does not feed 
evenly, being aflfected by the weight of material in the hopper and 
other causes, and to obtain an even yam from the card it is neces- 
sary to have uniform feeding, so some intermediate weight-regulat- 
inff apparatus must be used. This is especially necessary for the.so- 
callea automatic card sets; for the automatic supply of material 
from one card to another it is essential to have an exactly regular 
feeding of the first card. Formerly the card was fed by nand, and 
this method is still used in a good many mills with old machinery. 
The operative weighs a certain amount and spreads it by hand 
over a certain space on the feed apron. The weight-regulating de- 
vice now used carries out just the handwork described. Formerly 
the evenness of the yam varied according to the conscientiousness 
and ability of the operative, while the mechanical device works auto- 
matically and does the work more exactly and at less cost. This 
weighing device is made in different shapes and styles by different 
firms, but the method of all is similar. 

In using weighing devices on this machine made at Chemnitz the 
raw material is drawn out of a hopper by the usual spiked lattice, 
but instead of falling onto the feed apron it drops into a weighing 
trough. The two bottom plates of this trough are hinged and are 
balanced so that they only open when a certain fixed weight has been 
supplied. As soon as the correct amount has been dropped into the 
weighing trough the spiked lattice is automatically stopped, the two 
bottom plates drop down, and the waste is shed out on the feed apron, 
where it is immediately spread out evenly by a swinging presser 
arrangement and feeds on into the card. As this moves forward 
the bottoms of the weighing trough close up, the spiked lattice starts 
delivery again, and the process is repeated as before. This apparatus 
can be adjusted so that the speed of the feed apron, the weight of the 
material to be put in the weighing trough, and the frequency of its 



54 COTTON FABRICS IN- MIDDLE EUROPE. 

emptying, can be arranged according to the different materials to 
be worked. The attendant has only to keep the hopper supplied. 

WASTE ^PINNING ON MULES. 

The waste mule differs from the regular mule used in cotton mills 
in that there are no drafting rolls. The laps, consisting of 24 or 
more separate slivers wound on a lap rod, are taken direct from the 
waste cards and laid on the back of the machine, whence they run 
under one self- weighted roller direct to the spindles. The speed of 
spindles is necessarily varied according to the strength and quality 
of the material supplied. 

The production depends so much on the mixing and kinds of waste 
used that figures as to this have small value. The wages also vary 
at each mill. At a waste mill I visited at Zittau, in Saxony, I 
found that they used mostly sweepings, card fly, and similar ma- 
terial and mixed in some white waste from a wadding mill to bring 
up the color. The mules used were 500 spindles each, and on No. 6s 
waste yarn they were doffed about six times a day, getting 26^ to 
33 pounds at a doff or 176 to 198 pounds a day. For every 500 
spindles there were required one spinner, one piecer, and one creeler. 
The spinner was paid on No. 6s 86 cents per 200 pounds, the piecer 
received 70 per cent as much, and the creeler 50 per cent as much. 
The spinner therefore made about 78 cents a day, tne piecer 54 cents, 
and the creeler 40 cents. This was on low-grade waste. In most oi 
the mills I found that there were used a piecer and creeler to every 
500* spindles, but that the spinner looked after three to four mules, 
usually about 1,500 spindles. Few of the mules for waste spinning 
are made over 500 spindles, and 330 spindles seem to be a common 
size. In many places the operatives are paid by the day or by the 
hour, and this is probably due to the impossibility of paying by 
production where many different kinds of mixings are used. Most 
of the vigogne (the imitation yam vigogne) mills pay by the hour 
and the spinner gets 95 cents to $1.19 a day, and the others in pro- 
portion. At one mill at Crimmitschau, where there are many 
vigogne yarn mills, one manufacturer gave me his prices as being 
30 pfennigs an hour for the spinner (71 cents a day), while the girls 
who acted as piecer and creeler got only 20 and 15 pfennigs an hour 
(48 and 36 cents a day, respectively), but this is a little lower than 
usual. 

Prices paid for reeling vary, but for No. 6s cotton-waste yam the 
usual price is one pfennig per English pound. [Pictures of all the 
machines mentioned in the foregoing part of the report and samples 
of various textile fabrics made from cotton waste and linters are 
filed for inspection by the textile trade at Bureau of Manufactures.] 

A NEW RING SPINNING FRAME FOR COTTON WASTE. 

Cotton waste is usually spun on the mule because the material con- 
sists of short and uneven length fibers and could not be spun on the 
ring frame without excessive twist. To spin on the mules, however, 
is more expensive than to spin on the ring frame, and there have been 
many efforts made to adapt the ring frame to fulfill the functions 
of a mule and yet retain its cheapness of operation. One such 



GERMANY — TEXTILES FROM COTTON WASTE. 



55 



adaptation of the ring frame has been patented by a firm at Geb- 
weiler, in Alsace, and is being introducea into the cotton-waste mills. 
In one mill where I saw this machine in operation the manufacturer 
was enthusiastic as to its merits. The special advantage of this 
machine is that it makes a cleaner and more even yam than the 
ordinary ring frame and permits of a higher draft. It can not take 
the place of the mule for very soft spun yarns, but for many pur- 
poses, especially for making warp yarns to be used in scouring cloths, 
carpets, etc., the yam from this machine is as good as that obtained 
from the mule, and at much less cost. 

This machine is made in .two styles. The first is shown in fig. 1, 
with a detail view of the rolls and the roller stand in fig. 2. This 




Vii-. 1. Kin;; spinning frame witli drawing. 

differs mainly from the ordinary frame in the introduction of a 
" nadelwalze ^' or needle roller between the middle and front roller 
and this parallels and cleans the yam as it is being drafted. The 
second style is shown in fig. 3 where, in addition to the last-named 
system, patented by Perrin, there is added an intermittent second 
draft arrangement that is patented by Mever. 

The maker calls this a '" Kingspinnmaschine mit Streckwerk,'- that 
is, a " Bing spinning frame with drawing." He claims that all mix- 
tures of textiles, such as cotton, wool, or silk waste, noils or short 
fibers of ramie or jute, etc., can be spun on this machine and that the 
resulting yam is equal to any made on the mule. With Louisiana 
cotton the arrangement of the rolls permits a draft up to 16s for 



66 



COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 



single roving. N09. 25s to 28s yam can be spun direct from No. 1.8 
hank rove, and in consequence of such arrangement one process of 
fly frames can be omitted and the production of the cards be much 
increased. The yarns are much cleaner than if made on a regular 
spinning frame, owing to the cleaning action of the needle roller. 
This rofler does not lap up and needs no cleaning. 

MECHANISM OF ROLLERS. 

On this machine, with the arrangement shown in fig. 3, the first 
draft is made between the fluted roll A with its pressing roll A' 
and the stretching roll 3, with its pressing roll 3, and between these 
two is the needle roller H. A second draft operating similarly to 
the carriage draft on a mule is produced in the following way: 
Between the stretching roller 3 and the spindle 7 there is a revolving 
through-going roller provided with two cam-like projections 4, which 
serve to move up and down on each revolution of the roller the press- 




FiQ. 2. — Rolls and roller stand of ring frame. 

ing roll 2. When this roll is up the twist is specially transferred to 
the thin place in the yam shown by the figure 9. When, however, 
the pressing roll is on the roller 1 then the latter develops a draft 
between it and the stretching roller 3. This draft aflfects especially 
the thicker places shown bv the figure 8, where there is less twist than 
at the places 9, so these thicker places are twisted together and the 
yarn becomes uniform. As the two drafts are multiplied by each 
other a considerably higher total draft is thereby obtained than on 
any other spinning frame. 

The maker claims for this machine the following advantages over 
the mule : (1) The manufacture of strong cops up to 8.5 inches length, 
and about 1.50 inches diameter; (2) large draft whereby the rovmg 
can be made heavier and a larger production thereby obtained on the 
card; (3) uniformly regular draft as the fibers, whether long or 
short, are guided and kept together by the wires of the small needle 
roller shown as a in fig. 3; (4) regulation of the drafting accord- 



GEBMANY — TEXTILES FROM COTTON WASTE. 



57 



ing to the length of the fibers; (5) the production of one of these 
ring frames or 200 spindles is equal to that of a mule with 830 
spindles and occupies only one- fourth the floor space; (6) the labor 
cost is much cheaper, as to attend a ring frame of 280 spindles there 
is only required two girls ; (7) the consumption of power by the frame 
is nearly 30 per cent less than that of the mule. 

As used in the waste mills this frame is creeled with cheeses or 
sections of single ends taken direct from the waste card. One such 
cheese is shown at M in fig. 3. 




FiQ. 3.— Intermittent second draft arrangement of ring frame. 

The present price of this 280-spindle frame, with 100 mm. (3.94 
inches) gage, is $1,904, with extra 6 per cent for sea packing. 

TUBULAR COP MACHINE. 

The tubular cop machine, called in Germany a " Schlauchkops- 
Spinnmaschine," is a machine that is used for making coarse yarns 
from cotton waste, cotton, wool, hair, etc., and obviates the necessity 
of using the expensive self -actor. 

Like the ring spinning frame for cotton waste, previously de- 
scribed, this machine spins direct from the waste card without mter- 
mediate process, but the product of this machine is cops for imme- 
diate use in shuttles in weaving carpets, scouring cloths, etc., while 
the product of the other was warp yams. 



58 



COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 



Figs. 4, 5, G, and 7 are taken from the catalogue of a Chemnitz 
manufacturer, the first showing the complete machine. The opera- 
tion is as follows: The single roving cheeses from the waste cards 




I 



are laid in the round metal cans shown as K in fig. 5. The lids of 
these cans can be lifted, and are made fast to the can simply by press- 
ing down. The inner end of the roving is drawn from the cheese 



GERMANY — TEXTILES FROM COTTON WASTE. 



59 



that has been placed in the can, through the hole in the middle of the 
can lid, and is led upward over a roller, through a swinging thread 
guide /, to the funnel in which the yarn is to wind itself in cone 
shapne. The tin cans ik. are fastened on vertical spindles, which are 
put into rapid revolution by belt from the drum under the machine. 
In this way the roving that is being drawn out of the tin cans gets 
the necessary twist. The spindles are four cornered and are driven 
by means of small bevel gears on a horizontal side shaft. As the 
cop grows it is steadily lifted higher out of the funnel which forms 
the cop shape, and when the cop has reached full size the spindle is 
automatically stopped. Each can and the spindle can be placed in or 




Fig. 0. Fiu. 7. 

Details of operations of tubular cop machine. 

out of position by a disengaging apparatus separately of the others. 
The brake d holds the spindle when disengaging, so that the thread 
does not get more twist owing to the can continuing to run. By press- 
ing on the lever h each can is placed in position with the spindle, and 
by lifting the lever the cans come immediately to a stop. 

VARIATIONS IN TYPES CX)8T OF \T:RDAU MACHINE. 

The roving cans are sometimes used without lids, as shown in figure 
6, where the roving cheeses work separately. In this case the yarn 
is drawn through a movable thread guide. The tubular cop machine 
can also be used for twisting, when spinning, by means oi a double 
can, as shown in fig. 7. The cans themselves can l)e made in many 
different shapes, ana the firm in Chemnitz has patented a number of 
such makes for different purposes. The swinging of the thread ^v\vdA 



60 COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 

•can be arranged to give anv desired crossing of the yarn; the yarn 
can.be spun with right or left hand twist, and by choosing funnels 
that have been slitted in the proper manner {he cop can be wound 
either right or left handed. Finished cops are laid on the top of the 
machine. All movable parts of the machine ai*e sheltered from dirt 
and from contact with tne working girls by removable covers. The 
machine is usually made with cans on both sides, but is sometimes 
made one sided, so as to be placed against the wall. The usual spin- 
dle gage is 333 millimeters (about 13^ inches), so that large cheeses 
of 300 millimeters (11.8 inches) diameter can be used in the cans and 
the loss of time occasioned bv frequent replenishing with smaller 
cheeses avoided. The width or such a machine as made by the Chem- 
nitz manufacturer is 1,800 millimeters (about 71 inches), and the 
length is equal to the number of spindles on a side. For yams to be 
spun finer than No. 1 English — that is to say, for Nos. 3 or 4 — cans 
of about 200 millimeters (7.8 inches) diameter and narrower spindle 
gage are substituted. The power required is about one horsepower 
per 25 spindles. On No. 1 yam the production per spindle is about 
12 pounds per day of eleven hours, and one girl runs 12 spindles. 

A firm at Verdau, Saxony, gives the cost of a 60-spindle tubular 
cop machine at $952, to which has to be added 10 per cent for sea- 
packing charges. Such a machine is stated by this firm to give a pro- 
duction of 770 pounds of yarn per ten-hour day, with 6 female oper- 
atives, and to be the correct number of spindles to handle the delivery 
from a double waste card making 4 laps of 80 threads each. 

Tubular cops can be made on these machines up to 60 millimeters 
(2.36 inches) diameter and up to 300 millimeters (11.8 inches) in 
length. These tubular cops are firmly made and when placed in the 
shuttle require no spindle, as the cop entirely fills the shuttle, and the 
thread is drawn out from the inside. 

THE COILER SYSTEM. 

As has been shown in the foregoing, the condenser system of waste 
manufacture uses an opener, picker, automatic double or triple card 
set with hopper feed, and mule. The coiler system is not adopted as 
much as the condenser system in Germany, but the machines used are 
as follows: (1) Opener; (2) picker with lap-making apparatus; (3) 
breaker card with 1, 2, 3, or 4 cans; (4) doubler and lapper; (5) 
roving card; (6) mule. 

In this system there is interposed between the two cards a doubler. 
This machine takes the slivers from some 40-card cans ranged on 
either side and rolls them up into a narrow compact lap. The breaker 
card can be made as desired to coil into 1, 2, 3, or 4 cans, and these are 
the ones that go to the doubler, which will take the production of 8 
to 10 breaker cards. The lap as made on the doubler is usually one- 
half the width of the roving card, and two are placed together on 
a lap rod. Very often to secure still more uniform results four of 
these laps, formmg two card laps, are placed behind the roving card. 
The laps as made on this card go to the mule as in the other system. 

The coiler system has the advantage of the condenser system in 
that there is more doubling of slivers, and therefore the resulting 
yam is evener in grade, and it also has the advantage that any card 
can be stopped for repairs or cleaning separately. It has the dis- 
•^dvantage, however, of introducing another machine, which adds to 

le cost of manufacture. 



EMBROIDERIES AND LACES* 



BARMEN DISTRICT. 

DETAILS AND VALUE OF OUTPUT- OF BRAIDED GOODS — VARIETY OF STYLES 
AND PATTERNS MANUFACTURED. 

Cotton manufacturing, with its many ramifications and special 
branches, is probably the world's greatest industry. In Germany 
each special branch tends to concentrate in some particular section 
and around some particular town. Thus Chemnitz is known for 
hosiery, Plauen for embroidered laces, Gera for fine dress goods, 
Crimmitzschau for vigogne yam, Augsburg for fine spinning, Mul- 
hausen for fine weaving, Elberf eld for colored goods, Crefeld for vel- 
vets, etc. The specialty of Barmen, in western Germany, and one 
that has caused it to be a familiar household word around the world, 
is braided work, and particularly that branch of braided work known 
as " Barmen laces." 

There are in and around this town some 80,000 braiding machines, 
with probably 3,000,000 braiding spindles. Of these machines it is 
estimated that between 8,000 and 10,000 are devoted to the specialty of 
Barmen lace. 

EXPORTS OF SPECIALTIES TO THE UNITED STATES. 

In regard to the total production there are no official figures, obtain- 
able, but leading manufacturers estimate the export of lace from 
Barmen as being about 10,000,000 marks (mark=23.8 cents) a year, 
and that this is only one-third of the total production. The only 
trustworthy fibres in regard to the exports are those of the American 
consulate snowing the exports to the United States. 

Considering only work made on braiding machines and ribbon 
looms and the additional exports of polished " iron " yarn (the latter 
because sent to the United States to be used in braided work), the 
exports of tliese specialties from Barmen for the last five years have 
been as follows : 



Spedaltfaf. 



1908. 



BanneD Itoe (torebon) $146,727 

LaoM, eottoD, and otbar materiali 154,867 

Hat braida. 167,552 

Hatbandf and rfbboni 1,202.665 i 

OaDoons. triimnlngi, aiid«dcizigs 190,905 

Braida (feattientitdi and Batt«nberg) . | 

ete. 423,068 

Iron yarn 116.672 ' 

Total 2,401,966 



1904. 



1150,912 
143,728 
225,124 
583,100 
168,437 

362,807 
153.610 



1905. 



$204,704 
212,772 
207,941 
680.200 
165,152 

333,747 
172.740 



I 



1906. 



I 



$237,072 I 
202.300 
240.975 
915.800 
280,126 

347.691 
1gl.l04 



1,786,618 I 1.976, 256 2,408,131 



1907. 



$342,382 
244.391 
175.664 
990.900 
361.863 

320,727 
205,136 



61 



62 - - COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 

It will be seen that though the shipments of some specialties have 
declined, that of Barmen laces has steadily increased from $146,727 
in 1903 to $342,382 in 1907, and this in spite of the tariff and the 
fact that Barmen laces are being manufactured in the United States 
in increasing quantities. The wages paid in Barmen are lower than 
in the United States. The manufacturers here do not attempt to 
run on standard articles as much as is done in America, but keep 
a large force of designers who are alert to invent new designs and to 
catch everjr passing whim of the market. These designers are thor- 
oughly trained in the excellent German technical schools, and are 
always hard at work to keep just a step ahead of their competitors. 

ORIGIN AND GROWTH OF THE INDUSTRY. 

" Barmen laces " are now made in many countries, notably Bel- 
gium, but they were originated at Barmen, and this place was the first 
to use both the hand and the machine in this work. The first ma- 
chine to make this specialty in other countries seems to have been 
one patented at Manchester, England, in 1748, but the making of 
Barmen laces had been a well-established industry at Barmen long 
before this period. The industry was established in the United 
States by men from Barmen and is to a certain extent still carried on 
by them. 

In ordinary weaving there are used two sets of threads, one the 
warp and the other the filling. In braiding there is used only one 
set of threads, and these are plaited together to form the design 
desired. In the making of braias these threads are plaited or braided 
together in many different ways, so that every thread plaits with 
every other thread, groups of threads combine with each other, braids 
join with other braids, or parts of braids plait with parts of other 
braids, the latter forming the laces. 

Barmen lace is really a fancy braid, and is made on a machine 
that is simply an improved braiding machine. The system of all 
these braiding machines is that of the " Maypole,'' and the main 

Principles may be fixed in the mind by a description of Maypole 
ances. 

TRINCIPLES INVOLVED IN MAKING BARMEN LACE. 

Suppose there are a number of dancers around a Maypole — say, 
16— each holding an end of a ribbon of which the other end is fas- 
tened to the top of the pole. Suppose, first, that the IG dancers are 
divided into two parties of 8 each, and that each party dances around 
the pole in an opposite direction, each group following the path of 
its leader and taking a serpentine course so that every dancer goes to 
the right and then to the left of alternate dancers of the other party 

going in the opposite direction. There will be formed at the top of 
le pole a " round " braid or cord. 

Suppose, second, the same conditions as before, but that instead of 
continuously circling the pole in the same direction the leader of 
each party, on the completion of a circuit around the pole, passes com- 
pletely around the last member of the opposite party and goes back 
to the starting point. In doing so he follows the serpentine course 
traced by the opposite party — that is, he follows the reverse semicir- 



GERMANY — EMBROIDERIES AND LACES. 68 

cles to his own course in advancing. There will De formed at the top 
of the pole a " flat " braid. 

Suppose, third, that the 16 dancers do not circle the pole completely, 
but are divided into four parties of 4 each, and that each four dancers 
interweave among themselves on their own special arc of the circle. 
Where their course laps that of the adjoining group each dancer 



passes around one dancer of the adjoining group, out otherwise they 
interweave only amon^ themselves. There will be formed at the top 
of the Maypole a " stripe " braid. 

Suppose, fourth, that the dancers are divided into four croups of 4, 
each interweaving on their own particular arc of the circle, and that 
in this case their course does not overlap that of any of their neigh- 
bors. They interweave among themselves, but at regular or irrecular 
intervals, at the direction of the leader, one dancer changes places 
with one dancer from a neighboring group, weaves a figure with them, 
and then returns to his own group. There will be formed at the top 
of the pole a " Barmen lace " braid. 

In the machine the place of the top of the Maypole is taken by the, 
suspended eye of a "braid former," which collects all the threads 
into one hole, the places of the dancers are taken by bobbins of thread 
held by " bobbin carriers," and for the tracks of the dancers are sub- 
stituted grooves cut in a steel plate. 

OPERATION AND UTILITY OF THE MACHINES. 

Fig. 8 shows the types of grooves used for making each of the four 
styles of braids mentioned. Fig. 8A nhows that the two sets of car- 
riers going in opposite directions cross at regular intervals in their 
serpentine courses, but that each set has its own track, never gets on 
that of the other, and never changes the direction of its circling. 
Four bobbins is the least number that can be used to make this type 
of braid. Four bobbins make a square braid, six a hexagonal, eignt 
an octagonal, etc., the larger the number the more nearly approaching 
a complete circle being the resulting cord. 

Brides cords, this machine is also used for making steam and water 
packings, and in this case there is usually an extra ^' core " of rubber 
or some other material run up through the middle of the machine 
around which the threads interlace. In cases where it is desired to 
use a core of asbestos or other loose material the material is placed 
in a funnel over the top of the braid former and part of the carriers 
placed so as to run upside down. In covering whips, telephone wires, 
etCj the machine is frequently turned on its side so that the core is 
fed throu^ horizontally. For covering heavy cables there are 
often three vertical machines arranged one above the other. There 
is an infinite number of combinations and arrangements of machines 
of this type for making cords, tubular braids, etc., or for covering 
work. 



64 



COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 



VARIOUS STYLES OF FLAT BRAID MANUFACTURED. 

In fig. 8B it will be seen that each set of carriers makes a circle 
around the circumference of the machine and then reverses and re- 
turns to its starting point on the grooves previously used by the other 
set. As in the first case, the carriers do not interweave among them- 
selves, but only with the carriers of the opposite set. Braid of this 
kind — flat braid — can be made with as few as three carriers. It is 
therefore the simplest braid that can be made, as two threads can not 
be braided, but only twisted around each other. To make this braid 
it is necessary to have an odd number of spools — 3, 5, 7, 9, etc. — and 
flat braid thus made is usually called " soutache " braid. A soutache 





^^:fS' 



Fig. 8. — Guidegrooves for (A) round braid, (B) flat braid. (C) stripe braid, and (D) Barmen laee. 

braid made with three threads is called a " plain " flat braid, and 
every thread passes under and over every other thread. 

It a soutache braid is made with five spools — in which case each 
thread passes alternately under and over two threads — it is called a 
" basket " or " diamond " braid ; if made with seven threads — each 
thread passing alternately over and under three threads — it is called 
a " Hercules " braid. Flat braids are used for many purposes, but 
especially for passementerie and dress edgings or ornamentation. 

By varying the tension exerted on different threads there can be 
made wave braids, rickracks, etc., and these can be ornamented with 
loops, in a maimer to be described later, qv in other ways^ sq that 



GERMANY — EMBROIDERIES AND LACES. 65 

there are many special articles made of this type of work.<» A com- 
bination of the round and the flat braid types makes the " cord-edge 
braid," which consists of a cord ninninff down the middle of a flat 
braid. This is much used for covering the edges of jackets, etc., the 
two flat parts being folded back on the upper and lower sides of the 
cloth and leaving the cord covering the edge. 

STRIPE BRAmS AND BARMEN LACES. 

Fig. 8C shows the guide grooves for making stripe braid. These 
are so arranged that each set travels exclusively on its own track 
on its own particular arc of the circumference of the machine, but 
each track overlaps that of its neighbor, so that the threads carried 
by the bobbins of one set twist at regular intervals around the 
threads carried by the bobbins of the neighboring set. The bobbins 
of each set weave a braid among themselves, the overlapping being 
arranged only for the purpose of joining these separate braids to- 
gether. This is the reason that the combined braids are known as a 
stripe braid. The separate stripes may be of different colors or ma- 
terials. It is not necessary that each set shall have the same number 
of bobbins, and, in fact, it is usually otherwise. For instance, one 
of the regular staple articles in this line is made with 66 bobbins, ar- 
ranged on a machine with five tracks, carrying 12, 9, 24, 9, and 12 
threads each, respectively. A simpler design is made with 40 bob- 
bins arranged on three courses of 12, 16, and 12 bobbins, respectively. 
Each top plate has to be grooved with reference to the number and 
combination of spools it is desired to employ. 

Fig. 8D shows the guide grooves used lor making Barmen lace. 
Each group interweaves on its own course, and, as these do not over- 
lap, the bobbins, if the switches at a^ a\ etc., are closed, do not mingle 
with any outside bobbins. The switches are made of small tongues 
of steel j)late, and some are pivoted loosely so as to open to any car- 
rier coming in the right direction, say one returning to its own 
group, while others are controlled so as to permit passage only 
when moved by special mechanism, and this opening may be at 
regular or irregular intervals, as desired. 

CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF THE MACHINES. 

Fig. 9 shows the regular style of machines now used at Barmen for 
making Barmen lace. This particular machine is described as a 
" 2 f adige, 24 litzen Spitzenmaschine mit Jacquardmaschinen " — 
that is, a 2-thread, 24-track lace machine with Jacquard attachment. 
There are 24 tracks, and 2 bobbins are operated on each track, so 
the resulting lace has 48 threads. A view of the top plate, showing 
the guide grooves used on this machine, is shown in ng. 10. Using 
these two illustrations, I will explain the main points of construction 
and operation of such machines. 

«By letting some of the carriers run empty, open-work braids can be pro- 
duced. This method is extensively used for malting hat forms out of gl«nzed or 
"iron" yam. and in 1907 Barmen, as shown in table, shipped to the United 
States $175,654 of this one specialty. 

H. Doc. 1270, 60-2 5 



66 



cinros KAiJHirs in middle europe. 



Th^e \Hnly of Huch inachiiKis consists of two steel plates, whidi are 
r'trrAiUir ill Mliajx^, (ixctopt wlier« extended for the purpose of attadimg 
Mm* inki*-ntt inoclinnisin nnd tin* Jacqiiard attachment. The plates are 




Ki««. A -Ki^uUr Htylo ot lUHi'huio um>) ii) making Btinnen lace. 

hold oi\o rtUno tho othor at a distaniv of 4 inohos hv means of stay 
MtN, Uotwtvn tho two platos aiv arrauJ^H^ the searing for driving 
tho Ivbhin oarriois. Tlio Uutoui m* IxhI plate holds the stud bolts, on 






- " ■ ■•• ^ .i>.** V" ix^ ^ V 


iU' '.i^ i:M:vie srrxxwe^ 


1- 




^i.k^ avai ches^? grooves 



GEBMANY ^EMBROIDEBIES AND LACES. 67 

THE BOBBIN CARRIERS AND THEIR ATTACHMENTS. 

The " bobbin carriers " are really the most important part of the 
machine, and will next be described with their attachments. The 
thread is wound on bobbins or spools, which may be of different sizes 
or shapes, as desired. The usual type is a double-headed bobbin with 
a 4-inch traverse and a diameter, when full, of If inches. Two 
threads are usually wound on each bobbin together, but there may 
be one only or there may be three, four, or more, according to the 
kind of lace to be made. The bobbin carriers may be arranged to 
carry the spools either horizontally or vertically. The horizontal 
arrangement permits of the thread being drawn on more evenly with 
less liability of kinking, but takes up more room, so is not used except 
for special purposes. The bobbins nave round bores and are slid on 
the spindle of the bobbin carriers so as to permit of turning easily. 
The ordinary spindle is made in the shape of a hollow square with 
rounded edges, being of pressed steel bent and brazed together. 

A vertical bobbin holder of the ordinary type used at Barmen is 
shown in fig. 11. The small foot plates b and h of this bobbin carrier 
are separated from each other a distance equal to the thickness of the 
top plate by the small vertical bar c. This bar is a short straight 
piece with rounded ends and slides in the guide grooves. The loot 
plates h and &', being above and below the top plate of the machine, 
keep the bobbin carrier vertical. 

The pin a at the bottom of the bobbin carrier rests in a notch of the 
horn gear below and the revolution of the horn gear therefore moves 
the bobbin holder. These " horn gears " are made with double 
flanges. The lower flange has cut in its circumference ordinary spur 
teeth and is revolved by means of other gears which transmit to it 
power from the driving belt. The upper flange is cut with notches 
and horns, and the number of these notches varies according to the 
class of machine and the position of the gear on the machine. These 
upper flanges work close together, so that one is beveled on the lower 
edge and one on the upper edge. 

THE TENSION AND AUTOMATIC STOPPING DEVICES. 

Every bobbin carrier has a device for regulating the tension of the 
thread being drawn off and also an arrangement for automatically 
stopping the machine when a thread breaks or runs out. The stop- 
motion arrangement consists of a small piece that slides up and down 
on the standard. This is shown as d in fig. 11. When in operation 
the thread passing through the eye in the top of the piece d holds it 
up, but when the thread breaks or runs out this piece falls and a 
projection at its bottom strikes against a lever on the top plate and 
this, through the usual connections, stops the machine. For large 
machines there are usually four or six of these levers arranged at 
various points on the top plate, so that the machine is quickly stopped 
when the bobbin carrier with a fallen stop-motion weight reaches 
this point. 

The tension device consists of a weight hung on the thread, and 
this weight may be hung inside the hoUow spindle of the carrier or 
may slide up and down on the top part of the carrier outside. Fig. 11 
ilhistrates the first and fig. 12 the latter. The weight is usually 
hung inside, as the centrifugal foice of a rapidly revolving c«.YYV5t 



68 



COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 



tends to prevent an outside carrier dropping quickly enough to pre- 
vent kinking when the thread slackens. The weight is thus also more 
protected from dirt, but this arrangement makes the threading some- 
what more troublesome. 

Fig. 11 shows a carrier without bobbin, but when a bobbin is placed 
on it the thread is first run through the eye near the center of the 
standard, then through the stop-motion eye, then up through the eye 
at the top of the standard, down through an eye in the leyer e, 
through the tension-weight eye, and then through the eye at the top 
of the hollow spindle, whence it goes to the braid former. This makes 
a total of six eyes to be threaded. On both styles the short lever at 
the top is arranged so as to be lifted clear of notches in the top of the 
spool oy the tension of the thread, but when this tension ceases the 
lever drops into a notch and prevents the bobbin continuing to 
unwind. 





Fig. U. 



Fig. 12. 



Fig. 13. 



Fig. 11.— Vertical bobbin holder. Fig. 12.— Bobbin carrier, showing the outside tension weight 
Fig. 13.— Courses of bobbins in making three-line lace. 

VARIATIONS REQUIRED FOR THE VARIOUS WEAVES. 

For making ordinary braid two gears are of course tlie least pos- 
sible number that can be used. On large lace machines there may be 
as many as 60. In making the simple " soutache " braid previously 
noted the horn gears at the end are always made with an odd number 
of teeth and the middle gears with an even number of teeth. The 
reason for this is readily seen, as the end gears have to carry each 
bobbin completely around and start it in between two other bobbins 
on its return course. The end gears, having a tooth more than the 
middle gears, also incidentally tend to make a better selvage. 

For plain soutache braids the end gears usually have five horns 
and the middle gears four. For diamond pattern flat braid the end 
gears may have three horns and the middle gears two, but as ordi- 
narily produced this braid is made with two threads instead of one, 
in which case they have six and four horns, respectively. For Her- 
cules flat braid the end gears have seven horns and the middle gears 
six. 

In making round braid there is no reversing, and as each bobbin 
repeats contmually the same course, the gears all have the same num- 
ber of horns and these are made of an even number. Barmen laces 



GERMANY — EMBROIDERIES AND LACES. 69 

are made in three styles, either two, three, or four threads to a 
" Litzen " or course, so the horn gears for this work are made with 
four, six, or eight horns, according to which is desired. There must 
always be at least double as many horns as there are bobbins, so that 
each bobbin carrier pin in shifting from one gear to another will 
find a vacant notch ready for occupation. 

The total number of bobbins for making Barmen lace simply de- 
pends on the design and the size in which the machine may be built. 
Of the four-thread Barmen laces the highest number of separate 
" Litzen " or tracks at present used on machines here is 24, which 
gives a 96-thread lace. The largest two-thread machines have 60 
separate tracks or courses, or a total of 120 threads braiding together. 
Laces up to 10 inches wide can be made on such machines. These 
are the largest Barmen lace machines built. They have a diameter 
of 3 meters (meter=39.37 inches) and cost 3,000 marks ($714) each, 
but there are only six as large as this as yet used at Barmen. 

MODIFICATIONS NECESSARY FOR MAKING THREE-LINE LACE. 

As the tracks on a Barmen lace machine do not overlap each other 
and are separated by switches, the horn gears at the ends of the 
courses do not meet and special horn gears have to be employed in 
addition to the regular ones. This is clear from the fact that the 
grooves in the top plate of the machines follow very nearly the pitch 
line of the gears, underneath. In fig. 13 will be seen — projected on 
a straight Ime for convenience in explaining — ^the grooves that are 
used around the circumference of a Barmen lace machine for mak- 
ing a particular lace. This lace is called a three-line four-thread 
Barmen lace. It is made with 12 threads, and dots marked I to XII 
in the figure show the position of the 12 bobbins at the commence- 
ment of the lace figure on line a. It is seen that there are three 
separate courses, consisting of four separate circles for the two outer 
courses and five for the inner. The two circles in between are 
courses that are occupied only when the switches are open and at 
other times they and the auxiliary horn gears outside run empty. 
The lace is called three-line, because there are three distinct stripes 
and these interlace onlv at intervals, the first being when boboin 
No. I and bobbin No. lA change places. The method of interlacing 
is shown so clearly by the diagram as to need no explanation. 

THE BRAID FORMER AND TAKE-OFF ROLLERS. 

The threads collect as braided together at the braid former above 
the center of the machine and the finished braid is drawn off by the 
take-up rollers clear of the machine and falls into a can placed along- 
side. The braid former consists of an eye, which may be of any shape 
desired. For heavy or complicated work it is necessary that the 
braid forming shall be assisted by some device to beat up the threads 
and compact them m a fashion similar to the beating-up work done 
by the forward action of the lay in the ordinary loom. For some 
styles of braids this is performed by means of two combs on long 
arms which swing in toward the braid former along the course of 
the forming braid. In others there are arranged above the braid 
former an eccentric arrangement with pivoted arms, and these arms 
hold curved wires which swing in radially toward the braid former 



70 COTTON FABRICS TX MmDLE EUROPE. 

and beat up the interlacing threads. This arrangement is shown 
complete in fig. 0. 

The take-up motion consists of three rollers which draw off the 
finished braia. Their speed can be regulated hj change gears and 
their distance apart adjusted according to the thickness of the braid. 
Some are arranged so that only one roller is fixed and the others held 
in position by springs. For braided work of irregular shapes cal- 
encfer rollers are dispensed with and the material drawn off by the 
friction of one or two wrappings around a large wheel, which may 
have grooves cut in it. For very irregular shapes the material has 
to be drawn off by hand. 

ATTACHMENTS FOR WEAVING SPECIALTIES. 

For special effects Barmen lace machines are made with other at- 
tachments and special arrangements. One arrangement consists of 
introducing extra threads from an outside source lor making a core, 
around which the regular threads from the carriers interweave. 
Such extra threads are called distinctively " warp threads," and are 
usually drawn from stationary bobbins placed on the floor under the 
machine and drawn up through hollow bolts into the braid being 
formed by a set of interlacing bobbins. 

Another arrangement for producing specialties consists, as pre- 
viously stated, in varying the tension or the threads by means of 
hanging weights of different sizes on particular, threads. This pre- 
vents the braid running in a straight line and produces wave and other 
similar effects. 

Another special device is that for making loops. There are several 
patented arrangements for this, but the principle used in all is that of 
a straight wire pointing from a certain place just over the tops of the 
revolving bobbin carriers toward the braid former. The threads 
pass under it to the braid former without being affected, but at in- 
tervals the outer end drops momentarily on to the top of a carrier 
spindle, when the thread of that bobbin passes over the wire and is 
tnereby caused to make a loop. The carriers are usually so arranged 
that part of them have projections at the top to strike and pull down 
this wire for the second that they meet, while the other earners, being 
without these projecting collars, pass under without being touched. 

REGUIiATION OF THE PATTERN ^TIIE JACQUARD SYSTEM. 

It has been previously shown that on Barmen lace machines the 
bobbins from the separate braids being made only interweave when 
the switches between the separaite courses are open. The pattern 
therefore depends on the order in which these switches are opened and 
closed. There are three separate methods of accomplishing this. The 
oldest and simplest plan is to fasten vertical pins in the switch 
tongues and then provide special bobbin carriers with projecting col- 
lars which will strike these pins and open and close the switches either 
for their own passage or that of a succeeding carrier without collar. 
This arrangement permits of only short patterns and is now little 
used except for special purposes. 

The second system consists of a series of notched disks revolving on 
a horizontal shaft at the side of the machine. The notches corre- 
spond to the distances of the carriers on the machine, and movable 



GERMANY — EMBROIDERIES AND LACES. 71 

fingers are attached to each disk and can be clamped into any notch 
as desired, and each finger on striking against the lever pin below 
causes the connecting lever to open or close the particular switch to 
which it is attached. This system also does not permit of sufficient 
variety, and while there are a good many machines of this type at 
Barmen they are nearly all old machines, and the new machines have 
the Jacquard arrangement, which is shown in fig. 9. It is seen that 
in this third method the pattern is fixed by means of the perforated 

Jasteboard cards running over the revolving square of an ordinary 
acquard, so that where there is a hole in the card a needle swings in 
and its connecting lever moves a particular switch and where there is 
no hole met the needle can not shift the switch. The patterns are 
stamped on punching machines exactly the same as for the ordinary 
loom Jacquard work. 

ARRANGEMENT AND SPEED OF THE MACHINES. 

Large lace machines are mounted on separate tables with separate 
belts, but the majority of the machines at 6armen are mounted in sets 
of 10, there being 5 on each side of a short central shaft driven from 
a belt at the end. This central shaft carries bevd wheels, which gear 
with horizontal bevel wheels, and thence transmit the power through 
spur gearing to the carriers and take-up attachment of each machine. 
Between each separate machine and the bevel gears are often inter- 
posed clutch gears, so that any particular machine can be thrown out 
of gear without stopping the others. 

The. shaft of the braiding machines is usually run at about 75 
revolutions per minute, and the speed of the ordinary braiding ma- 
chines is given by manufacturers as from 180 to 250 turns of the 
handle per minute. This is a wide range, but the range of the work 
is equally wide, and the speed is varied not only according to the com- 
plexity of the particular design, but also according to the skill of the 
operator. The speed of each machine or set oi machines can be 
quickly changed by means of change gears. These machines are 
arranged so that one turn of the handle — this handle may be seen in 
fig. 9, and is for the purpose of turning the machine backward or 
forward by hand — is made while two carriers are passing any par- 
ticular point on the guide grooves. There are, therefore, two inter- 
lacings, corresponding to two " picks " of a loom, made for each 
handle turn, and the number of crossings will usually be two times 
200 or 400 a minute. For Barmen laces the speed is slower and is 
usually given in Jacquard movements per minute instead of handle 
turns per minute. The speed here also depends on the design, the 
workman, and the strength of the material, and is given by manufac- 
turers as ordinarily ranging between 120 and 170 Jacquard move- 
ments per minute. By this is meant that 120 to 170 Jacquard cards 
are presented to the needles every minute. 

YARN SPOOLING FINISHING AND PACKING LACES. 

The lace factories buy their yarn from spinnei^, some of it being 
imported. This is usually in skeins and is then wound on the spools 
or bobbins of the particular size and shape required. Some factories 
let this work out to home workers, who do nothing else. There are 
36 such establishments in Barmen, employing 280 operatives, who 



72 COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 

do only this spooling for the factories. In some of these places the 
work is done by power and in others by hand. In the re^lar fac- 
tories I also noticed men operating handwheels, but this is usually 
for spooling on bobbins of special sizes or sizes needed in limited 
numbers. 

After manufacturing some braids and laces are considered com- 
plete, but the majority of them are run through a small calendering 
machine to finish and in some cases to size. The machine is made so 
that the laces first pass over live steam to soften them and then 
throug;h the ordinary steam-filled calender rolls. They then go to 
the shipping room, where they are inspected, woimd on cardboard, 
cut up into the required lengths, ticketed, wrapped, put in cardboard 
boxes, and these cased. The cardboard on which the laces are wound 
is held between two flat-slit clutches and then revolved by hand until 
the desired length is wound on, when the roll is taken off and a new 
piece of cardboard inserted. 

PRICE OF MACHINES WAGES AND HOURS OF OPERATIVES. 

The price of Barmen machines varies greatly according to the 
number of spools, the number of tracks, the particular attachments 
desired, etc. One manufacturer stated that his charges were based 
on 55 marks (mark=23.8 cents) per Litzen or track, while another 
gave his prices as ranging from 420 marks for a 6-litzen lace machine 
to 3,000 marks for a 60-litzen lace machine with 2 threads to a litzen. 
The price may therefore be figured as about $12 per track, or $288 
for the ordinary 24-track lace machine. 

For ordinary work at Barmen one operative, either man or woman, 
runs one set of 10 heads, and makes 4 marks a day or 24 marks a 
week. The hours vary considerably at different factories, but the 
usual time seems to be fifty -seven hours a week. The usual arrange- 
ment is from 7 a. m. to 12 and from 1 p. m. to 6.30, with fifteen min- 
utes for the regular 4 o'clock stoppage and only six hours on Saturday. 

In Saxony I found that the majority of the textile factories did 
not stop more than an hour earlier than usual on Saturdays, but 
around Barmen the operatives demand the Saturday afternoon and 
prefer to have this half holiday and make up the time during the 
other five days. The total hours per week are also somewhat less 
than in Saxony. 

[One photograph showing cord-braiding machines in operation, 
and seven additional text figures of different parts of lace-making 
machines, together with eight-een samples of the various kinds and 
styles of braids and laces manufactured at Barmen, accompanying 
the foregoing report, are on file in the Bureau of Manufactures.] 



PLAUEN DISTRICT. 

DEVELOPMENT OF THE MANUFACTURE OF EMBROIDERED OR ETCHED LACES. 

Of the many branches of cotton manufacturing, that of lace mak- 
ing is the most refined and artistic. The products of this branch, 
more than those of any other, are used for purposes of ornamentation, 
as distinguished from wear and durability. This is especially true 
of the Plauen lace, which is used almost exclusively to trim ladies' 
dresses and to make fancy blouses, overskirts, etc. 



GERMANY — EMBROIDERIES AND LACES. 78 

Of the four big European centers for lace and embroidery, Notting- 
ham and Calais produce mainly fancy lace on the Levers lace ma- 
chine. St. Gall makes little lace, but employs both the hand and the 
schiffli power machine for embroidering on muslin and cambric. 
This work is for utilitarian purposes, such as underwear, corset cov- 
ers, etc. The Plauen manufacturers work on an entirely separate 
branch of the industry, as they use the embroidery machine for mak- 
ing lace. The Plauen product is known as embroidery or etched lace. 

ANNUAL PRODUCTION, AND EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES. 

The Plauen district produces annually embroidery laces to an esti- 
mated value of 70,000,000 marks (mark=23.8 cents). Of this only 
about one-fifth is retained for use in Germany, and the remainder is 
exported to other countries, especially to the United States and Eng- 
land. The figures for laces and embroideries shipped from Plauen 
to the United States in 1907 are as follows : 

Laces and embroidered articles: 

Cotton $3, 211. 784 

Cambric 118,000 

Sillc 159,015 

Artificial silk 84,013 

Linen 29, 992 

Lace curtains 18, 746 

Torchon lace 1, 353 

Total -^ 3,622,903 

The total value of all exports from Plauen to the United States in 
1907 was $4,479,021, so it is seen that laces and embroideries form 
three-fourths of the total, and the growth of this business is worthy 
the careful attention of American manufacturers. 

HISTORY OF THE INDUSTRY. 

Plauen in Vogtland, as it is known, to distinguish it from another 
Plauen near Dresden, is loftily situated in the southwestern section of 
Saxony. In ancient times it was the seat of the Vogt (Advocatus 
regni), and it is now the capital of the section of Saxony that is still 
called, as in ancient times, Vogtland. The Vogtland and the neigh- 
boring portion of southern Saxony known as the Erz-Gebirge have 
been centers for the textile industry for centuries. 

This section is situated on the old highways of trade that .ran be- 
tween northern Germany and Bohemia and Bavaria, and as the soil 
is shallow and the people naturally a home-loving and an indoor 
race, they started cottage industries, especially textile industries, at 
an early date. This section became noted for its hand embroidery 
work, and the knowledge acquired in this line was handed down from 
father to son. 

The modem work may be said to date from 1857, when the first 
hand machine for making embroidery was introduced from Switzer- 
land, but it was not until 1881, when Herr Bickel, at Plauen, origi- 
nated the idea of embroidering on tulle, that the specialty was started 
that has since made Plauen famous. The idea of embroidering on 
net was later followed by that of embroidering on a material to be 
chemically removed so as to leave only the embroidered lace itself. 



74 COTTOiSr FABRICS tN MIDDLE EUROPE. 

DEVELOPMENT AND PRESENT CONDITIONS. 

When this specialty was started there were only some 30,000 people 
in Plauen, but in the quarter of a century that has elapsed since then 
the population has more than trebled and is now given as about 
110,000. This population has gathered here from all over Germany, 
being attracted by the higher wages. For a while this specialty was 
almost a monopoly of this one place and the demand was sucn that 
large profits were made. Even to-day this specialty is more devel- 
oped in this one town than in any other country oi the world, and 
through its lower wages and its highly trained personnel it is enabled 
to sell millions of dollars worth of these goods every year to great 
textile countries like England and the United States. 

The profits in this business have been so good that not only were 
skilled and unskilled operatives attracted here from all over Grer- 
many and from other countries, but men in other lines of trade started 
in business on their own account. Such men would buy or rent a 
few machines and employ a few skilled operatives to run them. In 
the prosperous period they easily got orders, and starting with no 
knowledge of the business at all some gradually built up large firms. 
At the present time (March, 1908) the business is feeling the stress 
of hard times, and many of these immature firms that have been 
started in the last few years will probably go under. The financial 
crisis and the consequent lack of buying orders from the United 
States is being severely felt, and all the factories are running short 
time and some have closed down. Any disturbance of the buying 
power of the United States is felt in every textile center in Europe, 
and the most practical method to avoid disturbing these markets is 
to make such textiles at home. 

Embroidery and lace making is scattered throughout the Vogtland 
and Erz-Gebirge, but centers around Plauen and the neighboring 
towns of Auerbach, Falkenstein, and Treuen. Eibenstock is also 
quite a center, but works on a special line. 

HAND-MADE LACES AND BEAD EMBROmERIES. 

In considering lace work in the Plauen district it may be noted that 
lace can be made by three separate methods, being known as needle, 
pillow, and machine. 

Needle lace is made with the needle by hand, and lace so made was 
called in old times " needle " or " point " lace. Pillow lace is made 
by interweaving by hand the various threads around pins stuck in a 
pillow. Machine-made lace is a quite recent development, but em- 
braces a good many systems. 

Hand embroideir is still employed in upper Vogtland, and is made 
with either a regular sewing needle or with the tambour needle. It 
is made on a cotton or linen ground. Both needle and pillow lace 
are occasionally to be found also, though only to a limited extent. 
The manufacture of hand-embroidered blouses and robes, also of the 
so-called " Battenberg " articles — ^little tapes joined together by 
needlework — still flourishes in this section. 

Eibenstock is the largest hand-embroidery center, and has a repu- 
tation for rich designs and fancy work. To a larger extent it is 
noted for its bead embroideries. Polished Bohemian &ads of various 
colors and spangle made from a mixture of gelatine and cellulose 



GERMANY — EMBROIDERIES AND LACES. 75 

are sewn on by hand and used to make dress trimmings, edgings, 
skirts, collars, belts, etc. Bead embroideries made on black tulle and 
beadwork formed on metal tulle also have a good sale. 

There is still some hand work done at Plauen itself in embroider- 
ing colored wash articles, but this is more in the way of supplemen- 
tary work, and the increasing number of women required in the 
schiffli factories tends to still further restrict this home work. 

The great bulk of the Plauen articles are made on machines which 
are either worked by hand or power, the chain-stitch articles being 
made on the tambour machine, ordinary white embroideries on the 
hand-embroidery machine^ and the laces on the schiffli power machines. 

The chain-stitch embroideries, as made on the tambour machines, 
and on the lace sewing machines of varied types, are mainly used for 
decorative home work, such as curtains, doilies, centerpieces, etc. 

The regular white embroidery in the Vogtland is mainly made on 
the hand-embroidery machines, and is smiilar to the Swiss em- 
broideiy. It is made on a permanent foundation of muslin, cambric, 
or nainsook. The Plauen work in this line is mainly of the cheaper 
varieties, for they can not compete with the Swiss manufacturers on 
the higher and more perfected designs. The reason for this is that 
this white embroidery is a secondary branch at Plauen, while at St. 
Gall it is the main business and has been brought to a high degree of 
perfection in all details of the work. 

GERMAN VERSUS SWISS WORKERS AND PRODUCJT. 

The Swiss operative is more skilled than the German operative, and 
his wages in this line are smaller. From figures obtained at both 
centers in regard to this industry it would seem that the German 
worker receives the same number of marks (mark=23.8 cents) that 
the Swiss worker does francs (franc=19.3 cents) . Another important 
point is that the bleaching at St. Gall gives more of a dead white 
bleach than does that of Plauen. The St. Gall bleacheries obtain their 
water from the Bodensee (Lake of Constance) , while at Plauen they 
depend partly on wells and partly on a small river, the Weiss Elster, 
which is frequently muddy. 

The hand machines in use at Plauen are similar to those described 
in my report on the Swiss industry,* but are usually 5 yards wide 
instead or 4^, as customary in Switzerland. This machine was intro- 
duced from Switzerland in 1857, and in 1863 there were 100 in opera- 
tion. This number gradually increased until there were some 4,800 
in 18d3 ; since then they have not been able to stand the competition 
of the power machines and have decreased in numbers until they are 
estimated now at not much over 2,500. Each machine is estimated 
to product 3,000 marks worth of embroidery a year, so their total 
production may be roughly figured at 7,600,000 marks. The bulk of 
the work in this line is for home consumption in Germany and little 
is exported. 

THE PRODUCTION OF SCHUTLI-MACHINE LACES. 

The Plauen laces are made on the schiffli machine, and therefore, 
whether tulle laces, guipures, imitations of real laces, etc., are all 
classed as embroidery laces. The number of schiffli machines used 

« Swiss Embroidery and Lace Industry, monograph, published by the Bureau 
of Manufactures, pp. 43. 



76 COTTON FVBRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 

at Plauen has steadily increased in the past few years and is now 
estimated at 7,000. Each machine is estmiated to produce at least 
10,000 marks of lace a year, so that the total production in this line 
may be figured at fully 70,000,000 marks annually. 

Although this Plauen specialty was inaugurated in 1881, it only 
came into practical operation in 1883 through a Plauen manufac- 
turer using a tulle foundation and making articles to imitate hand- 
made lace. This new lace became popular and profitable. Later 
the further idea was evolved of using a tempora^ background to 
be removed after the stitching was completed. For this purpose 
chemical cloths are used. The stitching is made on this as on an 
ordinary muslin background, and then acids used to dissolve the 
cloth and leave only the embroidered lace effects. 

There are a good many patented processes, and every other manu- 
facturer at Plauen has his favorite method. The principle of all of 
them, however, is that of using a chemical cloth of vegetable fibers 
when the embroidery thread is of animal fibers and a chemical cloth 
of animal fibers where the embroidery thread is of vegetable fibers. 
Thus, for cotton the chemical cloth is usually woven of wool, but for 
silk embroidering the chemical cloth is of cotton. In the former case 
the embroidered cloth usually passes through an acid bath, which 
dissolves the cloth and leaves unaffected the cotton lace. With silk 
or artificial silk there can be no wet treatment, hence the finished 
material is usually run over a gas flame and the foundation ma- 
terial burned off. In some cases a hot iron passed over the back of 
the material is sufficient to accomplish this purpose. 

DESCRIPTION OF THE FOUNDATION MATERIALS. 

Four samples of the main foundation materials used in this in- 
dustry are forwarded [on file in the Bureau of Manufactures]. The 
principal one is a muslin, of which every two warp threaas, each 
shedding separately, however, lie together, so that the muslin has 
also a rep effect. This muslin is made in England and Grermany and 
none is made in the United States. The bulk of the Plauen demand 
is now supplied by Miilhausen, in Alsace-Lorraine. This muslin is 
usually 120 centimeters (47.25 inches) wide and has 88 warp and 84 
filling threads per inch. The present price at Plauen is 66 pfennigs 
a meter, which is about 14.4 cents a yard, less 2 per cent discount 

Another sample of background is a woolen cloth, made of red warp 
and white filling, and chemically prepared so as to readily dissolve 
when placed in a bath of a certam acid. This particular clolh is 
160 centimeters (63 inches) wide, 64 by 54 construction, and the 

{)resent Plauen price is 98 pfennigs a meter, say, 21.4 cents a yard, 
ess 2 per cent discount. 

The third sample shows one of the regular styles of bobbinet, made 
with 38 holes to the square inch. These nets are made very wide, 
so as to be the full width of the embroidery frame. The particular 
sample shown was 550 centimeters, or 6 yards wide, and the present 
Plauen price is 3.65 marks a meter, say, 80 cents a yard. 

The fourth sample shows a square net. This net was 160 centi- 
meters (63 inches]) wide, has 17 meshes per inch each way, and the 
E resent Plauen price is 1.35 marks per meter, say, 29 cents per yard, 
>ss 2 per cent discount. 



GERMANY — EMBROIDERIES AND LACES. 77 

The tulle used at Plauen formerly came almost entirely from Not- 
tingham, but there are now tulle factories at Chemnitz, Plauen, Miil- 
hausen, and other points, so that the larger portion of this founda- 
tion material is now obtained in Germany. Tnough tulle is not made 
in the United States, the superintendent of the large tulle factory 
at Chemnitz is an American. The bulk of the chemical cloth is also 
obtained in Germany. The general term for all laces made on chem- 
ically prepared cloth is guipure lace. 

Laces can be made in greater variety of effects on the embroideiy 
machine than is possible by any other method, except that of hana- 
made lace. The variety is much greater than is possible in the case 
of white embroideries, and is also greater than can be produced on 
the Levers lace machine, as the latter can not make the heavy and 
raised effects. Laces are made on the schiffli machine at Plauen in 
imitation of every style of lace, from the heavy " Venice points " with 
relief to the lightest and finest old point laces. Some are so skillfully 
made that only an expert in this line can distinguish the difference, 
and whereas only the very wealthy could afford the genuine lace, the 
modem lace is made for the masses. 

TECHNICAL TRAINING OF EXPERT DESIGNERS. 

In making lace the salability of the finished article depends more 
on the artistic design than it does on the mechanical finish, and the 
designers of the finer class of laces are highly skilled men. The Ger- 
man Government fosters the creation or special schools located at 
every center that produces a specialty. In pursuance of this plan 
there is at Plauen a Royal Industrial School that is one of the best in 
Germany, and that has had a ffood deal to do, through the trained 
designers it has turned out, with extending and perfecting Plauen's 
special industry of etched lace making. Connected with the school 
is a museum which has one of the finest collections in Europe of old 
and modern laces. Such a museum is of great help to the student. In 
order to keep in touch with the industry there are branch museums 
at Eibenstock, Annaberg, Falkenstein, Auerbach, Glauchau, Meerane, 
and Frankenberg, the exhibits of which are exchanged with the cen- 
tral museum at Plauen. 

The result of the study of the old designs by the young men being 
trained for a life work as designers has shown itself not only in the 
imitation of the old laces so exactly by machine as scarcely to be dis- 
tinguished from hand work, but in the great number of new forms 
and combinations that are continually being introduced and by means 
of which the Plauen manufacturers are enabled to get the best prices 
and keep just a step ahead of their competitors. 

MADE-UP GOODS — NUMBER AND ARRANGEMENT OP FACTORIES. 

In connection with the manufacture of laces there has grown up 
a large business at Plauen in the manufacture of made-up goods. 
The large factories run this in connection with their regular manu- 
facturing business, usually in a separate building, however, though 
it is really a special line in itself, and there are firms who do nothing 
else. For this work laces are manufactured in the special shapes 
desired and then sewed and fitted together to form collars, blouses, 
or whole dresses entirely of lace work. This sewing together is done 



78 



COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 



SO skillfidly on the finer work as to be almost indistinguishable, and 
the shaping and arrangeipent of the different pieces to form the 
finished article requires not only skilled hand work but also skilled 
brain work. The head women employed on this work have to be 
artists, and they get 300 marks and more per month. 

The embroidery and lace manufacturers, of which there are some 
450 in and around Plauen, are all private firms, with verv few ex- 
ceptions. The larger factories are mainly four stories, out many 
prefer to have only a part of the factory in several stories, usually 
the offices, storage, ana finishing rooms, etc., and to have the bulk 
of the machines in a single-story sawtooth-roof building, so as to 
get perfect light and steady floor. 

A typical factory is illustrated below, showing part of the build- 
ing as four stories and part as one story. The long building in 



Hk...^ ' . jtsfvmm 


m/M 






Wn 







A typieaX lace factory at Plauen. 

the background is one of the model tenements that have been erected 
at Plauen for the special purpose of improving the housing con- 
ditions of the workers. 

AUTOMATIC MACHINES AND THEIR COST. 

Plauen uses a good many automatic machines, and their use is 
increasing. In this respect they are ahead of St. Gall. Their cost, 
however, is such that only the larger firms can afford them, but as 
a larger production with less wage cost is secured, the machines 
pay for tnemselves. On the pantograph machine there has to be 
employed a man as pantograph worker or " stitcher," one girl to 
watch the work, keep the bobbins filled, etc., and one girl to put the 
bobbins in the shuttles. On the automatic machine the stitcher is 
dispensed with. 




o 

< 
o 



GERMANY EMBROIDERIES AND LACES. 79 

Very wide embroidery machines are now made bv coupling to- 
gether two 6}-yard machines, so as to be worked by the same panto- 
graph. There are a few of these in use at Plauen, but they are not 
Rked by the operatives. 

At one of the largest lace factories visited at Plauen were found 
70 pantograph and 90 automatic machines. The majority of the 
machines were 6 yards long, using a double row of needles. The 4/4 
rapport machine (needles spaced 1 French inch or 1.08 English 
inches apart) has 168 needles on each row, the 6/4 has 112, and the 
12/4 has 56 needles on each row. The 5-yard pantograph machines 
cost this factory 4,500 marks and similar automatic machines 8,500 
marks. The 9-yard automatic machines cost 15,000 marks. The 
refirular charge at Plauen for the automatic attachment is 4,000 
marks. 

SPEED or THE MACHINES AND PAY OF THE STITCHERS. 

The speed of the embroidery machines was given by the superin- 
tendent as 120 stitches a minute, but on most of the work 90 would 
be averaged by the best stitchers, while the automatic machines could 
be counted on for 90 to 100. While this is the speed when working, 
there is necessarily loss of time for arranging the cloth, repairing 
&ome slight derangement, etc., and the actual production is much less 
than the theoretical. 

At this factory the superintendent said that the best stitchers made 
from 220,000 to 260,000 stitches, according to the design, in a 63-hour 
week. At Plauen the " stitches " are given in terms that mean just 
double the terms at St. Gall. Thus at St. Gall the work done when 
a needle went through and back was called a stitch ; at Plauen this 
would be figured as a double stitch. Thus the stitches made as above 
would be 110,000 to 130,000 a week at St. Gall, which is at the rate 
of about 32 double stitches per minute. 

The stitcher was paid at the rate of 18 pfennigs (pfennig= about 
one- fourth of a cent) per 1,000 stitchesj so on the supposition that he 
made 240,000 stitches a week (figuring on Plauen stitches), he would 
make 43.20 marks, or $10.28. The average stitcher gets probably 30 
to 35 marks a week. On special work the stitch rate varies consid- 
erably and in some cases is 35 pfennigs per 1,000 stitches; the amount 
of work turned out on the fancy designs is less, so that the weekly 
wages are not augmented in proportion. 

WAGES OF OTHER FACTORY EMPLOYEES. 

The two girls on a machine, the one to watch the work and the other 
to keep the small shuttles filled, are paid, respectively, 18 and 14 
marks per week. Their wages are the same usually, whether working 
on the pantograph machine operated by a " stitcher " or on a self- 
operated automatic machine. 

The card punchers who operate the machines that punch the holes 
in the Jacquard cards for use on the automatic machines get high 
wages. The most expert can punch up to 6,000 holes a day. As this 
work requires a well-trained man, who is both quick and careful, the 
factories often employ the men by the year. At the factory in ques- 
tion there were six men so employed who were paid by piecework 
and guaranteed 200 marks a month. They really made 240 to 300 
marks a month. 



80 COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 

At the time of my visit the factory, owing to the curtailed orders, 
through depressed financial conditions, was only operating a few 
embroidery machines and had only one card puncher at work, but 
the others were drawing their 50 marks a week just the same. 

This factory in normal times works an 11-hour day, with 8 hours 
on Saturday, or 63 hours a week. Factory employees are paid every 
Friday and home workers fortnightly. 

EARNINGS OF THE HOME WORKERS. 

General scissor and needle work, such as cutting off the threads 
between the embroidered portions, and repair work are mostly done 
at home. For cutting off threads the rate is 1 pfennig per thread 
running the width of the 5-yard piece. For sewing together collars, 
etc., and for repairing net, etc., the rate is 18 to 20 pfennigs per hour 
for home work and 20 to 22 pfennigs per hour for factory work, so 
that the weekly wages are about 12 marks. 

The lace-machine work is more concentrated in factories than is 
the white embroidered work, though there is a very large number of 
lace machines worked singly in the homes or in lots of two to a 
dozen in rented rooms. In this case the manufacturer usually sup- 
plies the foundation material and the design and pays the man who 
owns the machine, the " Lohnesticker " as he is called, a fixed price 
per thousand stitches, and he has to provide out of this all the costs 
of manufacture, including yarn, wages, power, etc. 

A great many of these lohnestickers work on rented machines, and 
in other cases they buy the machine on the installment plan. The 
latter, however, does not seem to be as generally the case as in Swit- 
zerland. The present rate supposed to be i)aid the lohnesticker for 
ordinary standard work is 70 pfennigs. Owing to the depressed con- 
ditions I found some taking the work as low as 66 pfenning per 
1,000 single stitches (two rows at 28 pfennigs rate to tne row), but 
there is no profit whatever at the latter figure. 

MEAGER PROFITS OP THE COTTAGE OPERATIVES. 

Figuring that the lohnesticker gets off 180,000 single stitches on 
each machine, which is a good rate of work for first-class stitchers at 
home, and that he is working on regular designs at 70 pfennigs per 
1,000 stitches, he will earn $30 a week from the factory for the work 
produced on each machine. His costs of getting off this work may 
be figured as follows at present rates of yarn and wages : 

Cost of embroidery and shuttle yarn, say 2 marks per 1,000 stitches $8.67 

Stitcher's wages, at 18 pfennigs per 1,000 single stitches 7.72 

Wages of machine hand, at 3 marlcs a day 4.26 

Rent : .71 

Electric power .47 

Heating, light, and supplies 1.43 

Interest and depreciation 1.90 

Repair and inspection of goods 1.10 

Machine repairs .47 

Sick insurance, porterage, and incidentals .83 

Allowances 1\ per cent .46 

Total 28.00 

This leaves the lohnesticker only $2 profit on his machine for the 

week's work, and if the rate is 28 pfennigs per 1,000 stitches (56 

pfennigs per 1,000 for the piece) he is actually losing money, unless 



GERMANY — EMBROIDERIES AND LACES. 81 

he has only one machine which he operates himself at home, in which 
case by cutting all expenses down to the minimum he can make a very 
small wage. In times like this the home workers who depend on the 
factory to supply them with work naturally feel the depression first. 
The cost of operation varies according to the conditions under which 
the home work is done, but the foregoing figures are sufficiently 
accurate to give an idea of the general conditions and of the propor- 
tionate costs of ordinary work. 

RATES CHAROED«FOR ELECTRIC LIGHT AND POWER. 

All of the factories use electric power, as do also a good many of 
the lohnestickers. One or two factories have their own plant, but 
the great majority get their power from the electric plant owned by 
the city, which has a monopoly for supplying electric power within 
the corporate limits. For light the rate is 70 pfennigs per kilowatt 
hour, less 12^ per cent, but for power a special rate is made of 20 
pfennigs per kilowatt hour, less 15 per cent, with the condition that 
contracts must be made by the year on a basis of at least 300 kilowatt 
hours. A reduction of 15 per cent is made for every 100 kilowatt 
hours up to 20,000. If there is an annual consumption of more than 
20,000 kilowatt hours, then the rate per kilowatt nour is reduced to 
16 pfennigs flat. For current for heating and for electro-chemical 
apparatus an additional 10 per cent is added to the regular power 
rates. The ordinary 6/4 rapport pantograph machine 5 yards long 
takes about one- fourth horsepower and the similar automatic machine 
nearly one-half horsepower. 

[Illustrations of factories and machines, and one sample of em- 
broidered work in colors, forwarded by Mr. Clark, are on file in the 
Bureau of Manufactures.] 

H. Doc. 1270 60-2 6 



RIBBON WEAVING. 



MODERN MANUFACTUKING 31ETIIOD8 — COSTS AND PROFITS — ^LARGE SHIP- 
MENT OF PRODUCTS TO THE UNITED STATES. 

A ribbon loom uses a series of shuttles for weaving a number of 
narrow bands, and for a great variety of purposes. It is made in 
various widths and divisions, and either with or without attach- 
ments, such as leno and Jacquard apparatus, etc. The German rib- 
bon manufacturers touch all sides of the textile trade. They make, 
plain and fancy weaving, imitate lace work, imitate embroidery, imi- 
tate braiding work, and, in fact, make everything, either plain or 
fancy, that can be woven in narrow widths. 

The materials employed on the ribbon l(K)m are of all kinds — cot- 
ton, wool, silk, linen, jute, rubU^r, gold and silver threads, etc. The 
products include plain riblKMis or tajH^s in plain, twill, satin, or rep 
weaves; name bands for shoe and coat straps, cap and hat bands, hat 
forms of iron yarn, laundrv ribbons, velvet edgings, ribbons inter- 
woven with rubber threads for boot elastics, tubular elastics, bandar 
holders, etc. ; carriage braids, cords, girths, straps, belts, hollow bands 
and neckties, Venetian-blind bands, ribbon-loom lace, handle and 
other stiflf bands, corset and apron trimmingrs, dress trimmings, mil- 
linery ribbons and trimmings, fancy bands with either warp or filling 
liguring, etc. 

CENTER OF RIBBON-IXX)M INDUSTRY. 

Harmen is the center of this specialty in Germany, and in 1907 this 
town alone ship}H>d to the United States $990,900 worth of hat bands 
and ribbons, l>esides galloons, trimmings, edgings, name bands, elas- 
tics, etc., so that of the product of th ribbon looms at Barmen there 
was shipped to the United States some $%500,000 worth in this one 
year. The majority of these goods should have been made in the 
United States. 

The great bulk of the German " Bandweberein," or ribbon-loom 
numufacture, is carried on at Barmen, but there is also considerable 
manufacture in the neighboring towns of Elberfeld and Crefeld, 
and a smaller center around Fulsnitz and Gross-Rohrsdorf, in 
Saxony. 

Hannon is the center both of the (Jerman ribbon-loom work and of 
(ionium l)raiding work. These specialties make Barmen an impor- 
tant textile center, and to show the range of the textile industries at 
this placo a list of the 34 textile industries of this town, with its three 

8L* 



GERMANY ^RIBBON WEAVING. 



88 



small neighbors, follows, the list being furnished by the Barmen 
Chamber of Commerce as showing the situation January 1, 1907: 



Industries. 



BraidlnfiT machinee— 

Ribbon loom 

Ribbon looms and braiding ma- 
chines 

Ribbon looms and braldlnsr ma- 
chines, dyeing and finishing 

Ribbon weaving and iron-yam 
manufacture 

Fabrication of elastic goods 

Ribbons, lace, and cords (hand 
work) - -__ 

Mechanical weaving of mixed 
goods 

Mechanical weaving and iron- 
yam manufacture 

Mechanical weaving of uphol- 
stery goods 

Cloth manufacture 

Carpet manufacture _. 

Spinning, weaving, and print- 
ing - — 

Piece dyeing and finishing 

German blue cotton prints 

Calendering and finishing mixed 
goods 

Dyeing and finishing yam, lace, 
ribbons, etc — 



Fac- 
tories. 


^fn,. 


06 
864 


6.077 
6.974 

2,511 


13 


1 


194 


1 
20 


490 
1,176 


43 
9 


577 
1,010 


1 


133 


1 
1 
1 


193 
73 
433 


1 
3 
5 


737 
600 
414 


3 


56 


44 


«« 



Industries. 



Fac- 
tories. 



Bleaching and finishing yam, 

lace, ribbons, etc 

Finishing yarn, lace, ribbons, 

etc 

Iron yam and sewing thread 

IroD yam and sewing thread 

and braiding work 

IroD yam and sewing thread 

with bleaching and finishing—. 

Iron yam and sewing thread 

with cop dyeing 

Passementerie fabrication 

Knit goods I 

Covenngs for smokers* pipes— 
Mechanical warp preparation... 
Button manufacture (metal and 

cloth) , 

Turkey-red dyeing ' 

Home spooling I 

Combed knitting _ 

Chemical preparation and fine 

dyeing 

Renters of room and power 

Pmssian High School for Tex- 
tile Industry 



Total 1,264 



Oper- 
atives. 



87 
512 



273 

62 
886 
80 
89 
29 

927 
230 
280 
11 

96 
19 



26,629 



The foregoing is divided up as follows : Barmen, 877 factories and 
21,425 operatives; Schwelm, 364 factories and 3,921 operatives; 
Hagen, 4 factories and 783 operatives; Iserlohn, 9 factories and 500 
operatives. 

FACrrORIES, OPERATIVES, AND WAGES. 

Barmen's many textile industries are more or less specialized, but 
the main machines are the ribbon looms and the braiding machines. 
The contrasting figures for 1905 and 1906 in regard to factories, op- 
eratives, and total wages are as follows : 





1906. 


1906. 


Factories 




number.. 


1.268 

24,783 

23,786,220 

960 


1,808 


Operatives 




do 


25,901 


Total wages _ 




marks.. 


25,862,601 


Average wages per operative. 




do-.. 


095 



Assuming three hundred working days to the year this is 3^ marks, 
or, say, 80 cents a day. It will be noticed that wages are gradually ad- 
vancing, and also that more workmen are being employed each year, 
and this is especially true of the braiding and ribbon nictories. 

The manufacture of ribbons and similar narrow goods at Barmen 
is a growing indust^ and the sales thereof to the United States are 
yearly increasing. The majority of these goods should have been 
manufactured in the United States, but the Uerman ribbon manufac- 
turers, notwithstanding the tariff, seem to be able to compete with 
American ribbon-loom manufacturers in their home market, partly 
due to the fact that they cater to the market, continually getting out 
new designs and manufacturing special orders of any size desired. 
Their costs of manufacture are also less, but wages are increasing 
yearly. The fact that the ribbon manufacturers will taka ot^^t^ w. 



84 



COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 



any size is one factor that helps them both at home and abroad. On 
name bands, for instance, with the name woven in silk on cotton tape 
one-half inch wide, the Barmen manufacturers charge 2 marks (7.6 
cents) for one tape containing 12 dozen repetitions of the name, and 
will punch a Jacquard pattern and weave only one tape if that is all 
that is ordered; 



TYPES OF RIBBON LOOMS. 



There are two main types of ribbon looms, the first (represented 
by fig. 15) having banks or chests of shuttles that move in a straight 
line to the right and left, like the shuttles of an ordinary loom, but 
with much shorter travel, while the second type (represented by 
fig. 16) has shuttles that move in semicircles, the tracks of which cross 
each other. In a variation of the first type of an ordinary loom as 




^^^|j3te^:^?«? 



Fig. 15.— First type of ribboD loom. 



made in Barmen the shuttles are arranged in banks one above the 
other and the small warps run through narrow reeds placed in open- 
ings in the lay between each bank of shuttles. Each bank consists 
of six shuttles, but may be of any number from two to eight. Or- 
dinarily six shuttles to the bank is as many as is employed, and three 
or four is the more common number. The lay in an ordinary loom 
swings back and forth only, but in most ribbon looms it is also ar- 
ranged to slide up and down, so as to throw in a particular shuttle, 
say the bottom, the middle, or the top one, through the center of the 
warp shed. 

The shuttles are moved by racks. The shuttles extend out hori- 
zontally from the lay, and a couple of small gears fit into the rack in 
the shuttle. These small gears in turn are moved by means of a long 
rack placed either at the top or bottom of the lay so as to be clear oi 



GEBMANY — ^RIBBON WEAVING. 



85 



the small warps. Each rack runs the length of the lay. Where there 
are only two shuttles to the bank there is one rack at the top and one 
at the bottom. Where there are four shuttles to the bank the lay is 
thicker, and there are two racks at the top and two at the bottom 
placed one behind the other, the rear one being deeper, so as to enable 
it to gear with the second shuttle, and if there are six shuttles to a 
bank three racks, one behind the other at top and bottom, etc., are 
required. The curved-shuttle looms are mainly used, without Jac- 
quards, for making cigar bundle bands and similar work, as they are 
not suited for fancy work, as is the straight loom. 

COST AND OPERATION OF LOOMS. 

On ribbon looms making plain ^oods the shafts are moved by cams, 
but the larger portion of the ribbon looms have a Jacquard attach- 




Fio. 16.— Second type of ribbon loom. 

ment. The Jacquard arrangement is similar to that of ordinary 
Jacquard looms. For wide looms, as shown in fig. 15, there are em- 
ployed four and sometimes six Jacquards. The ordinary ribbon loom 
is four meters (4.37 yards) wide, makes 20 ribbons at.a time, in three 
colors, and is fitted with Jacquard attachment. The present price of 
such a loom is given me by one of the largest German manufacturers 
in this line as 1,500 marks ($357) at Crefeld. The German ribbon 
looms are much cheaper than the American. Thejr are also made 
differently, for whereas the American ribbon loom is made of iron 
wherever possible, not only the gears and racks, but the lay and frame 
being of iron, the German loom is made of wood, and iron is only used 
where unavoidable. The lay, racks, frame, etc., of the German 
ribbon loom are all wood, which makes a lighter and cheaper loom. 
The (Jerman ribbon-loom manufacturers also claim that their system 
of rawhide gears, interposed between the wooden racks in the shuttles 



86 COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 

and the long wooden racks, makes not only a much more silent but a 
more lasting mechanism than the American loom with iron gears 
working in an iron rack. 

Ribbon looms are made in a great variety of forms, according to the 
purpose for which intended, from very light looms for plain ribbons 
up to very heavjr looms for weaving girths and belts. Tne number of 
divisions — that is, of separate warps — and the width may be as de- 
sired. The widest looms are about 8 meters (8.75 yards) ; possibly a 
few are over this. In each wide loom there are two independently 
operated lays, so that each is two looms with one breastbeam. Not 
only are several Jacquards employed for the. wide looms, but the 
cards may be so arran^d that each ribbon is of a different desi^ from 
that of its neighbor. Each of the separate warps is wound on its own 
spool, with separate spools for the selvages, but, according to th6 pat- 
tern, the warp may be wound on two, three, or more spools. This is 
especially necessary where portions of the warp are under a different 
tension from that of the others. The looms stand some 8 feet high, 
and the ends from the warp spools run over carrier spools and down 
under a rod to the reed. Each warp thread or set or threads has its 
own weight attachment to take up the slack. 

Leno attachments are common and have a similar .needle arrange- 
ment of two heddle frames, one behind the other, whereby various 
designs can be produced in imitation of embroidery and similar work. 
Sometimes on a six-shuttle bank loom there will be made two ribbons, 
one above the other, each using three of the shuttles. 

SPOOLING AND OTHER PROCESSES. 

In considering the work of a ribbon-loom factory the first opera- 
tion is spooling. The yarn is usually bought in hanks, and thiSj if 
warp yarn, is wound from the skein onto spools of the required size, 
and may be fitted up with any number of spindles from 4 to 20. Some- 
times the yam is bought from neighboring factories on the spool, and 
then a number of these spools are wound together directly onto the 
warp spools to be placed on the loom. Very frequently the factory 
has no spoolers, in which case it buys the yarn in the numbers and 
amounts desired of each and has this spooled outside in an establish- 
ment that does nothing else. If it is desired to have the yam dved, 
bleached, or otherwise prepared, the factory will also have this aone 
at a special establishment and then spooled and warped at another 
establishment before they start on their share of the manufacture. 
The largest factories, even, usually have some of the processes, espe- 
cially the dyeing or the bleaching, carried on at some place that mafees 
a specialty of this one process. The warp is wound on large spools, 
while the filling is wound onto small bobbins for the shuttle. The 
thread from a Dobbin goes through spring hooks on either side of 
the inside shuttle circle and then norizontally out through the hole 
at the bottom. The wires at the top press on the bobbin to keep it from 
unwinding too fast. 

After weaving, the ribbons are inspected, calendered, cut up in de- 
sired lengths, and then put up for the market, being first wound on 
pasteboard, then packed in little boxes, wrapped in paper, and these 
packed in larger boxes, ticketed, and shippea. 

The ribbon looms at Barmen are partly run by steam and partly 
by electric power. Some are operated by direct-connected motors. 



GERMANY — ^RIBBON WEAVING. 



87 



The speed of the loom varies widely according to the width of loom, 
the number of ribbons being made, the numl^r of shuttles, the fine- 
ness of the yarn, the pattern, etc., and may be from 80 to 200 picks a 
minute. For ordinary ribbons using Jacquard attachment the speed 
many be given as 120 picks per minute. 

There is a machine for gluing together warp threads for making 
what is called " baft ribbons." These ribbons are used in place of 
twine for tying purposes, and as artificial bast or straw for making 
hats, etc. 

YARN TWISTING AND NUMBERING WEAVERS' WAGES. 

The cotton yam used is numbered the same as the English, though 
the French half metric srystem is occasionally used. It is interesting 
to note that the terms "right-hand twist" and "left-hand twist" 
mean in Germany exactly opposite to what they do in the United 
States. In the United States " right-hand " yam is yam of which 
the twist slopes up to the right similar to the threads of an ordinary 
right-hand screw. Germans call this " left-hand " yam for the rea- 
son that if held in the hand it has to be twisted to the left to twist it 
together, whereas twisting to the right unwinds it. 

Considerable lustercd or iron yam is used in weaving hat forms, 
etc., and the export of these forms to the United States is a big indus- 




Fio. 17.— a, a, Qermau right-hand twist; 6, 6, American right-hand twist. 

try. There are separate factories at Barmen, Blankenstein, Breyell, 
Crefeld, and Langerfeld for making this iron yam. The yam is 
heavily sized and glazed and thereby becomes heavier and harder, 
but the length remains the same. This iron yam is reckoned differ- 
ently from the English numbering, which is usually employed for 
cotton yams in Germany, as a hank is taken as 275 meters (300 
yards). 

For numbering the metal threads of gold, silver, copper, aluminum, 
etc., which are usually wrapped around a central thread of flax or 
cotton, there does not seem to be any fixed rule. For 50/2 gold 
thread there are 10,000 meters to the kilo and for 70/3 gold thread 
there are 10,500 meters to the kilo. The india rubber employed for 
interweaving with cotton and silk to make garters and other elastics 
comes in hanks of 66 yards to the bundle. The niunber of these 
elastic threads is based on the thickness of the cross section — that is, 
the number that can be laid side by side in an English inch. 

Wages in Barmen and the surrounding section are higher than in 
most other textile centers of Germany. Ordinary weavers will aver- 
age 60 to 80 cents a day and weavers on special work will get as high 
as $1.43 a day or more. 



88 



COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 



COST OP MANUFACTURING RIBBONS. 

The following condensed translation is taken from a handbook 
recently issued by Prof. Otto Both, of the Prussian Textile High 
School, at Barmen, and is reproduced here because it serves very well 
to illustrate the method of figuring used by the Gterman manufac- 
turers in getting at the cost of manufacture of a special ribbon and 
also shows how they have to shift their calculations between yards, 
meters (meter=39.37 inches) , pounds, and kilos (kilo=2.2 pounds) : 

We will figure on the cost of making a thousand meters of a fancy ribbon made 
up of colored cotton, dyed cotton, and dyed silk thread, using white cotton filling. 
There will be required three warps, the first with 16 ends of No. 100/28 
(English numbering) colored cotton yam, the second with 84 ends No. 60/28 
(English numbering) white cotton yarn, and the third with 40 ends No. 46/48 
(International numbering) China organzin colored silk thread. For filling we 
will use No. 50s single (English numbering). The pattern Is such that to 
make 1,000 meters finished ribbon there will be required 1,100 meters of the 16- 
thread warp, 1,120 meters of the 84-thread warp, and 1,050 meters of the 40- 
thread silk warp. To these lengths we will add 5 per cent to cover the waste 
in spooling, warping, etc. 

We will first find the weight of the materials to be used: First warp, 
16X1,100=17,600+5 per cent=18,480 meters. 100/2 ply is the same as 508 
single in weight, and a hank is 768 meters (837 yards), so we have for the 
weight of this warp 0.48 pound, or 0.218 kilo. 

Second warp, 84X1,120=94,080+5 per cent=98,784 meters. This divided by 
30X768 gives the weight of the second warp as 4.29 pounds, or 1.946 l^los. 

Third warp, 40X1,050=42,000+5 per cent=44,100 meters 46/48 silk yam. As 
this is International numbering, we divide 44,100 by 10,000 and have the weight 
as 4.41X47 grams=207 grams. 

Filling. — The length of filling required can only be ascertained by actual trial. 
In this case for 1,000 meters of finished ribbon there is required 112,000 meteni 
of filling, and to this we will add 4 per cent for waste allowance, so that the 
actual length of filling needed will be 116,480 meters. The number is 608 
English single, so the weight will be 116,480 divided by 50X768, or 3.03 pounds, 
which is 1.374 kilos. 

Part of the yam has to be dyed and another part bleached, and then the fill- 
ing wound on bobbins and the warp spooled and warped. To obtain the costs 
per pound of the materials ready for the looms, we will figure as follows : 



Description. 



One pound 100/2sln the gray 

Dyeing- per pound (90 pfennigs per kflo)- 

Spooling per pound (50 pfennigs per 

100 hanks) 

Total - 

One pound 60/2s in the gray 

Bleaching per pound (1 mark per 10- 
pound bundle 

Spooling per pound (60 pfennigs per 
100 hanks) _ __ 

Total _ 



Marks. 



3.20 
.405 



.25 



3.86 



1.80 
.10 
.18 



2.08 



Description. 

One kilo No. 46 China organzin silk... 

Dyeing per kilo___ _ 

Spooling per kilo 

Total 

One pound filling No. 50s water in the 

gray _ 

Bleaching per pound _ 

Spooling per pound (60 pfennigs per 
100 hanks) 

Total 



Mark!. 



88.00 
8.60 
2.00 



48.60 



2.80 
.10 



3.20 



When the warping is made up, as in this case, of different yams the warping 
is usually based on the 10,000 meters, the price ranging from 5 to 10 pfennigs. 
In the present case we are charged 7i pfennigs per 10,000 ends of the cotton ply 
yams, and 6 pfennigs per 10,000 ends of the silk yarn. The first warp has 
16X1,100, or 17,600 meters length, and the second 84X1,120, or 94,080 meters, 
making a total length of cotton ply yam of 111,680 meters, which, at 7i pfennigs 
per 10,000 meters, is 84 pfennigs (20 cents). The silk yam has a length of 
40X1,050, or 42,000 meters, which, at 6 pfennigs per 10,000 meter, is 25 pfennigs 
(5.95 cents), making the total cost of warping the three warps 1.09 marks 
(26 cents). 



GEBMANY — ^RIBBON WEAVING. 



89 



WEAVING AND PLACING ON MABEET. 

The next process is weaving. We will calculate on 400 picks per 10 centi- 
meters (a little over 100 picks to the inch), and that the loom runs 120 picks to 
the minute and makes 64 ribbons at the same time. In ten working hours the 
loom will make 120X60X10, or 72,000 picks, and allowing 25 per cent for loss 
of time by stoppage the daily production will be 54,000 picks ; dividing this by 
4,000 picks to the meter gives 13.5 meters per division per day or, say, 80 meters 
a week and 64X80, or 5,120 meters, of ribbon to the loom per week. If we give 
the work out to a " meisterlohn " (a man who owns a few looms and does weav- 
ing by contract when the material is supplied), he will figure on a charge of 60 
marks ($14.28) per loom per week, and guarantee the 75 per cent production 
above. The cost of weaving the 1,()00 meters we desire will be about 12 marks 
($2,856). 

Next, we have the cost of knotting the fringes, if there are any, the calender- 
ing and cutting up, inspecting, etc., which we can figure on as 2 marks (47.6 
cents) per 1,000 meters. 

Next comes the cost of putting up for market, the reeling on cardboard, pack- 
ing in paper, ticketing, etc. ; 12 meters are put into each small box and ticketed, 
and one dozen of these wrapped in paper, ticketed, and put in larger pasteboard 
boxes. Figuring on 10 of these boxes, or 1,440 meters, we find the costs of 
putting up, etc. to be about as follows: 



Description. 


Marks. 


Description. 


Marks. 


100 dozen reels at 6 pfennigs a dozen 
(rmlfngwagm) 


6.00 
6.00 


Paper, 4 dozen to one sheet, costing 6 

pf^nnfgii 


1.S6 


l.aoo small tickets, 100 packets, at 50 
pfennigs 


Binding thread, half kilo per dozen 

100 tickets 

Total 


.84 
.26 


100 dozen, binding and folding up 
(workers' wages) 




15.84 



This was for 1,400 meters ; so for 1,000 meters the cost would be 10.65 marks 
($2,535). In this case, as we are figuring on the work being given out for 
weaving, we do not have to consider cost of power, etc., but for the general 
company expenses we will allow 7i per cent The manufacturing costs of this 
1,000 meters (1,090 yards) of ribbon will be found to be as follows: 



Description. 



Cost first warp, 0.48 pound, at 8.86 
marks per pound - 

Cost second warp, 4.29 pounds, at 2.06 
marks per pound 

Ooflt third warp, 0.207 kflo, at 43.50 

. marks a kilo _ 

Warping — 

Oost fllflng. 8.03 pounds, at 8.20 marks 
per pound - 




Description. 



Weaving oost 

Finishing costs 

Costs of putting up for market 

Company costs, 7} per cent 

Total 



Marks. 



12.00 
2.00 
10.66 



56.21 
4.14 



60.86 



This Shows a total of $14.12, or 1.41 cents a meter. In selling there will be 
given a 4 per cent cash discount, and the selling agent will charge 5 per cent 
commission, so to the above 59.35 marks there will have to be added 9 per cent, 
making the gross cost price (>4.69 marks ($15.40). 

To the above should be added the manufacturers' profit, which will 
vary according to the demand and the competition, and if it is sold 
to a foreign country there will need to be considered the transporta- 
tion costs and the duty. The above, however, gives an idea of the 
method of figuring employed and the comparative costs. 

[Many pictures illustrating the machinery described in the fore- 
going report, as well as German ribbons, may be seen at the Bureau 
of Manufactures.] 



KNIT GOODS MANUFACTURL 



CONCENTRATION, GROWTH, AND PRESENT IMPORTANCE OF THE INDUSTRY — 
KNITTING MACHINES AND PRODUCTS. 

While the manufacture of knit goods is a larger industry in the 
United States than in Germany, in 1905 the United States bought 
from Germany knit goods to the value of $5,945,807, and this was in- 
creased to $7^67,617 in 1906, and to $8,384,830 in 1907. About 90 
per cent of the knit goods bought abroad by the United States in 1907 
came from Germany. 

The knit-goods industry is one of the most important branches of 
German cotton manufacturing, and the export trade in this line is 
very large. The United States is the best customer, especially for 
hosiery, and takes large quantities, though owing to the ^reat increase 
of knitting in the United States and to the growing demand from 
other sections of the world the proportion taken by the United States 
is less than formerly. 

The bulk of the German knit goods is made in and around Chem- 
nitz, but Limbach has also become an important center for knitted un- 
derwear, Thallmein for eloves, Apolda in Thurinria for shawls, caps, 
and general knitted goods, while other smaller places are centers for 
certain special lines. 

EARLY CONCENTRATION OF THE INDUSTRY AT CHEMNPTZ. 

The golden years of the Chemnitz knit-goods industry was the 
period before tne expiration of the patent on the knitting goods ma- 
chine invented by Cotton. Favored at that time by the quick growth 
in the use of kait goods abroad, especially in North America, the rapid 
perfecting of means of communication, and the active development of 
great export houses in Chemnitz, and aided by the passing of certain 
competitive districts abroad, especially those in England, Chemnitz 
and the neighboring towns in the valleys of the Uskaberger Moun- 
tains became active in this industry and developed it at a rapid pace. 

Even before this, the fact that the manipulation of the old machines 
required a slow apprenticeship from youm, together with the natural 
disinclination of Saxons to wander, had a tendency to concentrate and 
retain the industry in one place. The machine invented by Cotton 
tended to the erection of large factories and still more centralization, 
because its costliness, its heavy requirements for power, and its diffi- 
cult manipulation rendered it unsuited for small users. Its introduc- 
tion marked the start of the great central factories in Chemnitz. The 
protection given by patent rights, and the continually increasing 
market abroad, enabled Chemnitz to perfect the organization of the 
working force in these big factories and tended still more to give them 
the undisputed leadership in this line. 

90 



GEBMANY — KNIT-GOODS MANUFACTURE. 91 

GROWTH OF COMPETITION AT HOME AND ABROAD. 

Since the expiration of the Cotton patent, in 1883, new competitors 
have arisen, especially in the United States, and Chemnitz no longer 
enjoys the complete supremacy formeriy accorded it. The manu- 
facturers of knit goods in other countries quickly availed themselves 
of the coveted rights, and were aided by the German makers of knit- 
ting machines, who, anxious for a market for their increasing produc- 
tion, were ready to sell to any country and to give any terms reauired. 
A reduction in wages at Chemnitz at this time, brought about by the 
breaking down of the knitting monopoly there, also tended to scatter 
the workers abroad and to give their competitors the skilled operatives 
of whom they were in need. There has, therefore, been increasing 
competition both at home and abroad, and profits have become much 
reduced. 

With all these difficulties, however, and in spite of the fact that 
wages are rising, the industry is a prosperous and a growing one, 
ana with the aid of their cheaply paid but highly skiUed workmen 
operating the most improved macnines they are able to complete 
with foreign factories in their home markets, notwithstanding high 
tariff rates. 

FOREIGN MARKETS, TRADE METHODS, AND TERMS OF SALE. 

At Chemnitz hosiery is the great specialty, and after that knitted 
gloves and underwear. According to the president of the Wirk- 
waren Fabrikante Vereinigung von Chemnitz und Umgegend, about 
50 pr cent of the Chemnitz output of hosiery finds a market in the 
United States, though this is a smaller proportion of the total than in 
former times. At present this dependence on the American market 
has resulted in a large number of the factories running short time 
or closing down, due to the financial conditions in that country. 

In knitted gloves England is Grermany's best customer, with the 
United States second. The underwear made at Chemnitz is mainly 
for home use, but considerable amounts are taken by neighboring 
nations of the Continent, and smaller amounts sent to England and 
the United States. The Germans cater to the particular require- 
ments of each country, each class of goods being especially made 
for the market in which it is to be sold, and the fact that they do so, 
and recognize that goods made for Germany could not be sold in 
the United States, and that goods made for England could not be 
sold in Italy, has much to do with their success as exporters. 

In selling hosiery and other knit goods the usual terms are for 
cash, less 4 or 5 per cent discount. The manufacturers sell direct 
to large commission houses at Chemnitz and to buyers established 
there or to traveling buyers. There are 88 American houses repre- 
sented at Chemnitz. The larger of these pay cash, and others give 
bills of exchange on London. A few buy on open account and a few 
remit money on receipt of goods. 

STYLES or HOSIERY KNITTING MACHINES IN USB. 

The makers of knitting machines at times make larger profits than 
doilie knit-goods manufacturers, but their business is subject also to 
fluctuations. A number of Chemnitz knitting machines are sold to 
manufacturers in the United States. The prices of such machines 
vary, but the present price on a 16-di vision Cotton machine is 'J^pOft 



92 COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 

marks -($1,666). Such a machine will make 12 dozens of ladies' hose 
or 26 dozens of socks in ten and one-half hours, running 50 to 60 
courses per minute for plain fabrics. For striped fabrics the speed 
will be reduced to 40 to 46 courses per minute. 

There are two principal systems employed in making hosiery, the 
" full-fashioned " and the " seamless.'' In the full-nishioned Mie 
body of the stocking is knitted out flat on a machine which makecra 
dozen or more at a time, and then these are sewed together. Tike 
seamless stockings are made on a circular knitting frame. The first 
system is most used in Germany and the second in the United States. 
The curves can be better obtained by the first sjrstem, and the cost of 
operation is usually cheaper, but a seam is left where the parts are 
joined together. 

At first hosiery was made at Chemnitz on hand machines, and these 
are still used in the more remote sections of Saxony. Then there were 
used small Paget frames, and now there are used the Cotton frames, 
making 12 to 24 stockings at a time. On most grades the managers 
have found by experience that a 20-stocking machine is the widest 
that a workman can manage efficiently, and on specialties this number 
has to be much reduced. 

Formerly the demand was for heavy goods, but to-day light hosiery 
and underwear sell the best, while mercerized and fancy effects are 
very popular. In knitted gloves the demand is for longer styles. 

YARN SUPPLY AND SYSTEMS OF NUMBERING. 

Hosiery is made mostly from yarns ranging from 10s to 32s, but 
some is used up to 100s, and even m smaller amounts up to 200s. The 
majority is single, but some is doubled. For knit goods in general 
18s to 60s single cops are used. A large amount of Egyptian yam is 
employed in this trade. The yarns required are mainfy furnished by 
Saxony, but there is a large amount bought from England and 
smaller amounts from^ Bavaria, Bohemia, and other sections. Vi- 
gogne and imitation vigogne yam, made of cotton and wool or wool 
waste or made of cotton and cotton waste, is used in cheap under- 
wear and to some extent in stockings. 

In buying and figuring on cotton yams at Chemnitz the numbering 
is almost entirely by the English system of the number of 840-yard 
(768 meters) hanks contained in a pound. To a much smaller extent 
there is used the metric or decimal system of numbering, according to 
the number of hanks of 1,000 meters contained in 1,000 grams. In 
worsted yam there are used two systems of numbering, the German, 
which makes the worsted hank the same as the cotton hank of 768 
meters, or 840 yards, and the English system, which gives a worsted 
hank a length of only 560 yards, so that in buying worsted yams the 
Saxon manufacturer always specifies whether long or short reel. 
For woolen yarns the same numbering as for short hanks in worsteds 
is generally used. A German authority says that as woolen yams 
require about 15 per cent of oil in spinning, and worsteds as spun 
in England a very small quantity, when the former is wound it is 
from 12 to 15 per cent finer than the latter, the sizes being always 
calculated from the weight of the yam in oil. 

MEANING OF " GAGE " AS APPLIED TO MACHINES. 

Knitting machines are usually designated according to the " gage," 
but this term has a different meaning in England, in France, and 



GERMANY — KNIT-GOODS MANUFACTURE. 98 

in Germany. The knitting needles — ^that is, the frame or hooked 
needles — are fastened in "leads" made of a mixture of lead and 
tin, usually two needles to a lead. 

In England the gage or fineness of a frame signifies the* number 
of leads, each containing two needles, which lie in a space of 3 
inches. A No. 24 gage machine therefore has 2 times d4 or 48 
needles to 3 inches, which is 16 needles to the English inch. ^ 

In France they first used the same system based on 3 of the old 
Paris inches, but they now use two gages, " gros " and " fin," based 
on 3 French inches, a French inch Being one thirty-sixth of a me- 
ter (1 meter =39.37 inches). This French ii^ch has come into use 
because of the inconvenience of the decimal numbering of the meter 
for divisions into twelfths, etc. The "jauge gros" is used for 
gage numbers up to 27s, and the " jauge fin " for gage numbers from 
20 up, the first meaning the number or two-needle leads in a distance 
of 3 French inches, and the latter the number of three-needle leads in 
a distance of 3 French inches. 

In Germany they sometimes use the French system of numbering, 
which is due to the fact that knitting was first introduced from 
France, and some factories use the English system, but owing to the 
inconvenience of both the majority of the Saxon machines are now 
based on a gage which is the number of needles to a Saxon inch, 
which is a more direct and simple method than either of the others. 
Thus 24-gage Saxon means 24 needles to the Saxon inch. 

The French inch is equal to 1.0936 English inches, and the Saxon 
inch is equal to 0.9291 of an English inch, so No. 24 gage would mean, 
according to the various systems, the following number of needles to 
an English inch: English, 16; French gros, 14.63; French fin, 21.95; 
Saxon, 25.83. 

In Saxony the gages run from 24 to 51, the machines in common 
use having gages (Saxon) of 30, 33, 36, or 39. In England the gages 
(English) m common use are 24 and 27. 

FACTORY OWNERSHIP, EMPLOYEES, HOURS, AND WAGES. 

The Saxon knitting factories are all private concerns, with the ex- 
ception of one joint stock company, which is English owned. The 
managers say that this is due to the fact that knittmg is a specialized 
industry, and that in these days of close competition it is necessary to 
have a man at the head who is vitally interested in the success of the 
business and untrammeled by any outside authority. It may also be 
a factor that stock companies have to publish in newspapers accounts 
of their standing while private companies do not. The capital in a 
knit-goods business is not as important as is the management. 

Some factories at Chemnitz pay employees weekly and others 
fortnightly; usually one week's wages are held back. The hours of 
work are either 61, 60, or 59, more Commonly the last, and the fac- 
tory runs from 7 to 12 o'clock, with fifteen minutes intermission, and 
from 1 to 6.30 o'clock, with fifteen minutes intermission. They do not 
usually close on Saturday afternoons, but stop work one hour earlier. 

Wages in the knit-goods business in Saxony, while low as compared 
with other sections, are increasing, and owing to the great demand 
for female labor the wages of the women are rising more in propor- 
tion than those of the men. In the knit-glove industry there has 
been an advance in most places of from 60 to 100 per cetvt \w\Xv<^\^^ 
two years alone. At the present time wages ai^ agpAXi\o^^'t<i^^\svi^» 



94 COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 

this is temporary, due to the financial depression, and as the cost of 
foodstuffs is continually advancing labor costs will become more and 
more a factor to be considered by the Saxon knitter, in spite of the 
fact that the dense population of Saxony — ^the densest in Europe — 
has heretofore given them an advantage over any of their competitors. 
Their labor is at present, and will probably continue to be, even with 
advances in the ruture, cheaper than that of their rivals in Troyes, 
France, and Nottingham, England. 

DIVERSIFIED CONDITIONS AFFECT WAGE SCHEDULES. 

Labor unions in Saxony have endeavored to fix uniform schedules 
of wages for the different classes of work in the knit-goods industry, 
and in this they have had the good will of some of the manufacturers, 
but owing to the different makes, sizes, and speeds of the machines, 
varying the production of each worker, and also to the manv varia- 
tions in the methods of work and to the great number or special 
varieties of goods made, it has been found thus far too difficult to 
generalize. There is, therefore, not the slightest imiformity in re- 
gard to the waffes paid, each manufacturer getting his help as cheaply 
as he can, and every time he introduces a slight variation or starts 
on some new specialty there is a period of seesawing until the re- 
muneration to be paid is steadied temporarily. 

Between two factories working side by side on the same general 
class of goods there is frequentfy to be found a wide variation in 
wages paid, according to whether the machines used are old or new, 
the size and speed of the machines, the popularitjr of the manager, 
and the privileges he accords workers, etc. Various managers of 
whom I inquired as to average prices paid said that thev knew their 
own prices and that of a few of their competitors, but that they had 
but a vague idea as to what could be considered average wages for 
the various classes of goods. 

To show the variations in wages and the minuteness with which 
such wages have to be adjusted, even in one factory running on a 
limited variety, I have obtained the following prices now being paid 
in a hosiery factory where the operations were as follows: Spooling 
yarn, knitting leg, running on foot, knitting foot, heeling and toeing, 
seaming, and mending. The dyeing and nnishing are done outside. 
The prices are all given in pfennigs, owing to the difficulty of giving 
the equivalents in cents without too many decimals. To cnange 
pfennigs into cents, multiply by 0.238. 



GERMANY — KNIT-GOODS MANUFACTURE. 



96 



SPOOLING. 
[Wages In pfennigs, per pound English.] 



Y&rti numb^TH (English) i^ld 



Ootkin oopsi 

S[>ool4?r 

Ri-windtir . , 

On r**itent winder,. 

Spooler 

Re winder ........,, 

On pa tent windvr., 
gkein yam, pip<H)kr t>ni 
Single i?Tny ration. 



. Two-ptjrgrflv cotton ,,„ 
Single t-uTonkl t-otton 



3^ 
41 



T w< 1- pi y (.'o k] rt'd i'ot ton . , 

Sint^le cnloiTfl xvool 

Two ply colonwl WfX)l ,, . 
Sketii J urn. rcwmder on: 

Single t'olored rotloD* .,[ "^i 
Tvro-plj^ colored cotton . . ' IJ 

Single coloreil wool . 

Two-ply colored wool .,/._,... 



la^aa 



ai-ao 3i-io 



91 
3 



n 



12 

u 



2 
3 , 

^* 

u 

17 I 
9 

4 
11, 



I' 

Hi 

JH 
3a 

IS 
10 

5 
SI 

4 

21 



41-60 



¥ 
U 



ftl-flO 



Si 

at 



9 

fi 
28 

»i 
2? 

n 

?! 

Bi 



101 
7 



12 



fil-70 71-80 



101, 



IS 
S4 

Hi 



IS, 

7 , 
4i. 



U 



81-90 



S« ,U2 



^i g 12 
3! 



I I 



Thmid nambera 235 ' J40 ZflO ?/W 2P70 



Thrt'iid: 

Spf>ol?nj?^niyftbein thread ,. 

SptH^llng t'olored ukeln 
thread h, ^. ,........».,., . 

He winding gnty threa I on- 
to cheesi^^A * * _, 1 *..... . 

R**w Ending col onHl thntwl . . . 

Kcwi tiding iLnle HkeinM on- 
to cheeses 

I; pooling j^i Ik *.„......,. .^_ 



a 

12 

U 

8i 

8i 



9 
13 

4 

12 



10 

u 

2i 
ii 

IS 



13 

23 

S 
41 

111 
14 



2.75 2/Sa 2/fl3 2W) 



1« 
?7 

lai 



18 
» 

:*l 

111 
ift 



S|i 



21 
SI 

4 

H 

m 

lA 



2a00 2A40 



Iff 

IS 

7 



141 164 

17 I IS 



LEG MACHINE. 
(Wages in pfennigs, per dozen pairs.] 



G&KG ^. .. ^ - 


30 




Its 






»( 




SO 


42 


48 


21 


m 














rib. nb 


DiThUonv ^ .,*, * ^»,»,,^^. 


8 j 12 

5R ' 87 
2 3 


12 

45 

2 

« 


1« 

97 
1 


IS 

32 

1 


s 

76 


12 

66 
2 


16 

45 
2 


IB 

40 
3 


a 

10 

10 


12 
2 


IS 
65 

;2 


8 

.87 

3 


12 12 






Women's gray cotton hose: 

With extmlcKiee instep, „...,. 
Extm c]o««@ knit* , 


AS 
S 

10 
5 


70 
2 


Children's tione^ nil *tizes le#« than 
women^s , ,.. .^ . 




6 

1 

10 

31 


10 


Short-leH itocklnci* , .,, 


10 


& 


A 


10 


ft 


5 


6 






5 


£xtrn Ji>r long tops: 

in cotton „„^.,„,,*, ,,**^,„„ 








In wool - 




















"' ' 


" ' 








In Haie thread. .,.,. 


























1 


Iffith knee cap 


' 




















' 




"*""i 


Gmy and nrttumfwool iind gray 

(hfead over t^otton luche *,...,.- 

Exlmcoinpcnfliition for Ter> fine 

tnimhers 

CkTieul wofjl arwS colorefl feet and 
row*, extra...................... 

Est™ marking; 

Whi-n with wtrlpi-d apparatusi.. 
Without appiitBtlifl 


5 

U 
3 


5 
5 

12 

A 
20 
IS 

A 


5 

» 
S 

6 
W 
lA 
fi 
4 
2S 
40 


4 

5 
12 

a 

6 
20 
15 


4 

G 

12 

8 
S 

15 


5 

12 

S 
3 

6 

20 
15 


5 

12 

3 
S 

6 
2« 
15 
& 
4 

25 
40 
10 


4 

& 
12 

a 
s 

e 

20 
16 
6 
S 
25 
40 
ID 
20 

1 
10 


4 

5 

12 

8 
S 

6 

20 
15 

"i' 

25 
40 
10 
20 

1 
10 


6 

10 
12 

S 

3 

6 
20 

4 

2a 

40 
10 
20 

1 

10 


ft 

10 

12 

3 
3 

6 
20 
IS 


1 

„.. 

12 

S 
3 

6 

a* 

IS 


to 
m 
m 

s 

20 
IS 


1 
b 6 

lU , 10 

12 : 12 


Heel and toe ci^p of wool And col- 
ored, extra 


a 


Under tttodoaen, extrn..,**.. 




Two do3M>ri or more. . .......... 




Knci'CHp, extm .«>* 




keenlort'ed EteAm^ extro. ....,„. ^. . ^ 






8 
2fi 
40 


4 

25 
40 

10 


4 

10 
10 
20 

1 
10 


s 

25 
40 
10 
20 

1 
10 


4 
25 
40 
10 

ao 
1 

10 




15 to 1 drop atitoh, t^xtni. ,... 


2S 
40 


36 
40 




Group drop dtltclit extra..... 




Extra wide 




Opera letigthf* . . , * . . 






8lze murlEA with the hand, per 
tow exttm, . ,, . .,,„,...,,*. * *, , . , 


1 
,0 


1 
10 


T^ 1 


1 
10 


1 
10 


1 
10 


i! 1 


Lot of4do»en or less, extra ,.. 


10 


10 


5 

4 


^ ' 



96 



COTTON FABRICS IX MIDDLE EUROPE. 



RUNNING ON FRENCH FOOT. 
[Wa^eH in pf«*nnljn«. p«»r doz^n pain*.] 



Ghk« 



DivlHloiiH . 



(iniy, I'MUm foot: 

StoriinchcR 

4 to 7i iiicheM or lew 

(iray and natuml wool and gray thread over cotton 

Woven with merino, extra 

(Merlcul wool (dark-gray mixture) and eolori'd over gray 

Woven with Kpiit, extra 

Ktrlped over i)iain 

Woven with dn>p Btiteh, extra 



FUKNCH FOOT MAKER. 
[Wages in pfennigs, per doz<>n pairs. 1 




Gage 


90 

12 


sa 


3d 

27 
20 


3<i 

16 

18 
14 


36 

18 

16 
12 


89 

18 

18 
14 


48 






])i vIhIi lUH t , ■ . , , . , r 


2-1 1 
7 

a 


8 






Uni v eotton HOck, Uyot 9 to 12 inches , . , , . ... 


22 
IS 


23 


(Jniy eotton, woman's, fo<»t 8 to lOJ inches ..^ 


23 


Gray cotton, child's, foot 4 to 9 iuches: 

With 1 assistant 




With 2 assistants* , „..,„*».. 










F«M>t with long bonier, extra, with 1 a^v^istHut 




1 

2 

10 
4 










If ray and natural w<k)1 and gray thread over cnltAin...... 

S\)-gage to JV5-gage goods, cxtm _ 


2 




i 

5 
3 


2 


9 


Kx I ra comjK'nsation for ver>' line numbers . ,.***^,,t*t 










Clerical wool ami colonnl, extra . 


4 


4 

5 
3 
10 
if 

s 

111 
i 
s 


3 


18 


1 ;w> and 1 36 clerical W(M>1, extra , *^ ** , 




Heel and t<K» cap from wool and colored, extra 


3 
10 
» 

8 

1 
5 


3 
10 
3 
ji 

]{] 
1 
h 


3 


3 


3 




StrliHHl over plain .... 




Hall sole extra .t-....^--. 


2 
6 


2 
6 


2 
6 


8 


Si>lit sole, including Iuh.'! and toe cap, extra.,, , 




In bv 1 dron stitch extra ..* „<».,^,,» 




(JriKipdropstitdu's, over plain 










KliEi* marks extra *•. 


1 
5 


1 
5 


1 
5 


1 


\aA of four doxen or less, extra * — 





HEELER. 
I Wages in pfennlirs. per dozen pairs. | 



•J4 ! 



;iO 



;« 



J Ribbed. 
I 2 1 I 2.1 



Heel and tiK\ either gray »»r white SJ 94 10' Hi 13 14 18 

Silk tl>readt>vergraN 1 1 1 1 

iNiloit'd o\ir »;m\. alM» ktray with it»U»rtHl tiH>.. 4 4 4,4 4 4 4 



^1 



GERMANY — KNIT-GOODS MANUFACTURE. 



97 



SEAMING. 
[Wages In pfennigs, per dozen pairs.] 



1 30 

1 


83 


36 


39 


42 


4S 


m 


Hi 


124 


134 






124 


13i 


144 


154 




14 
15 
17 


15 
16 

18 


16 
17 
19 


17 
18 
20 












30 


1 


1 




1 




1 


2 


2 


2 


2 




2 


61 


6i 


64 


64. ....... 


64 


2 


2 


2 


2 




2 


5 


6 


5 


6 




5 


6 


5 


5 


5 




5 


9 
10 
11 
11 


10 
11 
12 

12 


11 
12 
13 
13 




















14 


19 


1 


1 


1 


1 




1 


2 


2 


2 


2 




2 


2 


2 


2 


2 




2 


3 


3 


3 




3 



Gage 

Gray cotton and stocking thread: 

French foot, 00-0 

Frenchfoot, 1-2 

French foot, 3-4 

French foot, 5-6 

8-10 inches 

Silk thread over gray 

Wool thread over gray 

Colored thread over gray 

Goods with heel and toe cap, extra. . 

Striped over plain 

Opera lengths long knitted stockings 
Gray cotton and loose thread: 

French foot, 44-54 inches 

Frencn foot, 6-7 Inches 

French foot, 7^-84 inches 

French foot, 9-12 inches 

Wool over gray 

Colored over gray 

Goods with heel and toe, extra 

Striped over plain 



Some of the Saxon knit-goods manufacturers are very advanced in 
their plans for ameliorating the condition of their help, and besides 
giving the boys time off to attend technical instruction, as required by 
law, tney also have courses of instruction for the girls and women in 
household duties, including cooking and sewing classes, and besides 
night classes some factories give the girls a few hours off each week 
to attend such classes in the dajrtime, the teachers also being paid by 
the factory. Most of the factories provide a lunch room, with tables 
and chairs, where the employees can eat their lunch, and many fur- 
nish food at cost in such places. 

[Several photographs showing a typical Chemnitz knitting mill, 
groups of operatives, and some of the hosiery machines used accom- 
panied Mr. Clark's report and are on file in the Bureau of Manu- 
lactures.] 

H. Doc 1270, 60-2 7 



REPORTS FROM CONSULAR OFHCERS. 



AIX LA CHAPELLE. 

WAGES, FOOD PRICES, LIVING CONDITIONS, OPERATIVES AND MACHINERY. 

Consul Pendleton King furnishes the following information rela- 
tive to the textile industry of Aix la Chapelle, in Rhenish Prussia : 

There are many different kinds of cloth-making machinery used 
in this district, some of them peculiar to the district; the old kinds 
have mostly been replaced, within the last five years, by improved 
machines of Saxon, Belgian, English, and French patterns. Wool- 
washing machines, called here leviathans, came lormerly mostly 
from Belgium, but now come mostly from Saxony. 

Combing machinery is from Muelheim-am-Rhein and Manchester. 
The older carding machinery is of local, Belgian, French, or English 
manufacture, but the improved kinds are of Belgian and German 
(Saxony) manufacture. The older mule-jennies are of Belgian 
and English manufacture, but they are being mostly replaced by 
automatic Saxon machines. 

The worsted yarn mills mostly have crempel and carding ma- 
chinery of Belgian manufacture. Leather and cotton wire cards 
and crempel machines are of Aix la Chapelle manufacture. 

Spinning machines (excepting some old machinery of local, 
English, and Belgian factories) are now of the newest improved 
types, a large proportion of which are made in Germany and 
England. A new kind introduced in this district within a few years 
is tne pipe-spinning machinery, the so-called " metiers " of Belgian 
manufacture. 

Gluing, spooling, and warp making and drying machinery are 
used of various makes, some Belgian and some German ; the newest 
kinds are from Silesia and Saxony. A great variety of looms, 
mostly of the Jacquard harness or cardboard type, of English, 
French, Belgian, Swiss, and local make, some of them over twenty 
years old, are used in this district. 

SPEED OF MACHINES OPERATIVES PER MACHINE. 

Slow looms of 50 to 105 shuttle movements a minute, most of them 
having a speed of 80 to 105, are used, but they are being gradually 
replaced by the highly perfected mechanical looms of Saxony. More 
than 40 per cent of all the looms bought in the last three years were of 
Saxony manufacture. These Saxon looms are of an improved Jac- 
quard type, with harness or pasteboard cards, and a perfected contriv- 
ance for lilting and depressing the warp for the passage of the shuttle 
and drawing the threads ; they are heavy high-speed machines, making 
between 150 and 180 shuttle movements a minute, and are mostly sold 
on the installment plan ; 15 per cent is generally paid on delivery, and 
the rest in yearly installments of 20 per cent. Such high-speed looms 

98 



GERMANY REPORTS FROM CONSULAR OFFICERS. 99 

are sold in this district, mounted and set in motion, at from $200 to 
$300 each. 

Besides the looms mentioned, Belgian and English looms are run- 
ning in this district. 

Cloth shearing, bleaching, dyeing apparatus, and stretching ma- 
chines are all of German manufacture. Fulling machines and card- 
ing machines are the product of Aix la Chapelle. Bobbins, spindles, 
and shuttles are of German manufacture, but some of Dutch manu- 
facture are also in use. 

No machines for woolen cloth are in use here where one operative 
tends more than one loom. The introduction in one mill, some two 
years ago, of the two-loom system (i. e., one operative tending two 
looms) met such opposition from the Weavers' Union that the manu- 
facturer stopped using them. 

WAGES AND LIVING CONDITIONS OF OPERATIVES. 

The wages in the Aix la Chapelle woolen mills are as follows: 
The foreman of the spinning department (spinning master) from $9 
to $14, the operatives from $5 to $6, and the other help, mostly girls, 
from $4.50 to $5 per week. 

The foreman of the weaving department (weaving master) from 
$9 to $14, and the regulators orsetters from $7 to $10.50 per week. 
Weavers are paid $5 to $9 per piece, and if capable and diligent can 
finish li pieces of 40 meters (43.6 yards) at $5 or 1 piece at $9 
each week. They earn, on an average, from $1 to $1.40 per day. 

The darning of pieces is done by women and girls. The mistress 
of the darning department receives from $8 to $10 and her assistants 
from $5 to $7 per week. 

The working hours are somewhat variable; generally they run 
from 7 a. m. to 12, and from 1.30 to 7 p. m. ; married women or girls 
with families are generally allowed to quit work at G.30. 

More than 25 per cent of the factory operatives of Aix la Chapelle 
have their homes in Holland, whence ihej come each morning (some 
as far as 30 miles) and return each evening. For this they pay 75 
cents a week for the " workmen's railroad ticket." They mostly own 
little houses with J to 1 acre of garden or field. They have a cow and 
a few pigs or keep some goats, and bake their own bread. They are 
allowed a few days off each year to till their fields. They manage to 
live very cheaply ; a family of father, mother, and four children will 
live on 60 cents a day. Hour is 20 per cent and meat 25 per cent 
cheaper in Holland than in Aix la Chapelle. Most of those country 
home dwellers have a savings bank account or deposit of a few hundred 
dollars. They are an honest, economical people, and the most reliable 
of the factory operatives. Much the same may be said of a further 
15 per cent or the operatives, who live in German villages around the 
indnstrial cities of thi^ district. These also mostly own little houses 
and fields, or pay $12 to $14 rent per year for such. They are gen- 
erally able to take to farming occupations when factory work becomes 
scarce. 

The life of the textile workmen dwelling in the citv is not so favor- 
able. The cost of living is very high in this city ana in towns of this 
consular district. 



100 



COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 



In this city (the principal center of the cloth industry of the dis- 
trict) one- fourth to one-fifth of the wages of a weaver is needed for 
rent; a family generally pays for two rooms $4 to $6 a month. 



COST OF LIVING. 



The retail prices of foodstuffs and other necessaries of life in Aix la 
Chapelle are as follows : 



Description. 



Poodstufis: 

Beefsteak 

Other parts ol beef 

Ham 

Sausage 

Pork 

Horse meat, used by many work- 
men's families 

Flour— 

Prime „ 

Second quality 

Third quaUty 

Potatoes 

Dried Bosnian prunes 

California prunes 

Cheese— 

From skimmed milk and the 
refuse from margarine but- 
ter _ _ _ 

Best cheese 



Per pound. 


Description. 


Per pound. 


Cents. 


Foodstuffs— Continued . 


Cents. 


27 to 30 


Butter 


10 to 12 


20 to 25 


Or«am butter 


85 to 40 


40 to 65 


Eggs— 




10 to 30 


In winter 


24 to 42 


20 to 25 


Id summer. - 


24 




Black rye bread, of coarse, 




10 to 12 


crushed rye and refuse flour, 






4-pound loaf- _ 


12 to 14 


6to 6 


White bread 1-pound loaf— 


4 to 6 


4 to 5 


Milk — per quart.. 


6 to 10 


3 to 4 


Other necessaries of life: 




Ito 2 


OoaL per 100 pounds- 


40 to 65 


6 to 8 


Kindling wood- _-.do 


45 to 66 


15 to 18 


Workmen's shoes, heavy nailed, 






per pair 


125 to 225 




Workmen's labor suit, blue 






Nankin 


150 to 200 


10 to 12 


. Ueady-made suit, of artiiicial 




20 to 30 


wool or threaded . 


300 to 800 









While milk costs from 5 to 10 cents per quart, it is furnished free 
to the families of workingmen who have several children, and for 
less than half price to others whose ability to pay is limited, on a 
certificate of the family physician stating the circumstances. 

The children of workingmen are also taken out once a week during 
the summer by their teachers, and are then given bread and milk 
free of charge. The workingmen of the better class generally 
belong to a singing or other club, and many of them raise pigeons, 
rabbits, etc. 

There is also a benevolent institution where the wives of working- 
men, at times of confinement, can remain three weeks, for from $3 
to $5. Children from 2 to 6 years old can go to a kindergarten 
during the day until the mothers return from the mills. There is 
also provision made for the industrial education, in industrial 
^choolis, of children of workingmen whose means may be limited. 
' Mm the whole, the children of the workingmen do not present a 
appearance; they are not poorly clothed, and look healthy. 
mes of cloth manufactured in Aix la Chapelle, which accom- 
5 Consul King's report, are on file for inspection in the Bureau 
nufactures.] 



BAMBERG. 
[KDUSTBIAL ACTIVITY IN COTTON MIIXS — WORKMEN'S HOMES. 

-ml William Bardel states that there are about 20 cotton mills 
' consular district, the largest giving employment to 
He adds : 



GERMANY REPORTS FROM CONSULAR OFFICERS. 101 

The wages paid to foremen are from $47.60 to $83.30 a month; 
workingmen under 16 years of age receive from $2.18 to $2.86 a 
week ; those over 16 years old from $4.28 to $7.14 weekly. Women 
over 16 years old earn from $2.15 to $3.15, while those under this 
age receive from $1.71 to $2.15 a week. Sixty-one hours constitute a 
working week. The cotton mills spin thread out of American good 
middling. Thev weave shirting and sheeting muslin exclusively. 
The majority or the machines are tended by one operative. 

The cotton-mill owners have built a number of workingmen's homes 
for their operatives, which they rent to them for $23.80 to $47.60 a 
year. Other necessary requiremients cost between 31 and 48 cents a 
day. 

BRESLAU. 

OUTPUT OF THE MILLS, AND WORK AND WAGES OF THE OPERATIVES. 

The following information concerning the textile mills of Silesia 
and the labor conditions prevailing therein is furnished by Consul 
Herman L. Spahr, of Breslau : 

There are in Silesia about a dozen large establishments engaged 
in the linen industry, and quite a number of smaller mills. The 
average wage paid in these is as follows, per week, of ten hours per 
day, and running three hundred days per year : Overseers, 24 marks 
($5.71) ; male operatives, 15 marks ($3.57) ; female operatives, 9 to 
10 marks ($2.14 to $2.38). 

The machinery used, steam engines, turbines, looms,. Jacquard 
machines, and preparing machines, are mostly of German make, but 
some are of English origin. The largest weaving mill in the district 
makes almost exclusively fimired linen goods, such as tablecloths, 
napkins, and towels, and table covers in white and colors, plain and 
embroidered. 

As a rule one operative tends one machine, seldom two, as the 
articles manufactured require close attention. In spite of the ap- . 

Earently small pay, the majority of employees are able to keep iip the 
ousehold and save something, without even strict self-denial. Often 
several or all members of a family are employed in the factory, and 
thus the family can live well. Where there is a number of young 
children, living is more diflScult, especially when the head of the 
family for any reason is incapacitated for steady work; but such 
cases are exceptions, and are generally ameliorated by charity. 

WELFARE WORK. 

In addition to the welfare provisions required by law. the follow- 
ing endeavors of the owners to better the condition or their oper- 
atives may be mentioned. There are savings banks paying 5 per cent, 
with yearly deposits of about 50,000 marks ($11,900) ; soup ana 
coffee kitchens charging 3^ pfennigs (0.8 cents) a portion; bath 
houses where a bath costs 3^ pfennigs ; infirmaries for free nursing 
and treatment; a fund for convalescent workmen, and another for 
the care of feeble children. Widows and aged workmen receive 
pensions or an extra allowance, besides the age and invalid pensions 
fixed by law. One mill reports that in 1007 the sum of 29,000 marks 
($6,902) was set aside for dwelling improvements. 



102 COTTON FABKICS IN MIDDLE EUROPK. 

The owner of a large weaving mill reports that the workmen 
enter his service usually as soon as they leave school, and frequently 
remain through life. Many of them have been in the mill thirty or 
forty years. Intelligent and industrious employees are promoted 
from time to time. Outsiders are seldom employed, but workmen 
once emploved are never thrown out of employment against their 
will, when hard times set in. Their income, if not large, is at least, 
to a certain degree, secure. 

COTTON MILLS. 

The cotton mills in Silesia number about a dozen for spinning and 
a score for weaving. In the former overseers get from $5.30 to $7.38 
weekly; male operatives average 55 cents daily, and female oper 
atives 48 cents. The spinners work ordinarily ten hours a day, the 
weavers ten and one-half hours. Children under 14 years must not 
be allowed to work over six hours a day, three in the morning and. 
three in the afternoon. The machinery is principally of Engrlish and 
German make. The finished products include staple articles and 
bedding, aprons, inlets, coarse goods (flannels, etc.)^ also dress ^oods, 
zephyrs, etc. One operative attends to one machine, perhaps two, 
and in exceptional cases three. This is in the main due to the scarcity 
of labor, leading often to the employment of unskilled workmen. 
Food is usually furnished at low prices. For instance a group of 
five mills (one spinning, four weaving^ belonging to one firm, main- 
tains canteens, at which a meal is sold tor 20 pfennig (4.8 cents) and, 
at the coffee hour, one-half liter (1.3 pints^ of cofifee wjth two rolls, 
for 6 pfennigs (1.2 cents). Bath houses, kindergartens, and hospi- 
tals are also established. The cotton mills employ 3,200 workmen, 
who run 2,658 looms in the four weaving mills and 29,500 spindles 
in the spinning mills. [Samples of linen, cotton, and union goods 
made in the loregoing mills are on file in the Bureau of Manu- 
factures.] 

CHEMNITZ; 
A BUSY INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL CENTER. 

Consul Thomas H. Norton, writes that Chemnitz is especially well 
provided with technical schools for trainipg in the various industries, 
und especially for the textile trade. He continues : 

The cotton goods, especially stockings, for which the place is 
mainly celebrated, rival those of England in quality and cheapness. 
It is also famous for the manufacture of spinning machinery. There 
are numerous establishments for the weaving of woolen and half 
woolen cloths, and the stocking weaving is prosecuted by a large num- 
ber of firms. The dye works, paint works, bleach works, and chem- 
ical works employ a great numoer of workmen and carry on a large 
trade. 

Hundreds of thousand dozens of knit gloves are purchased here an- 
nually by buyers from every country in the world. In the surround- 
ing district the ceaseless noise of the knitting machine is heard in 
every home. The export trade is very extensive. The principal ar- 



GERMANY ^REPORTS FROM CONSULAR OFFICERS. 



108 



tides of exports declared at Chemnitz for the United States during 
the calendar year 1906 were : 





Articles. 


Value. 


' Articles. 


Value. 


Underwear 




$181. SW 
277.100 

7.038.&10 

236.495 

61 570 


Gloves: 
Ootton. _• . 

Wool - -— _ - - _- 




Machinery — 
Hosiery: 
Cotton 





$1,852,620 
668.440 
272.190 


Silk 

Wnni 





Other articles 

i 


658.245 






; TotaL 

il 


11.247.510 



VARIETY AND VALUE OF THE OUTPUT. 

The great prosperity of the hosiery trade is largely due to the good 
demand manifested by the United States. Lide-thread goods, of 
which a dozen of ladies' stockings only weigh IJ pounds, are becom- 
ing largely sought. As regards fancy styles, lace openwork goods 
stfll lead in this market, and there is also a large demand for nand 
embroidery on hosiery. Kid gloves are largely manufactured, but 
this particular line has been affected by the popularity of silk and lace 
gloves. Golf and Scotch gloves are also a popular feature of this 
market. In laces the demand is good for guipures, nets, and galloons. 
Another important line is that of dress fabrics, such as jacquards, 
serges, armures, and ^enats. The trade in upholstery goods, plushes, 
etc., is also in a flourishing condition. 

Germany has almost obtained a monopoly in the cotton knit goods 
trade in the United States, the exports thither amounting to $6,150,484 
in 1905, $7,128,897 in 1906, and $8,671,848 in 1907. The principal 
pupply for these goods was Chemnitz. The number of spmdles in 
Saxony has increased from 740,000 to 1,430,000 in twelve years. The 
total in the German Empire is now 10,000,000. 



CREFELD. 

WAGES GRADED ACCORDING TO SKILL OF OPERATIVES. 

Consul Joseph E. Haven furnishes the following information from 
Crefeld: . 

There is no recognized wage scale in force in the silk and velvet 
mills in this district, each manufacturer having a standard of his own. 
The wages vary in the different departments, according to the skill 
of the several workmen. In the weaving department overseers re- 
ceive from $5.95 to $7.14 a week, while laborers are paid from $5.71 to 
$6.18. In a few factories wages are paid according to piecework. 
Overseers in the winding and wjlrping departments receive irom $5.95 
to $7.14 weekly ; the laborers from $3.57 to $4.96. The employees in 
these departments are generally women. In the dyeing department 
overseers are paid $9.52 to $10.71, skilled labor from $7.14 to $8.33, 
and unskilled labor from $4.76 to $5.95. The overseers in the finish- 
ing department receive $8.33 to $9.52, and the laborers from $4.76 to 
$6.18. 

The machinery used in the several factories is principally of Ger- 
man manufacture, and the classes of textiles manufactured are silks, 
half silks, velvets, and cotton yam. The operatives in the larger 



104 COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPR. 

towns have their houses in which several families reside, while those 
in the country each have a cottage and usually a small plat of ground. 
[Samples of silks, half silk, ana other textiles are filed for inspection 
in the Bureau of Manufactures.] 



DUSSELDORF. 
SPECIAL LINES OF TEXTILE INDUSTRY — GIKL APPRENTICEB. 

Consul Peter Lieber, writing from Diisseldorf, says that the textile 
industry of Germany is divided into two principal branches, spin- 
ning mills and weaving mills, comprising two special lines, those 
working silk and those working cotton. The consul adds: 

In spinning mills, where only women are employed, the average 
daily wage is from 71.4 cents to 83.3 cents. Immediately after 
leavmg school, usually at 14 years, the young girls enter the factories. 
In two years they earn from 35.7 cents to 47.0 cents a day, and after 
four or five years their wages are increased to the maximum of 83.8 
cents. In weaving mills the salary undergoes many fluctuations, 
reaching as high as $1.19 per day. There are also many factories 
where workers are paid according to what they produce, and oftcai 
make as much as $1.30 a day. 

The weaving mills in Diisseldorf employ mostly German machines; 
in some cases French machines are used. In several other places 
American and English machines are in use, which are by no means 
inferior to the German machine as to their capacity and mechanical 
construction. [Samples of silk and other fabrics made in the Diissel- 
dorf region are filed for inspection at the Bureau of Manufactures.] 



EIBENSTOCK. 

CONDITIONS AND WAGES IN THE COTTON KNIT-GOODS INDUSTRY. 

Consul William C. Teichmann, of Eibenstock, reports that the 
most important textile industry in his district is the manufacture of 
cotton hosiery and underwear, with embroidered trimmings ranking 
second, concerning which he writes : 

The knit-goods industries are located chiefly at Gornsdorf and 
Thalheini. At Gornsdorf twelve factories, all producing hosiery, 
had been doing a prosperous business until the American finan- 
cial flurry of last fall and the inauguration of a protracted strike 
changed these conditions unfavorably. This strike revealed the 
wage scale, so that a description of wage conditions, otherwise diffi- 
cult to obtain, can be given. 

The five firms originally affected by the strike employed 472 men 
and 209 women workers, with weekly wages amounting to $3,351, 
averaging $4.92 per person a week. Of the men, 65.3 per cent earned 
more than $4.70; 55.(> per cent more than $5.30, and 42.9 per cent 
more than $5.95. Of the male employees, 154 received $6.43 and 
over; 80 more than $7.14, and 14 over $8.33. The highest wages 
paid the men ranged from $8.64 to $10.13. 

The total annual wages earned by some families through their 
several members exceed $1,500. The normal number of hours of 



GERMANY — ^BBPOBTS FROM CONSULAR OFFICERS. 105 

work for these wages was fifty-eight per week, averaging a little 
less than ten hours per day. The wage scale given includes all 
working people, even boy and girl apprentices and operatives. On 
the whole, these scales are high for Saxon factory labor and are due to 
the rapid expansion of the Saxon textile industries in recent years, the 
dearth of labor for the supply of industrial demands in general in 
Saxony, as well as for German agricultural requirements, and the 
tendencv of the employers to grant the steady increase in wages en- 
forced by labor in the industries during the recent economic pros- 
perity. 

These wage conditions are also applicable to the hosiery factories 
at Thalheim, where 45 establishments manufacture cotton stockings 
principally. It is claimed by manufacturers there that the average 
wage paid the skilled stocking worker of this section amounts to $7.14 
per week, and that $9.52 is nothing unusual. 

THE MANUFACTURE OF EMBROmERED TRIMMINGS. 

The manufacture of embroidered trimmings ranks second in im- 
portance in this district, and is still conducted by two somewhat dif- 
lerent means — the schiffli (or schiffchen) embroidery machine, with 
pantograph attachment, and the hand machine. Since its invention in 
1860 the schiffli machine has been steadily improved, so that it can 
be used for various kinds of mull muslin and tulle (net) lace in large 
pieces, upon which 1,800 stitches a minute are embroidered by auto- 
matic process. A stitcher at the left of the loom guides the panto- 
graph over the sixfold enlarged pattern outlining the stitches. Spe- 
cial appliances attached to the machine produce particular orna- 
mental stitches, sew on braids and cords, and even enable several 
chain-stitch seams to be made with one thread. All kinds of tex- 
tures and tulle can be embroidered. Gold and silver threads can also 
be used. Robes, stripes, trimmings, insertions, blouses, shawls, 
aprons, parasols, petticoats, cloths, etc., can thus be embroidered; 
also velvet, table covers, portieres, lambrequins, upholstery materials, 
and even rubber belts for the sporting-goods trade. 

A recent invention which may revolutionize the colored embroidery 
process is an attachment supplied with boxes^ each containing a cer- 
tain color. In order to produce differently colored stitchings the 
threaded needle is passed through the required color and the thread 
thus colored at will. The rollers which conduct the thread are sup- 
plied with a heating appliance to produce rapid drying. The color 
change operates smoothly and can be made in a few minutes. The 
colors can always be supplied by the color factory, so as to insure 
strict uniforniity when quick renewal of supplies is needed. Cotton, 
silk, artificial silk, etc., can all be worked in any genuine color, 
(xuipure lace can tlius be made without difficulty. [The product of 
this innovation is shown by two samples inclosed, which are on file 
in the Bureau of Manufactures.] 

HAND MACHINES USED IN SMALL ESTABLISHMENTS. 

There are ten establishments manufacturing embroideries by the 
schiffchen machine. However, the hand machine is much more in 
use here, more than fifty establishments preferring the latter. They 
are smaller concerns and are not conducted on the same extensive 



106 COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 

scale as in Plauen and also at St. Gall, in Switzerland, at which places 
the manufacture is confined to that by the schiffchen machine. 

The hand embroidery machine is a " satin-stitch " machine, smaller 
than the schiffchen machine, and operated by a hand crank between 
the pantograph and the stitching apparatus. The hand machines 
used in Saxony have on each carriage side two or three rows of 
needles. The two-rowed variety is known as the Swiss type, and the 
threo-rowed is termed the Saxon machine. A special contrivance 
has been invented, whereby the needles arc not only threaded, but the 
threads are knotted. This appliance can be arranged to stitch on a 
pillow, the replacing of the pillow being the only manual work re- 
quired. One girl can operate four or five such machines at a time. 
The machine can thread 25,000 needles daily. 

The general advantage of the latest automatic schiffchen machine, 
both in cost and operation, is that it produces 25 to 30 per cent more 
stitches than the ordinary schiffchen machine. Another advantage 
is that larger pieces can be worked, because the machine has a length 
of 204 feet, whereas the ordinary schiffchen machine's length is about 
one-third shorter. The ordinary schiffchen machine w^orks from six 
to ten times as fast as the hand machine. 

OPERATIMCS SCARCE AND WAGES HIGH COST OF LIVING. 

The prosperous conditions of the the past few years have not only re- 
duced the supply of operatives by constant absorption, but organiza- 
tion has forced up wages steadily. A few years ago stitchers for the 
embroidery industry could be had for $4.50 per week ; now they aver- 
age $6 to $7.10. The watchers, or " auf passer," usually women, who 
attend the machine and look after its operation while the stitcher 
piides the pantograph, receive from $2.40 to $2.85. The working 
hours in summer are from G a. m. to 7 p. m. The stitcher is not com- 
pelled to work uninterruptedly, as he is paid about 57 cents per 1,000 
stitches. Some stitchers have their own machines and receive better 
pay, averaging from $9.50 to $11.50 per week. One stitcher and one 
watcher suffice for the operation of a machine, although two watchers 
insure a better supervision over the apparatus and are frequently 
employed. 

Much of the work, like cutting off and fastening the threads, is 
performed by the home workers, principally by w^omen and children, 
who become so adept in the handling of the scissors and thread as to 
earn from 15 to 20 pfennigs (3 J to 5 cents) per hour. 

As to the style of living, the better times of recent years have en- 
abled the working people here to buy more meat and vegetables than 
formerly. To many meat was a rare luxury, and potatoes and bread 
their principal nutrition. Potatoes are still the main food, and many 
operatives have leased small potato patches in the neighborhood of 
Eibenstock from farmers, who turn the patch over to them w^hen the 
potatoes are ready for digging. The patches are just large enough 
to furnish a yield sufficient for the family of the renter. 

The cost of living has increased materially here within the last 
decade for the middle and upper classes, but not so much for the 
working people, whose income has not only correspondingly been in- 
creased, but, owing: to the great demand for labor and the frequent 
scarcity in industrial as well as agricultural Quarters, achieved gains 
exceeding the difference in increased household expenses. 



GERMANY ^REPORTS FROM OON8ULAR OFFICERS. 107 

At Kirchberg, Wilkau, and a few other towns in this district spin- 
ning and weaving mills and cloth manufactories exist, but the manu- 
facturing and wage conditions there are similar to those prevailing 
in the adjacent Plauen district, which have been fully covered in 
reports from that section. 

FREIBURG. 

MACHINERY AND PRODUCT OF THE MIIJU3 WAGES AND LABOR CONDITIONS. 

Consul E. Theophilus Liefeld furnishes the following information 
concerning the textile industry in the Freiburg consular district: 

All the ordinary kinds of textiles are manufactured here, among 
the principal lines being women's and men's woolen garments and silk 
and half -silk goods. One firm makes artificial silk and horsehair. 

Another firm is engaged in the manufacture of ramie yam and 
ramie goods. This firm is constantly adding to its large factory, and 
expects to be able to turn out, in a short time, 1,300,000 pounds of 
ramie yarn per year. The fiber used by this firm is imported from 
China, where it is grown on the high plateau of the Yellow River. 
Members of this firm inform me that in their opinion ramie can be 
successfully cultivated in the Philippines. 

During the year 1907 there were exported from the consular dis- 
trict of Freiburg to the United States textiles to the value of 
$481,885, which was 34 per cent of all exports declared at this con- 
sulate. There were in all 788 invoices oi textile goods certified to, 
which was 44^ per cent of the total number for the year. 

MACHINERY AND ITS OPERATION. 

Much of the machinery in use is of German manufacture, but 
Swiss, French, and British machinery is also in use. An Alsatian 
factory furnishes the manufacturei-s here with considerable spinning 
and weaving machinery. One of the largest Freiburg firms informs 
me that its principal machines, especially sewing machines, are of 
American manufacture. 

As the speed varies with the different machines, accurate figures for 
the respective machines can not be given. I am informed by one firm 
that the speed is from 80 to 120 revolutions per minute ; another re- 
ports a velocity of 180 revolutions per minute for certain spinning 
wheels in his factory, for steam-power machines from 80 to 150, 
while dynamos and sewing machines have even 3,000 revolutions per 
minute. 

In a great many cases there is one operative for every two or three 
spinning frames, and for sewing machines one woman tor each, while 
for looms one women operates one to two machines — in all factories a 
great many of the operatives being women. In some factories, how- 
ever, one operative tends four weaving machines. 

HOURS OF LABOR AND WAGES. 

The hours of labor in the mills average about ten per day. At one 
mill, for example, the working hours were from G to noon and from 
1 to 5 p. m., with fifteen minutes recess in the forenoon. An Alsatian 
factory reports the hours of labor as ten and one-half in summer, 



108 COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 

with fifteen minutes recess, ten and three-quarters in winter, with 
thirty minutes intermission. The winter hours are from G.15 a. m. 
to 12 noon and from 1 to 6 p. m. Two factories here in Freiburg 
report their hours of labor ten and one-half per day. 

Ordinary laborers in the mills are paid from 48 to 71 cents per day, 
their overseers from 71 cents to $1.20, while skilled laborers are paid 
as high as 95 cents, and their overseers $1.67. 

That some of the mills are run on a cooperative plan is evident 
from a recent newspaper report, which states that a textile factory in 
this district at the close of the year divided $7,140 among its em- 
ployees, those who had been in its employ more than five years re- 
ceiving Christmas presents of from $2.40 to $19. 

I am unable to learn anything definite about the cost and manner 
of living of the operatives. One of the firms informs me that their 
employees usually pay more attention to dress and board than to the 
comfort of their living quarters. Some spend all their earnings, while 
others, more economical, save something. 

WORKINGMEN's DWELLINGS. 

In several cases where there are a great many employees suitable 
houses, especially intended for the operatives, have been erected, so 
as to rent reasonably, and they are generally in great demand. This 
is the case at Emmendingen, and it is also especially the case in the 
city of Mulhausen, Alsace, which belongs to the Freiburg consular 
district, a great industrial center of textile manufactures, with a 
population of about 100,000. Mulhausen has a workingman's section, 
where the Industrial Society of Mulhausen has built plain, comfort- 
able houses, and sold them at a low price, really at cost, to the labor- 
ers, charging a certain amount monthly, which payments, bein^ 
regularly made, would, in the course of time, pay all the original 
costs of building, together with a suitable amount of interest, when 
the houses would become the property of the occupants. In the year 
1901, 1,243 such houses were owned by the occupants, and the recent 
reports of this society show that it is still active in building such 
suitable dwellings, and either renting them or selling them, some- 
what on the plan of the building and loan associations of the United 
States. 

From the report of 1903 I learn that this society appropriated 
$26,656 for the purpose of erecting new dwelling houses for work- 
ingmen. The recommendations of the committee as to the new build- 
ings were that two kinds of dwellings be built, one with apartments 
containing two rooms and a kitchen, the other with three rooms and 
a kitchen, with all necessary adjuncts as to sanitation and comfort 
provided for, and that the dwellings of two rooms and the kitchen 
should pay an annual rent of $34, and the one of three rooms $46. 

COST OF HOUSES AND METHOD OF PAYMENTS. 

Accordingly, from the spring of 1901 to the summer of 1902 the 
houses containing 12 two-room and 12 three-room apartments were 
built at a cost, land included, of $1,064 each for the two-room dwell- 
ings, and $1,153 for the three-room dwellings. The rents were fixed 
as lollows, not including gas and water: Two-room apartments, 
ground floor, $2.86 per month ; for the first and second floors, $3.09 



GERMANY — ^REPORTS FROM CONSULAR OFFICERS. 109 

per month; three-room apartments, ground floor, $3.70 per month; 
and for first and second floors, $4.17 per month. On September 1, 
1902^ these apartments were all occupied, housing 137 people, in- 
cluding 83 children. 

From the purchase contract it is evident that the purchaser is ex- 
pected to pay down 10 per cent of the purchase price and a further 
10 per cent each year until the place is paid for. This would mean a 
rent of $5.71 monthly for a house, the value of which is $085.44, and 
$9.52 monthly for a home worth $1,142 or more. If for any reasons 
the monthly payments are not made and it seems that the party can 
not or will not pay, then the society can order the occupant to leave 
the premises, for, according to the contract, the purchaser is con- 
sidered as living as a renter until the place is paid for. In such a 
case a certain amount of the money paia is returned, for the monthly 
dues were considerably higher than the amount that would have been 
charged as rent. 

[A number of samples of textiles, ramie products, stalks, crude 
bark, prepared fiber, and thread, and plans ot workmen's dwellings, 
transmitted by Consul Liefeld, are on file in the Bureau of Manu- 
factures.] 

GLAUCHAU. 

PRODUCTION OF NOVELTIES'— TECHNICAL TRAINING OF OPERATIVES. 

Consul George A. Bucklin, jr., advises that Glauchau stands pre- 
eminent in the production of certain fabrics, from the fact that its 
manufacturers have always striven to produce complicated novelties, 
concerning which he writes: 

These can be produced here better than almost anywhere else, be- 
cause the old staff of hand weavers are people of great technical 
knowledge, and all of the help, such as spinners^ dyers, and finishers, 
have adapted themselves to producing novelties and to overcome 
almost any difficulty in the way of new creations. Furthermore. 
Glauchau has a state weaving school, with some very practical and 
experienced teachers, so that there is always a supply of technicallv 
educated help. In fact, men, women, and children are imbued with 
overvthing that is connected with weaving goods. 

The welfare of the city is dependent upon the weaving industry 
and upon those industries connected with it. Out of a population of 
25,000 inhabitants about one-half are directly interested in the textile 
industry and about one- fourth more are indirectly dependent upon it, 
in such work as spinning, dyeing, spooling, making of winding 
boards, cases, and dealing in paper used for putting up the goods. ^ 

The number of firms in Glauchau at present engaged in the textile 
business is about 10, and these engage (not counting the help for 
weaving the goods) about 1,000 emplovees. The value of the output 
of the largest manufacturer is about $1,500,000 annually. The out- 
put of the average factory is perhaps $500,000. The approximate 
value of the total output of textiles in the city of Glauchau amounts 
to about $6,000,000 annually, and the foreign countries which are the 
largest purchasers are the United States, England, and Russia. 



110 



COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 



HANOVER. 
OUTPUT OF FACTORIES, WAGES, HOURS OF LABOR, COST OF LIVING, ETC. 

In submitting the following information concerning the textile 
industry of Hanover, Consul Robert J. Thompson reports that while 
it is not particularly extensive it is diversified, consisting of wool 
washing and dressing, cotton spinning and weaving, carpet weaving, 
etc.: 

There is one wool washing and dressing factory in this district 
employing 1,000 males and 800 females, ten hours constituting a 
day's worK. Every department works with night shifts. The wages 
are paid semimonthly, with deductions for invalid and old-age 
insurance. This company furnishes homes to the workers at a nomi- 
nal rent. Figures charged for rental are not available, but are esti- 
mated at $60 per year on an average. Supply stores and a reading 
room are providea for the employees. The daily wages paid in this 
factory are as follows (1 mark=2»3.8 cents) : 



Description of work. 



Yard work 

First sorting— - 

Washing and carbolizlng 

Second sorting 

Second washing _ 



Males. 



Marks. 
3.2r> 
8.20 
3.25 
3.20 
3.25 



Females. 



Marks. 



1.00 

'iroo" 



Description of work. 



Carding 

Combing. 

Ironing _ 

Chemical department- 
Inspectors 



Males. 



Marks. 
2.25-S.25 



8.50 
8.50-4.25 



Females. 



Marks. 



2.00 
2.00-2.20 



Business with this company has been very good during recent 
vears, the stockholders receiving dividends of 12 per cent. Wool is 
bought from Australia, Argentma, South Africa, and from German 
growers. The wool is sorted, washed, carded, combed, and smoothed. 
It is then sent to the spinning mills. A special department of the 
factory is the chemical division, where residues from the other depart- 
ments are made into wool grease, potash, and artificial manure, 
Much of this wool grease is exported to the United States. 

weavers' wages and machinery. 

The wages of foremen working in the principal corduroy and cotton 
velvet factory vary according to the wages of the male and female' 
weavers working under them, and amount to about 30 to 40 marks 
($7.14 to $0.52) per week. Other foremen and the master weavers 
get fixed weekly wages, varying from 24 to 80 marks ($5.71 to $19.04) 
according to the ability and the responsibility of the men. 

The male and female workers in tlie weave room and in the shear- 
ing establishment do piecework and earn 15 to 28 marks ($3.57 to 
$6.66) weekly, according to their ability. One workman generally runs 
two looms ; the more skilled run three. The men and women working 
in other branches of this establishment earn, on an average, about 
3.30 marks (79 cents), according to the kind of work they do, per day 
of 10 hours' work, viz, 6 to 8, 8^ to 12, 1^ to 6 — that is to say, 12 hours 
with 2 hours of rest, as indicated. 

In the weave room drum looms are in use, of English and German 
manufacture. The machines in use in the shearing branch, where 



GERMANY REPORTS FROM CONSULAR OFFICERS. Ill 

the threads of the weft are cut to form the glossy surface of the vel- 
vets, are made in Hanover. Part of the weft is cut by hand. Besides 
these, a good number of other machines of different construction and 
make are used. This company makes velvets and corduroys only, 
samples of which are forwarded. The speed of the looms in use by 
the company depends on their width and varies between 120 and 170 
revolutions per minute. The speed of the machines in the other 
branches varies greatly and can not be given exactly. The main 
factory at this place and a branch establishment in the south of Ger- 
many belonging to this company, together work 1,850 looms, 250 
cutting machines, and 550 finishing and dyeing machines. 

COTTON SPINNING AND WEAVING AND CARPET WEAVING. 

The leading cotton spinning and weaving factory employs about 
800 workers, for the most part women. The wages for spinners are 
20 to 28 marks ($4.76 to $G.66) per week, and for helpers from 50 to 
75 per cent of this. The self-acting spinning mill and water spinning 
mill, making yarn Nos. 4-36 and 8-32, respectively, have as tenders 
women only. The wages are 10 to 15 marks ($2.38 to $3.57) per week, 
and the same wages are paid in the department for washing, winding, 
and wrapping. This factory also has 24 houses containing 93 homes, 
renting at $25 to $40 per year for small apartments of three or four 
rooms. These houses are old, but there is always a large waiting list 
of applicants, owing to the cheapness and accessibility of the quarters. 

Herat rugs, machine and hand woven, stair carpets, and strips of 
carpet are manufactured here to a small extent. Self-acting looms 
are used for carpet weaving, and the knotting is done by hand. 
Machines have been tried for knotting, but without success. Wages 
in this line amount to 3 to 3.5 marks (71 to 83 cents) per day for 
dyers; women and girl workers, tending machines, earn 6 to 13 marks 
($1.43 to $3.09) per week. 

COST OF LIVING. 

The total number of operatives, male and female, is about 1,900, 
part of whom live in apartments built by the company. The working 
women are allowed to bring their children to a nursery built by the 
factory. 

The operatives can get meals in special places established for this 
purpose, and costing 28 pfennigs (6^ cents), each meal containing a 
liter (1.05 quarts) of meat and vegetables. The houses furnished its 
employees by this company consist of small stone buildings with two 
to four apartments of four rooms each — kitchen, living room, and 
two bedrooms. The rental is 120 to 150 marks ($28.50 to $35.70) per 
year. Plans of the house are forwarded herewith. 

In the children's nursery and hospital, established by this company, 
about 200 children are taken care of each workday. This establish- 
ment has been in existence since 1872, and is for the benefit of mothers 
who wish to work in the factory, but have no one to take care of theii 
small children. Its staff is composed of doctors, nurses, kindergarten 
teachers, waitresses, etc. The expense is borne chiefly by the com- 
pany, in the proportion of 2 to 1. The cost per day per child 
amounted in 1906 to less than 9 cents, making tne outlay for the 



112 



COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 



mother about 3 cents per day for nursing, feeding, and care of her 
child. This company pays 7 per cent dividends on its capital stock. 

An average income for a male factory worker per year may b© 
fairly estimated at 1,200 marks ($285.60). To this should be udded 
200 to 300 marks ($47.60 to $71.40), which may be earned by the wife 
or children. This income will be disposed of generally in the follow- 
ing manner, amounts given for the vear being for a family of five : 
Apartment or flat, 260 marks ($61.88) ; clothing, 150 marks ($35.70) ; 
food, fuel, and light, 720 marks ($171.36) ; recreation, 100 marks 
($23.80); total expenditures, 1,230 marks ($292.74). [Samples of 
cotton velvets and corduroys, and plans of the houses occupied by 
factory employees, which accompanied Consul Thompson's report, 
are on file in the Bureau of Manufactures.] 



LEIPZIG. 

NUMBER OF W^ORKERS AND WAGES PAID IN SAXONY's TEXTILE INDUSTRY. 

Consul Southard P. Warner, of Leipzig, states that the impor- 
tance of Saxony as a textile center is well shown by interesting figures 
which have been published by the imperial insurance office, from 
which he compiles the following: 

During the twenty years from 1886 to 1905 the number of insured 
workmen in the German textile industry increased from 473,700 to 
732,500, or 55 per cent. In Saxony the number of textile workers 
increased from 116,000 to 225,300, or 94 per cent. In 1886 Saxonv 
employed about 24.5 per cent, and in 1905 about 30.7 per cent of all 
persons engaged in textile manufacturing in Germany. The total 
wages paid in Germany to textile workers increased from $62,118,000 
in 1886 to $122,570,000 in 1905. Those in Saxony increased from 
$14,756,000 in 1886 to $36,652,000 in 1905. 

The following table pves the number of insured workmen and the 
wages paid in the textile industry in each of the six districts of the 
German Empire for the years 1886 and 1905 : 



Districts. 



Saxony 

Northern Germany 

Rhineland- Westphalia 

Southern Germany 

Alsace-Lorraine 

Silesia 

Total Germany 



Persons Insured. 



18S6. 



116.000 
105,000 
92,300 
64,500 
67,500 
88,400 



473,700 



1905. 



225,300 
124,000 
138,600 
119,200 
67.200 
68,200 



732.500 



Per 

cent 
in- 
crease. 



65 



"Wages paid. 



1888. 



$14,700,000 
13,600.000 
13,600.000 
8,300.000 
8,300.000 
3.600.000 



62.100,000 



1905. 



$36,700,000 
21.900.000 
27.100,000 
18.300.000 
11.200.000 
7.400.000 



122,600,000 



Per 
cent 
In- 
crease. 



150 
61 
90 

120 
85 

100 



07 



As will be seen from the foregoing statement, Saxony shows the 
greatest increase in the number of insured workmen and also in the 
wages paid. 

AVERAGE WAGES — BENEFIT OF TEXTILE SCHOOLS. 

The average of the yearly wages paid in the German textile in- 
dustry in 1886 was $128.44. In 1905 the average was $168.66, an 



GERMANY — REPORTS FROM CONSULAR OFFICfeRS. 



113 



increase of 27 per cent. The following table shows the average 
yearly wages paid in the six districts for the years 1886 and 1905 : 



District. 


Average yearly 
wages. 


Per 

cent 
In- 
crease. 


District. 


Average yearly 
wages. 


Per 
cent 
In- 
crease. 




1886. 


1905. 


1883. 


1905. 


Saxony 

Nortliem Gtermany. 
Ehtn eland-West- 
phalia- 


$127.33 
129.23 

147.08 
129.23 


$162.70 
176.60 

195.87 
153.75 


28 
37 

33 
19 


Alsace-Lorraine 

SUesla 

Total Germany- 


144.04 
92.82 


166.36 
126.62 


15 
3d 


128.44 


163.06 


27 


Southern Germany- 





The textile workmen engaged in the so-called " home industry " are 
not included in these figures. 

In 1895, the figures for the occupation census of 1905 not yet hav- 
ing been published, the number of industrial workers in Germany 
was 10,270,000, Saxony's share being 1,150,000. The number of per- 
sons employed in the textile industry of the Empire was 993,000, or 
9.7 per cent of all industrial workers. In Saxony the textile workers 
numbered 267,000, or 23 per cent of all industrial workers. In 1895 
27 per cent of all the German textile workers were employed in 
Saxony. From these figures can be seen what an important part the 
textile training schools have played during recent years in the de- 
velopment of Saxony as a textile center. In 1906 the total number 
of factories in Saxony was 23,000. Of these, 5,300, or nearly 25 per 
cent, were textile establishments. 



MAGDEBURG. 

TEXTILE INDUSTRY SMALL WAGES OF THE OPERATIVES. 

Consul Frank S. Hannah reports that the Magdeburg consular dis- 
trict is not a textile manufacturing region, no goods of this descrip- 
tion being manufactured for export to the United States, although 
one or two local exporters purchase small quantities of textile goods 
from the big manufacturers in the Kingdom of Saxony and ship them 
to the States. The consul continues: 

There are, however, one or two small concerns here engaged in the 
manufacture of cotton goods, from whom the following inrormation 
has been obtained: The wages paid overseers are 36 to 50 marks 
($8.57 to $11.90) per week. The male mill-operatives receive 30 to 
86 marks ($7.14 to $8.57) and the female 12 to 18 marks ($2.86 to 
$4.28) weekly. These wages are paid and the work done entirely by 
piecework. The average hours of labor are fifty-nine hours per 
week, ten hours constituting a day, with the exception of Saturday. 

The cotton-spinning machines are made in England and in Alsace. 
The looms and the machines for colorinff are made in Germany and 
the bleaching machinery in Switzerland. 

As the industry here is so small and the number of operatives so 
limited, a general provision for cheaper rent and the furnishing of 
supplies at reduced!^ prices, as is sometimes the case with large manu- 
facturing corporations, does not enter into consideration. The ma- 
jority of the operatives here are girls, who live with their parents 
under the ordinary conditions prevailing in the local working classes. 

H. I^oc. 1270, 60-2 8 



114 COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 

MUNICH. 
FACTS OBTAINED UNDER DIFFICULTIES WAGES AND COST OF LIVING. 

Consul-General Thomas W. Peters, writing from Munich, Bavaria, 
says: 

Information in regard to textile manufacturing here is very meager, 
some firms absolutely refusing to give out anything. There are very 
few shipments, and even these, under the new regulations, are not 
subject to an expert examination before certification of invoices, as 
was formerly the case. Manufacturers can and do refuse any request 
made regarding manufacturing conditions. 

A number of large mills makmg cotton and linen goods are situated 
at Augsburg. The wages paid to the overseers and weavers range 
from $1 to $2.25 per day, while the unskilled workmen receive 75 
cents. 

The speed of the machines varies according to the grade of goods 
manufactured, but ranges from 120 to 450 movements per minute. 
One man takes charge of 15 machines making ordinary plain goods, 
while in some high-grade goods 2 to 4 machines are operated by 1 
person. The cost of living is from $190 to $476 a year, according to 
the size of family. There are small houses for two families and also 
tenement houses, the rent for 3 rooms and a kitchen amounting to 
from $30 to $50 per annum. 



PLAUEN. 

CONDITIONS AMONG THE FACTORY WOKKEKS IN SAXONY. 

Consul Carl Bailey Hurst, of Plauen, presents the following review 
of the textile industry in that part of Germany, and describes condi- 
tions among the factory operatives : 

The manufacture of machine-made laces by means of embroidery 
comprises the chief industry of Plauen, to the exclusion of woven 
cloths, which are produced in other parts of this district, principally 
in the towns of Greiz and Reichenbach. It is to these places that one 
must look for information as to the textile industry in this section of 
Saxony. 

The wages paid to those employed in the weaving mills vary con- 
siderably. The scale of even two years a^o is not applicable now. 
The tendency is toward a general increase, but the periods of activity 
and depression, the disturbances caused by small demand, strikes, and 
higher cost of raw materials must be frequently taken into account in 
giving the average rate of wages. 

LESSENED. PROFITS DUE TO MARKET UNCERTAINTIES. 

The manufacturers, in their endeavors to make a fair profit, are con- 
stantly harassed by the uncertainties of the market, and sucn factors 
tend to have a lowering effect on wages ; but once the wages are raised 
it is difficult to reduce them again, no matter how urgent the reason. 
There are complaints from both sides. The manufacturers are work- 
ing at less profit than ever before, and the operatives are looking to a 
further increase in pay. Some older houses, after having taken in the 
sons of the members of the firm, find that the profits have become so 



GERMANY REPORTS FROM CONSULAR OFFICERS. 115 

divided that there is no longer a competence for most of them. The 
situation has reached such a condition that some firms in this locality 
are dissolving old existing partnerships, as the business is not suf- 
ficiently remunerative for all partners. It is the intention, however, 
of most of such members to continue on their individual accounts. 

Notwithstanding this narrowing in the margin of profits in the 
local textile industry, the demands of the operatives are not without 
foundation. It is not that there is so much money made in weaving 
here, but rather that the cost of living has increased in such marked 
degree that the wages of a few years ago do not suffice to-day. It is 
the clamor, not for the comforts of life, but for the bare necessities, 
that makes mill hands seek for higher pay. 

WAGES OF OPERATIVES. 

Women and girls are employed very largely in the factories. The 
average wages paid to overseers range from 24 to 40 marks ($5.71 to 
$9.52) a week, only in rare instances higher than this. The wages 
paid to operatives, on an averace, are nearly 16 marks ($3.81) a week. 
This latter rate was established the beginning of last year, when the 
average weekly payment was 13.99 marks (^3.33). The employers 
say that a number of the workmen do not earn the pay they receive 
in relation to the work done. Operatives are striving to have a mini- 
mum of 18 marks ($4.28) a weet established. This is being strongly 
opposed by most manufacturers. Before the latest increase in wages 
was granted, the operatives, both sexes, divided into four classes, 
earned as follows : 



Class of weavers. 



Up to 10 years of age 

Fronj 16 to 21 years 

Prom 22 tofiS years 

Over 66 years of acre 



Wages per week. 


Marks. 
lO.W 
12.1M 
16.08 
13.38 


DoUars. 
2.47 
3.06 
8.88 
3.18 



There are, of course, exceptions in diflFerent places, and one finds 
wages in some cases as high as 18 marks ($4.28) per week being paid, 
which counterbalance some wages as low as 7 marks ($1.67) a week. 

STRINGENT LAWS REGULATING HOURS OF LABOR. 

There are very stringent laws for the observance of hours of labor 
for operatives, and as far as the regulations are not promulgated 
through the imperial federal council they may be fixed through the 
central authorities of a German State or through police regulations 
applicable to this district. Before the issuance or such regulations 
opportunity must bo given the chairman of the interested trade guild 
to express an opinion on the subject. By decision of the federal 
council, regulations can he laid down for industries in which, through 
excessive diiration of daily working hours, the health of the employees 
is threatened; also, the length, beginning, and closing for the per- 
missible daily period of work and the intervals of rest to be allowed. 

It is required that regulations as to working hours, as well as the 
rests for adult operatives, shall be conspicuously posted. When by 
reason of accident the regular work of a mill is mterrupted the daily 
period of work may be extended later by the imperial chancellor. 



116 COTTON FAHRICS IN MIDDLE KUROPE. 

In urgent cases the local authorities can permit such exceptions, yet 
in no instance for over fourteen days. This is besides the permission, 
also obtainable through the local authorities, to mill owners during 
seasons when there is an unusual accumulation of work to have their 
oi)eratives work overtime, not, however, on more than forty days 
within one year. 

The exact hours vary considerably, according to the mills. Some 
begin in summer at 7 in the morning and close at 7 at night, and in 
winter the hours extend from 7.30 a. m. to 7.30 p. m. ; others, for 
adult workers, from 6 a. m. to 7 p. m. in summer, and in winter from 
7 a. m. to 8 p. m. For children from 14 to 16 years, from 6 a. m. to 
6 p. m. in summer, and from 7 a. m. to 7 p. m. in winter. Rests are 
allowed for adult workers as follows: From 9 to 9.15 a. m., from noon 
to 1.30 p. m., and from 4 to 4.15 p. m. For operatives from 14 to 16 
years of age, from 9 to 9.30 a. m., from noon to 1.30 p. m., and from 
4 to 4.30 p. m. In some smaller places the rests are arranged in sum- 
mer from 8.30 to 9 a. m., from noon to 1 p. m., and from 4 to 4.30 
p. m. ; in winter from 9 to 9.30 a. m., from noon to 1 p. m., and from 
4 to 4.30 p. m. 

FEMALE AND YOUTHFUL EMPLOYEES. 

According to the law, mills must permit female operatives over 
16 years of age who have a household to care for to leave^ at their 
own request, a half-hour before the midday interval, provided that 
there is not allowed at least an hour and a half as the regular dinner 
hour. During the recesses the machines will be stopped. Young 
operatives are not allowed to remain in the working rooms. They 
have to retire to a specially assigned room, if they do not go out- 
doors. The bringing of food and drink is only permitted during the 
prescribed periods of rest. Female operatives must not be kept at 
work after 5.30 p. m. on Saturdays or on the day before holidays. 
For adult female operatives the afternoon recess on such days is to be 
omitted. 

Female operatives may not be employed in the mills from 8.30 
p. m. to 5.30 a. m., and on Saturdays and the days preceding holidays 
not after 5.30 p. m. The employment of female operatives over 16 
years of age must not exceed a total of eleven hours daily, and on 
Saturdays and the days before holidays may not exceed ten hours. 

Children under 13 years of age must not be employed at all in 
mills; children over 13 years old may only be emploved, if they are 
not obliged longer to attend public scnool. The employment of chil- 
dren under 14 years must not exceed six hours daily. Young people 
between 14 and 16 years of age must not be kept at work in the fac- 
tories more than ten hours a day. The work hours of young oper- 
atives must not begin before 5.30 a. m. and must not continue later 
tiban 8.30 p. m. Young operatives who work only six hours a day 
must have a rest of at least a half hour. Other youthful operatives 
must have at least one hour at noon and a half-hour each in the 
morning and afternoon. A morning and afternoon rest need not be 
frranted, provided that the young operatives are not at work over 
eight hours altogether, and the duration of one uninterrupted period 
labor does not exceed four hours. On Sundays and holidays 
: operatives must not be employed at all or at those hours which 



GERMANY REPORTS FROM CONSULAR OFFICERS. 117 

their clergymen have set apart for the religious instruction of such 
operatives. 

Operatives under 17 years of a^e, who are obliged to attend com- 
pulsory school courses at certain times during the week, will receive 
the necessary liberty, but they must state their school hours in ad- 
vance at the office or the mill. 

INSPECTION OF MILLS — MACHINERY AND PRODUCTS. 

It is probably known to American textile manufacturers that the 
weaving mills m this district are practically closed to expert inspec- 
tion except to the Government. While showing every courtesy to 
inquirers, a divul^ence of information which may or may not be 
secret is in many instances withheld, and when imparted it is with 
the understanding that any data supplied will be in no way made 
public. This policy is followed to avoid giving any possible aid to 
competitors. 

The peculiar finish given the woolen dress goods of Reichenbach 
and Greiz has enabled them to be sold in the United States, in spite 
of the fact that the original value on the German market is often 
considerably more than doubled by the time they reach the whole- 
salers in New York. 

The machinery employed in making lady's cloth and similar tex- 
tiles often varies, because manufacturers have had certain alterations 
or improvements added that are not found in other mills of the same 
locality. All looms used for weaving woolen cloths are of Grerman 
origin, and in most instances are made by a Chemnitz firm or by a 
firm at Furth, near Chemnitz, and cost about 800 maris ($190.40) 
each. The latter firm also furnishes a machine for dressing the warp 
for 4,000 to 5,000 marks ($952 to $1,119). French machines are oc- 
casionally used for the same work, and cost from 8,000 to 9,000 marks 
($1,904 to $2,142). They take up less space and do double the work 
of the usual machine, but when a yarn breaks the machine must be 
stopped until the damage is repaired. The consequent loss is accord- 
ingly greater. 

New weaving looms made in Plauen are to be put on the market 
before long and will possess important improvements that bid fair to 
make them a valuable innovation. One of the simpler looms now in 
use making Reichenbach cloth is generally operated, by one man. 
A single loom finishes, under the most favorable circumstances, a 
piece of 50 meters (54.6^yards) in length, from 90 to 130 centimeters 
(35.43 to 51.18 inches) wide, during the ten and one-half working 
hours of a day. Four times 50 meters of Jacquard stuffs may be 
made in a weet. 

Forty-four samples of henriettas, voiles, broadcloths, cashmeres, 
serges, and fancy stuffs made in this district are submitted herewith 
[on file in the Bureau of Manufactures], giving the weight per 
square meter, kind of yam used for weft and for warp, price of weft 
and of warp per kilo, cost of weaving per 100 metera, •nd 
relevant items. 

EFFORTS OF OPERATIVES TO BENEFIT TB 

The rise all over Grermany in the cost of lii 
siderable attention during the past two or t 
of meat went to a Ggure never reached befi 



118 COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 

has been a slight decline they will probably never descend to their 
former level. Manufacturers here have, of their own initiative, and 
also by reason of formal demands and strikes of the operatives, ad- 
vanced the wages of weavers in general, but the increase has not kept 
pace with the higher cost of living, and the result tells heavily on 
the mill employees. The Government has bureaus to facilitate the 
employment of those out of work and there are private societies to 
improve the condition of the working people. 

The operatives are themselves banding more together, aiming at a 
solidarity, which will be at the same time of political influence, to the 
end that measures may be enacted of benefit to them in getting higher 
wages, shortening the work hours, and obtaining other advantages. 
The operators hope to compel mill owners to accord them a fixed 
minimum rate of wages in excess of what thev now receive. Through 
their own journals, labor unions, and labor leaders they maintain an 
unceasingly active campaign that will enable them to meet the higher 
cost of livmg. 

Herewith I submit a form [on file in the Bureau of Manufactures] 
that is filled out by those joining the Union of German Textile 
Workers, the headquarters of whicii is in Berlin. On this form the 
name of the operative has to be g^ven, the date and place of birth, 
residence, firm by which he or she is employed, the department in the 
mill and the machine number, whether married, and how many 
children under 14 years of age. It must be also stated on the form 
how many hours the operative works a day and what the average 
earnings are per week. Membership is divided into four classes, 
paying 20 pfennigs ($0.0476], 30 pfennigs ($0.0741), 40 pfennigs 
($0.0952), and 50 pfennigs ($0,119), respectively, a week. The ad- 
mission fee is 30 pfennigs ($0.0714). The first class is only for 
male and female workers under 18 years of age. The other three 
classes may be entered by all operatives without regard to age or sex. 
The relief funds are eventually distributed according to the class and 
the number of weekly dues paid. While seemingly light, these fees 
are in many instances not paid without sacrifice on the part of the op- 
eratives. In further connection with the cost of living, the obligatory 
contributions to the State old-age and accident insurance, as well as 
to the sick funds, must also be counted. 

ECONOMY IN LIVING FOOD OF THE WEAVERS. 

The families of the working people are rarely small, and it is not 
infrequent to find a man and his wife and several children subsisting 
on $3.81 a week. From this amount rent, clothing, food, fuel, and 
other necessaries have to be paid. In many instances, however, the 
wife is also a wage-earner as well as the man, and the children go to 
work as soon as possible. Such families usually live in a kitchen and 
one other room. There the family cooks, eats, and sleeps. The rent 
for such an apartment is rarely less than 10 marks ($2.38) a month, 
the general price being about 15 marks ($3.57). Some of the oper- 
atives are better placed and have their own small dwelling in the 
suburbs with garden attached. It may be remarked that on Sundays 
or holidays, when enjoying an outing, the operatives always appear 
well and comfortably dressed. A ragged or barefooted person is 
a most unusual sight. 



GERMANY ^REPORTS FROM CONSULAR OFFICERS. 119 

Food is of necessity quite simple. One person thoroughly ac- 
quainted with the life ana conditions of operatives here says that the 
Erincipal nourishment of the weavers consists of potatoes and salt, 
read, and a so-called pepper soup, made of water, bread, a 
little fat, and plenty of pepper. Meat is seldom eaten, and when 
indulged in at all is usually in a form of soup meat or sausage. Oper- 
atives generally eat five tmies a day, and rye bread is nearly always 
taken. The first breakfast consists of coffee, made chiefly of roasted 
grain, and a piece of bread or roll. Sometimes a bowl of hot water 
with a little nour stirred in is taken instead of coffee. The dinner is 
at midday. The morning, afternoon, and evening meals are much 
lighter, and in them beer often occupies a place. 

That operatives can manage to live on this small income is evi- 
denced by the thousands of persons working from one year's end to 
another in the textile mills. They are exerting themselves to better 
their condition and they have sympathizers here in all classes of 
society, not excluding many mill owners. 



STUTTGART. 

WOOLEN YARN MILLS — STATUS OF OPERATIVES. 

Consul Edward Higgins makes the following report from Stuttgart 
on the spinning of woolen yam in that German district: 

There is no export to the United States of woolen cloth or yams 
from this district, which comprises the kingdom of Wurttemberg and 
the principality of Hohenzollem. There is no manufacturer of 
woolen goods in the district and only a few factories making woolen 
yarns. The facts contained in this report come from the largest firm 
m the district, employing about 500 hands. The wages paid overseers 
vary from 120 to 200 marks ($28.56 to $47.60) per month. A female 
operative earns from 2 to 2.8 marks (47^ to 66^ cents) per day and a 
male operative from 3 to 4.3 marks (71 cents to $1.02) per day. 
Eleven hours a day constitute the regular hours of labor for six days 
in the week. Some English machinery is used, but the great bulk is 
German. The machinery is run at a speed of 3,000 to 3,500 turns per 
minute for knitting yams, to 5^000 turns per minute for weaving 
yams. The production is knittmg yams and fancy colored yams 
for weaving purposes. 

In the preparatory department one operative generally tends two 
machines, while in the spinning department the rule is one machine 
to one operative. The output of these mills is largely sold to woolen 
weavers in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. 

COST OF LIVING AND HOMES OF THE WORKERS. 

The Wurttemberg factories are located in small country villages, 
where a tenement of three rooms and kitchen can be had for 180 to 200 
marks a year ($43 to $17). The operatives live largely on potatoes 
and bread, with very little meat. Some factories furnish dinner to 
their operatives^ consisting of meat, vegetables, and bread, at 25 pfen- 
nigs (6 cents), in a dining hall connected with the factory. 

In many places the houses occupied by the overseers and mill work- 
ers in the textile industry of Wurttemb^ are built by the proprietor 
of the mill. An insurance company of Wurttemberg advances 50 per 



120 COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 

cent of the cost of building and as security this insurance company 
receives the first mortgage on the, houses. This company charges 3 
per cent interest. The owner of the mill generally takes the second 
mortage and advances the other 50 per cent of the cost of building. 
He also charges a low rate of interest. The workingman occupying 
one of these houses*must pay the interest on the first and second mort- 
gages and a small stipulated sum (about $25) every year on the mort- 
gages. It takes about thirty years for the mill operator to get a clear 
title to the dwelling. A small garden is connected with each housa 



ZITTAU. 

OUTPUT OF VARIOUS SPECIALTIES FROM AMERICAN FIBER. 

Consul Clarence Slocum, of Zittau, furnishes the following report 
on the manufacture of cotton goods in his consular district : 

The ever increasing use in Germany, as in all other countries, of 
articles made of cotton has contributed greatly to the general pros- 
perity of this district, in which are located some of the oldest cotton 
mills in the Empire, their establishment dating from 1666. AVhile 
in Zittau proper only a small percentage of the manufactures can be 
classed under this heading, four large adjacent villages — Neugersdorf , 
Ebersbach, Seifhennersdorf, and Grosschonau — with a total popu- 
lation of nearly 40,000 people, are famed each for its special line of 
cotton manufacture and possess some of the largest mills in the Ger- 
man cotton trade. 

It is interesting to note that the bulk of the goods woven in this 
district are made from American cotton, the yarns used ranging from 
8s (8 hanks to the pound) to 50s count, single and double, while 16s 
to 26s comprise the range of counts of the bulk of the material used. 
As there are comparatively few spinning and doubling plants in this 
district, the yarns are principally supplied by spinners in southern 
Saxony, Bavaria and Rhenish Prussia. 

AMERICAN 'COTTON CONSUMED. 

No statistics are published as to the number of bales of cotton used 
by local manufacturers, but from figures obtained I estimate the con- 
sumption of raw American cotton at from 60,000 to 70,000 bales. 
This quantity of material is used to supply, approximately, 16,000 
looms, which furnish employment for some 25,000 work people in 
addition to those engagea in the allied trades of dyeing, finishing, 
sizing, etc. The goods principally manufactured comprise plain and 
fancy dress goods, vestings, coatings, trouserings, sheetings, Turkish 
towelling, flannelette, blankets, rugs, and colored fancy table covers. 

A conservative authority informs me that the domestic consump- 
tion of the local cotton productions equals fully three- fourths of the 
district's output, while the balance is exported to all parts of the 
world, in part through connections of the various manufacturers and 
also through the active agency of various Hamburg houses. 

In so far as this district's trade relations with the United States 
are concerned, articles made of cotton rank second to linens in point 
of volume of business accomplished, the total shipments for the fiscal 
year 1907 having reached the sum of $225,019, out of a total declared 
export return of $1,625,474. 



AUSTRIA 



121 



COnON MILLS AND EQUIPMENT* 



C50TT0N MANUFACTURING THE LEADING INDUSTRY — IMPROVEMENTS IN 
MILLS AND MACHINERY. 

During 1906 and 1907 Austria enjoyed an unusual measure of pros- 
perity, and this was especially felt by the cotton industry. A series 
of five years of exceptionally good crops have increased the absorptive 
power of the people to a degree that more than compensated for the 
decline of their exports to one of their principal markets caused by 
the customs war with Servia. The quality of the production has been 
raised and the mills now produce yarns and cloth that w^re formerly 
exclusively imported. The imports of cotton manufactures do not 
as yet show any decrease in quantity, but the home mills have filled 
a large part of the enlarged home demand that would otherwise have 
been secured by foreign mills, and in addition the Bohemian mills 
have shipped good quantities of yam over the border to supply the 
needs of Saxon weavers. 

The Austrian spinners have not felt the present financial disturb- 
ances of the world as much as have the weavers, for they are engaged 
longer ahead, in many instances for the whole of 1908, while the 
weavers have future orders for only a few months. The effects of 
the present financial situation is seen in the sudden holding up of the 
mill-building boom that has been in full swing in Austria for the 
last two years. It is estimated that during 1906 there were 400,000 
spindles and during 1907 some 600,000 spindles, added in this industry 
alone, but these are estimates, and there are no definite figures avail- 
able. The increase, however, has been such as to make cotton manu- 
facturing the leading industry of Austria. 

LOCATION OF THE MILLS. 

The cotton mills in Austria divide themselves into four separate 
groups: The Bohemian mills along the northern border, the lower 
Austrian mills lying just south of Vienna, the Vorarlberg mills, and 
the mills around Trieste. 

The first section, the Bohemian mills, is by far the most important, 
and Bohemia now contains about 60 per cent of the mills of the 
country. These mills lie along the northern border and are geo- 
graphically and commercially dose to the Saxon and Silesian mills 
just over the line. Some Saxon mills depend for their yam on the 
Bohemian spinner and when, as in 1906, the German weavers have 

123 



124 COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 

an unusually flush period this business increases largely. The center 
of the Bohemian cotton industry is Reichenberg, which is therefore 
practically the center of the industry in Austria. Within a short 
distance from this place are many cotton-manufacturing towns, in- 
cluding such places as Grottau, Ketten, Kratzau, Machendorf, Tur- 
nau, Halbstadt, Eisenbrod, Josepstadt, Tannwald, Morchenstem, etc., 
all of which are steadily growing in importance as cotton-mill centers. 

RIVALRY BETWEEN CZECHS AND GERMANS. 

The Bohemian cotton industry was started and is now owned by 
German-speaking people of German descent. The Czech-speaking 
people, however, have begun to start an industry of their own, and 
have built up quite a group of mill towns which center around 
Nachod, not lar to the eastward of Reichenberg. Of some 6,318,000 
people contained in Bohemia, about two-thirds are of the Czechish- 
Slavonic race, and the others are mainly of Teutonic descent. These 
latter are scattered but occupy mainly the western and northern por- 
tions, while the Czechs are strongest in the central and eastern por- 
tions. There is^reat rivalry between the two races and this rivalry 
at present is having its effect in stimulating each to get ahead of the 
other in extent of business and has led to many new mills. The Bo- 
hemian industry in general has the advantage of proximity to coal 
fields, of a better class of help, and of being m closer touch with the 
great manufacturing nation over the border. 

The second section of mills are grouped just south of Vienna and 
especially around Pottendorf. This section of lower Austria is one of 
the oldest cotton-manufacturing localities in Austria, and before the 
time of railroads or of modern mill machinery was quite a hand-loom 
center, and cotton from Adana, Smyrna, Greece, etc., was brought 
in at Trieste and then carted a long distance and through some steep 
mountain passes over to the lowlands of this section. These mills 
are nearest to the export commission houses which are mainly cen- 
tered at Vienna, and enjoy favorable banking advantages, but their 
class of help does not seem to be quite as good as that of Bohemia, 
and recently with the increase in mills and the drafts made on them 
for operatives by Hungarian mills there has been a scarcity of labor. 

The third group of mills lie in the Vorarlberg,* which is the ex- 
treme western section of Austria that juts up into the Swiss high- 
lands. The mills in this section are largely dependent on the em- 
broidery trade for the consumption of tneir yarns and cloths, and 
their profits rise or fall with the prosperity of this branch of indus- 
try. They ship some goods to the Swiss embroidery factories lying 
around St. Gall, but otherwise they do little export business. 

The fourth and smallest section of the Austrian cotton-manu- 
facturing industry lies in Kustenland and Krain around Trieste. 
These mills use a larger proportion of East Indian cotton than the 
other mills. They are more favorably situated for export, but the 
labor difficulty is greater in regard to quality as well as quantity of 
help, the mills are more isolated, and they are farther from the 
machinery makers, from the bleacheries and dyehouses, from the 
financial centers, etc., so that the industry is not building up much at 
this point. 



AUSTRIA COTTON MILLS AND EQUIPMENT. 



125 



SPINDLES AND LOOMS. 



In regard to the actual number of spindles and looms in Austria 
there are no Government or authoritative figures available. The 
latest figures that the Austrian Cotton Spinners' Association was able 
to give were those for January 1, 1907. These figures are as follows: 



Districts. 


Spindles. 


Districts. 


Spindles. 


Bobeinia- 


2,179,091 
414.604 
888,140 
207.429 
149.820 
130.566 


Styria.. _ 

Total 

Hungary _ 

Grand total 


19 i?« 


Vorarlberg and Tyrol 

Lower Austria _ 

Moravia and Silesia 

TTDDcr Austria 






8,612,122 
139,682 


Krain and Istria. 


8,661,804 





These figures are only valuable as an indication. In Hungary, for 
instance, the total of spindles in operation and erection is now (Feb- 
ruary, 1908) somewhere between 180,000 and 200,000, and, assuming 
that the total increase in the Kingdom during 1907 reached the figures 
usually estimated, the number of spindles in Austria alone is now 
something over 4,000,000. 

The majority of the mills in Austria are small, but the tendency is 
for companies owning several small plants to gradually build up the 
best-located one and drop the others. The mills are increasing in 
size from this cause, and also because most of the new mills are of 
larger size than heretofore usual. 

Al STRIAN MILLS WITH OVER FIFTY THOUSAND SPINDLES. 

The cotton-manufacturing companies in Austria operating over 
50,000 spindles each are as follows: 



Company . 



Johann Llebfsr & Oo... 

Johann Erben Prlobsch. 

Herm. Pollak's SOhne 

Friedrich Kubinsky 

Jenny & Sohlndler — 

Priedrlch Schmidt.. - I 

A. O. der Baumwolle Spinnerei Trumau und Marl- j 

enthal. 

Benedlkt Schroll's Sohn I 

J. B. Llmburger,-Jr _ _ ..' 

K. k. priv. Pottenderfer Baumwoll-Spinnerel und 

Zwlmcrel. i 

Getzner. Mutter A Oo i 

Franz Priedl 

Herrburger& Rhomberg 

A. O. der Klelnmunchner Baumwoll-Spinnerei und 

Mech. Weberel. 

Johann Munzberg A Oo 

Johann Gottfried Haebler 

Oebmder Grohmann ■ 

Mako-Spinnerel Clchorlus A Oo 

Friedrich Mattausch A Son .•■ 

F. M. Hammerle ! 

8 . Kratzau j 

Oosmanoa Vereingte Textil- und Druckfabriken ..' 



Spindles. 


Town. 


131, a% 
131.732 
100.352 

ao.ooo 

8t,432 
72,.-iOO 
70,708 

70.000 
67,000 
65,000 


Eisenbrod— _. 
Morchenstern— 

Braunau 

Beraun 

Bregenz 

Iserthal 

Trumau 

Halbstadt 

Ketten 

Pottendorl — 



Section. 



Bohemia. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Vorarlberg. 
Bohemia. 
Lower Austria. 

' Bohemia. 

Do. 
; Lower Austria. 



64,152 do..'- .' Do. 

02,832 I Bohm-KamnltzJ Bohemia. 

58.272 . Dornbim ' Vorarlberg 

67,781 LInz Upper Austria . 



66,454 
66,000 
66.000 
64,332 
64,138 
61,336 
61,800 
60,000 



Thercslenau.. 

Warnsdorl 

B(»n«»en 

Kratznu 

Franzenthal 

Dornbim 

Nnchod 

Grottau 



Bohemia. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Voralberg. 
Bohemia. 

Do. 



The largest weaving mill is the Aktien-Gesellschaft Osterreichische 
Textilwerke, formerly Isaac Mautner & Sohn, which has 2,397 looms 
at Grunwald, near Gablonz in Bohemia. 

The largest Austrian cotton manufacturing company is seen from 
the above list to be that of Johann Liebig & Co. The beginning of 



126 



COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 



this company was in 1806, when Count Christian Clam-Gkillas, in 
company with a certain Francke, of Reichenberg, established a cot- 
ton-spinning mill, which began work on October 7 of that year under 
the registered firm name of Clam-Gallas, Francke & Co. This fac- 
tory was sold in 1808 to Balabene & Co., and by them in 1828 to 
Georuder Liebig. This firm, since changed to Johann Liebig & Co., 
enlarged the factory as their business increased, and, besides at 
Reichenberg, now have mills at Eisenbrod, Haratitz, Swarow, and 
Mezivod, with a total of I3I5856 spindles and some 2,400 looms, and 
employ 4,500 workers. 



MACHINERY ADVANCES IN PRICE. 



The prices paid for cotton-mill machinery by Austrian mill men are 
much higher now than they were two years ago. This is due to the 
effect on the textile-machinery trade of the great mill-building boom 
in England. This has so absorbed the production of the English 
textile-machinery firms that not only have they raised the price 25 

{)er cent more, out they will not quote on orders except for very 
ate delivery, in some cases twelve to eighteen months' time. This 
situation has been of great benefit to the Austrian textile-machinery 
manufacturers, and they have taken advantage of the same and a 
good many new firms have started in this business. They have not 
yet the perfection of the English, nor do they manufacture in as large 
quantities, and the English m normal times can still control the Aus- 
trian market on this line. In regard to present prices there is quite a 
fluctuating market, and no prices could be quoted that would apply to 
all. 

At Prague a lar^e manufacturer, who has recently purchased ma- 
chinery, gave me the prices he paid in the latter part of 1907. The 
cards cost in England £100 each, and, adding 10 per cent for packing 
and then the transportation and duty charges, the cost landed at 
Prague was about 1^,000 kronen, or, say, $609. The ring spinning 
frames cost 8s. 6d. a spindle in England, and the price landed at 
Prague came to 6,000 kronen per 450-spindle machine, which is about 
$1,218. 

At Roichenberg the February, 1V)08, prices were given by the mill 
men as follows: 



Desfrlptlon. 



Balo brenker - ..- 

Ten-met€r diist trunk, with hopper feeder 

Exhaust oi)ener, with one beater and lar* apparatus.. 

Single Crlghton opener 

Double Crlghton opener _. 

Lappcr 

Revolving flat card, with appurtenances 

Draw frame with 3 by 6 deliveries ._ 

Draw frame with 3 by 7 deliveries _ 

In general per draw-framo delivery 

Slubber of 81 spindles _ 

In general per slubber spindle .-. 

Intermediate of 128 spindles _ 

In general per intermediate spindle 

Fine frame of 168 spindles .— 

In general per flne-frame spindle - 

Self-actor mule for warp per spindle 

Self-actor mule for filling per spindle.— 

Ring spinning frame per spindle 

Looms for gray goods 110 centimeters wide 



Kronen. 



,300.00 
.4(X).0O 
,180.00 
,600.00 
,400.00 
,300.00 
,100.00 
,200.00 
,200.00 
210.00 
,300.00 

52.00 
,000.00 

40.00 
,200.00 

32.00 
8.80 
8.20 

12.40 
350.00 



DoUare. 



26t.00 

281.00 

210.00 

528.00 

090.00 

670.00 

630.00 

853.00 

1,058.00 

49.00 

873.00 

10.50 

1.015.00 

8.12 

1.056.00 

6.60 

1.19 

1.67 

2.58 

71.00 



AUSTRIA COTTON MILLS AND EQUIPMENT. 127 

The great bulk of the Austrian cotton mills are owned by pri- 
vate parties, and "Aktien-Gesellschaft," meaning stock company, 
is seen before the names of few mills. One reason of this is that 
taxes are cheaper for a private mill than for a stock company, and 
another is the fact that private companies who have no shares to 
list on the exchanges do not have to publish their statements in the 
papers, as do stock companies. Owing to the increase in mills in 
the last two years, and the interest that is taken in cotton manufac- 
turing by the general public, there are now an increasing number 
of stock companies listed and some private mills have changed to 
stock companies. 

SPINDLES — SPEED OP MACHINERY — COAL. 

The majority of the spindles in Austria are mule. There are no 
statistics on this point, but large manufacturers estimate the mule 
spindles as double the number of ring spindles. The bulk of the 
spinning machinery is of English make, while the majority of the 
weaving and finishing machinery is Austrian and German. Machin- 
ery from all the large English concerns is seen more or less. One of 
the most popular Austrian textile machinery firms is that of G. 
Josephys Erben, at Bielitz, but there are other textile machinery 
firms at Reichenberg, Jagersdorf, and other Bohemian and Silesian 
centers, as well as some at Vienna. The number of Austrian textile 
machinery manufacturers is increasing, and they are making more 
efforts to control their home markets. German machinery is mainly 
imported from Chemnitz, and some from Mulhausen. They are 
beginning to get quite a foothold in spinning machinery, which is 
a line that England has heretofore monopolized. 

In regard to speed of machinery, there is nothing to be said of 
value. The mills base their speeds on the English catalogues and 
production tables and run as near the speeds ^ven as the quality 
of their help and material will permit. For instance, on a good 
quality of Cabots I found that the Austrian weavers run their looms 
at the ordinary 180 picks to the minute, but some claimed to run 
200 or over, and others using lower-grade materials could not get 
over 160. About one-third of the 650,000 bales of cotton imported 
into Austria comes from India, and where this is mixed with Ameri- 
can, or where low-grade American cotton is employed, the speed is 
necessarily curtailed. 

The Bohemian mills are situated in proximity to coal fields, and 
they have cheap fuel, but the quality is low. Ordinarily the Bohe- 
mian coal fields supply the home demand, but in 1907 the consump- 
tion overtook the production and coal had to be imported, and prices 
ran somewhat higher than usual. 

INCREASE IN STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS. 

There has been a great increase in industrial, especially textile, 
strikes and lockouts in the last two jrears. This may be explained 
partly by the better industrial conditions which make the need for 
labor more apparent, the workmen taking advantage of this situa- 
tion to better their condition, and partly by the increased cost of 
living. Unions are increasing in number and activity and many 
strikes now involve a whole branch of industry instead of being en- 



128 COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 

tirely localized as formerly. These strikes have caused similar or- 
ganization of employers, and in many cases such movements are now 
answered by lockouts at their inception. In general, strikes are for 
higher wages and shorter hours, but also a good many are for other 
objects, such as increased compensation for overtime and Sunday 
work, tor early closing on Saturdays and before holidays, for recogni- 
tion of the union ana of walking delegates, etc. In the majority of 
cases the workmen have won as regairds wages and hours. The de- 
mands for the recognition of the union also do not meet with as gen- 
eral a refusal as formerly, and this is shown by the frequent interven- 
tion of laborers' organizations in wage agreements. In some cases 
part of the wages were given in beer tickets instead of cash, and some 
mills made it obligatory for the operatives to take board and rent of 
their employers. Strikes to remedy these conditions were also suc- 
cessful. 

The longest strike in textile circles was in the latter part of 1906 at 
Reichenberg, and lasted over eig;hteen weeks. It resulted in the 
recoffiiition of the union; in ffranting " Laborers' Day," May 1, as a 
holiaay ; in a compensation of 90 heUer per loom when bad material 
is furnished; an increase of wages in various kinds of labor; tariff to 
be published on the wall; married women to be entitled to leave at 
11.30; lunch to be brought to the mill by special hands; compensation 
of narrow goods on wide looms to be according to a special tariff; no 
new laborers to be accepted for a certain period after the strike, etc.; 
while the strikers obliged themselves not to interfere with those who 
remained at work and did not strike. The Government intervened in 
a good many of the strikes and lockouts. 

In the smaller mills the working conditions as to light, cleanliness, 
etc., are not as good as they might be, but in the majority of the mills, 
especially the largo ones, tiiey are very good. 




WAGES AND LABOR CONDITIONS. 



EARNINGS OF OPERATIVES IN THE COTTON MILLS — PROVISIONS OF THE 
INSURANCE AND PENSION FUNDS. 

In regard to wages paid in Austrian mills there is great variation 
between the different sections and between the town and the country 
mills in the same section. As a rule it seems that the mills nearest 
Vienna have to pay the highest wages, followed by the central 
Bohemian mills, while mills in the more sparsely settled sections of 
eastern Bohemia and lower Austria get their help cheapest. Nachod, 
for instance, pays much smaller wages than Tannwald or Reichen- 
berg, but living is cheaper at Nachod. From wage lists obtained at 
various mills it would seem that 50 cents per day might be taken as the 
average cotton-mill wage throughout Austria. 

On account of heavy taxes most of the Austrian cotton mills are 
private companies. The system of management is a little different 
irom the ordinary American custom of a superintendent, boss carder, 
boss spinner, and boss weaver. The superintendent is here called 
the technical director or manager, and under him there is an assistant 
manager. There are no heads of the different rooms, but instead a 
foreman for each group of machines. Thus, in the " Prag-HoUescho- 
witzer BaumwoUspinnereien Leopold Mahler," at Prague, a yarn mill 
which operates 26,012 spindles on yarn, 900 waste spindles, and 
3,048 twister spindles, there is a technical director, with one assistant 
for day and one for night work. Under the assistant there are the 
following foremen or second hands: Blow room, 1; cards, 1; fly 
frames, 3 ; ring spinning, 4 ; mule spinning, 4 ; doublers, 1 ; winders, 
1 ; yarn-delivery room, 1. 

WAGES IN BOHEMIAN MILLS AND WORK PERFORMED. 

As a fair example of an average mill, in respect to management 
and wages, I give the following detailed list of a 40,000-spindre, 900- 
loom Bohemian mill near Reicnenberg: 

Picker room — per day, men, 48.7 cents; women, 34.5 cents. 

Cards — 1 card grinder to every 20 cards, $4.06 a week; 1 can girl, 
34.5 cents a day; 1 lapman, 48.7 cents to every 12 yards; 1 cleaner, 
48.7 cents a day for every 24 cards. 

Draw frames — 7 deliveries; paid 1.32 cents a hank for No. .13 hank 
sliver. 

Slubbei's — pay, 4.47 cents a hank for No. .50 hank roving, and 5.48 
cents a hank for No. .60 hank roving; the operative makes $3.25 to 
$4.46 a week. 

H. Doc. 1270, 60-2 9 

129 



130 



COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 



Intermediates. — ^Pay, 5.08 cents for 1.2 hank roving and 5.88 cents 
for 1.5 hank roving; make $2.84 to $3.85 a week. 

Fine -frames.— Tenders, 4.87, 5.08, 5.28, 5.68, 5.88, and 0.09 cents 
per hank for Nos. 2, 2J, 3, 3^, 4, and 4J hank roving. The fine frame 
tenders make $2.48 to $5.28 a week; they usually run 1 frame, but 
some run 2, and these make the higher wage. On the 40-fly frames at 
this mill there are employed 15 helpers to lay up roving, help doff, etc., 
at 30 cents a day. 

King spinning. — Each girl runs 1 frame of 450 spindles and does 
her own doffing. The gins of every 4 frames are supposed to work 
together when doffing. These spinners are paid per hanlt as follows: 
Nos. 10 to 22s, 3.41 cents; Nos. 24 to 28s, 3.05 cents; Nos. 30 to 36s, 
3.84 cents; No. 40s, 4 cents; No. 44s, 4.12 cents; No. 40s, 4.30 cents. 

Mule spinning. — The mules at this mill are of 568 spindles each, 
and 1 spinner, 1 apprentice spinner, and 1 creeler run 2 mules (1,136 
spindles). They are paid per 1,000 stretches, of 66 inches per stretch, 
as follows : 



Plncops. 



Nob. 6to9.... 
Nob. 10 to 11- 
NoB. 12 to 14. 
Nob. 15 to 22. 
Nob. 23 to 30. 
Nob. 31 to 42. 
Nob. 44 to 46. 
No. 60- 



Spinner. 


Apprentice 
spinner. 

Cents. 


Cents. 


13.86 


12.67 


12.67 


11.40 


12.18 


10.98 


11.60 


10.47 


11.04 


10.72 


12.77 


11.41) 


12.98 


11. (J5 


13.28 


12.02 



Oreeler. 



Cents. 

8.42 
7.92 
7.65 
7.41 
7.13 
0.90 
0.90 
6.90 



EAKMN(iS OF THE VARIOUS OPERATIVKS. 

If one figures on a production, as they do here, of 5.84 hanks of No. 
20s per ten hours, the spinner's wage is found to be 03 cents a day. 
Reefers are paid by the kilo (2.2 pounds) ; warpers run 1 machine 
each and are paid by the 100 kilos (220.46 pounds) or 1,000 meters 
(1,090 pounds) ; spoolers are paid by the day and winders by the 
kilo. The rate of pay is so arranged that all of these earn from 41 
to 49 cents a day. 

The foregoing are the actual wages paid at one Bohemian mill 
and except for the mule spinning wages, which are low, may be 
taken as a good average, though, of course, there is much variation. 
Draw-frame tenders, fly-frame tenders, and ring spinners are, in 
nearly all Austrian mills, paid by the hank. On tlie mules, however, 
it is more customaiy to fix a set price for the spinner per day, based 
on the required production, the ordinary reqiiirement being 35 hanks 
of No. 20s per week, and then to pay the piecers 70 per cent of the 
spinners' wages, and the creelers 50 per cent. The usual mules are 
900 to 1,000 spindles each, and for 2 mules, 1,800 to 2,000 spindles. 
Most mills require 1 spinner at $1.02, 2 piecers at 71 cents, and 2 
creelers at 51 cents; this for No. 20s. 

Weavers are paid sometimes by length, but oftener now by the 
1,000 picks. At the foregoing mill the following are the weavers' 



AUSTRIA — WAGES AND LABOR CONDITIONS. 131 

wages per 100 meters (109 yards) of the main varieties of cloth 
produced (gray cloth) : 



Oloth. 1irh^^"lperquar. "™ Wages 



Plain goods _ 34.2 21/21 38/80 $0.76 

Twills- 49.6 26/13 24/11 .87 

Satin 34.2 26/16 20/16 .66 

Damask. _ _ _ 34.2 24/20 36/50 1.46 

Batiste. 31,5 21/19 60/80 .78 

Plain goods 37.4 13/13 20/22 .47 



Width in 


Threads 


Yarn ' 


Inches. 


per Quar- 
ter inch. 


Nos. 


34.2 


21/21 


38/30 


49.6 


26/13 


24/11 


34.2 


26/16 


20/16 


34.2 


24/20 


36/50 


31,5 


21/19 


60/80 


37.4 


13/13 


20/22 



Weavers, as a rule, run 2 to 3 looms and make 61 to 81 cents a 
day. The majority of the looms are of English or Austrian make 
and of the overpick style. There are, however, quite a number of 
mills that use the underpick loom only, where the managers prefer 
them for plain goods as making better cloth. There are some Nor- 
throp looms, but they are not widely used. Several mills use the 
battery made at Chemnitz in preference to the Northrop. In this 
battery pincops can be used by being slid on a special spindle with 
iron base, and as most of the weavers buy only pincops this is quite 
a convenience. A large number of looms in Bohemia are on calico, 
using 36s and 42s yarn. 

WAGES IN POTTSDORF AND PRAGUE MILLS AND WORK PERFORMED. 

At Pottsdorf, near Vienna, in a large mill having 52,000 mule 
spindles and 8,000 ring spindles, I found that on No. 44s there were 
required, per 2 mules of 2,536 spindles, 2 spinners at $1.02, 1 piecer 
at 01 cents, and 1 boy creeker at 41 cents per day. At this mill the 
ring frames were 516 spindles each and each girl ran 1 frame, did 
her own dofling, and made the usual 41 cents a day. The manager 
of this mill said that they formerly used doffers, but that there had 
been of late years a scarcity of help, especially of girls, so that he 
had to dispense with separate doffers, even though thereby the pro- 
duction was slightly decreased. 

At this mill there were 105 cards, and 1 lapman supplied laps for 
the lot. There was a line of steel bars suspended from the posts 
back of each row of cards, and a lap carrier holding 6 laps was sus- 
pended from rollers resting on this. The picker room was at the 
end of the card room, and everything conveniently arranged. One 
carder at 49 cents and 1 boy at 41 cents per day attended to each 12 
cards, and did all the work except grinding. In front of each line 
of cards was suspended a 6-inch tin pipe line with a hinged cap open- 
ing at each card. These pipe lines were attached to a suction fan at 
the end of the room and were used to convey away all the waste. On 
the same floor with the cards were the draw frames, slubbers, and 
intermediates. The different machines were not banked together, but 
there was a succession of groups of 2 lines of drawing, a slubber, and 
an intermediate. The fine frames were all on the second floor. On 
the fine frames 1 woman and 1 girl ran 2 machines of 180 spindles 
each, and their wages averaged $2.94 each a week. 

At a mill near Prague, where I found doffers employed, the 
spinners ran 1 frame of 450 spindles each, were required to get 
38 hanks on No. 20s a week, and for this were paid $2.44 a week for 
dav work and $3.05 for night work. For 22 frames there were 18 
helpers or doffers at 32 cents for day and 41 cents for night ^o^k. 



132 



COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 



WAGES IN TYPICAL AUSTRIAN MILLS — FOOD PRICES. 

I have made up the following table as showing wages and cost of 
living for six typical Austrian cotton mills. The table is prepared 
from unpublished statistics given me by the president of the Austrian 
Cotton Spinners, as being actual figures recently compiled by a mem- 
ber of his association, and from statistics obtained personally : 



Description. 



Lower Austria, 



OPERATIVh-S. ! 

Blow room: i 

Head ; $0. 

Operative 

Waste man i 

Cards: | 

Head j . 

Card grinder 

('an men 

Lap carrier 

Oiler '. I . 

Draw-frame tender 

Fly frames: 

Head 

Operative 

Roving handH 

Oiler I 

King spinning: 

Ilead ■ 

Spinner 

Doffer I 

Oiler 

Mule spinning: 

Head i 

Spinner 1 

Piecer-up 

Creeler 

Oiler I 

Twisting: I 

Oi>erati v<? 

Creel hands 




Reeling: 

Head 

Reeler 

Packer 

Woman handlers 

Machine shop: 

Head 

Machinist 

Woodworker 

Smith 

Engineer or turbine minder . 

Mreman 

Transmission tender 

Night watchman 

Porter 



I 



:i 



.S8 
.37 
.66 

.91 
.73 
.75 



.51 
.61 
.45 
.54 
.54 



.46 
.46 

. 62 
.62 
.53 
.53 

1. 62 
.Kl 
.59 
.61 
.63 
.5:^ 
.57 
.35 



Vorarlberg 







.63 


1.46 


1.62 


.67 


.80 


.47 


.54 


.24 


.31 




.61 




1.12 
.47 
.64 
.46 

1. 62 
.89 
.85 
.73 
.76 
.76 
.65 
.61 
.53 



.42 
.39 

.81 
.36 
.56 
.37 

1.02 
.67 
.57 



.91 
.59 



.69 
.t)5 
.55 

.57 



Averatje wages. 



.498 



.61 
.53 
.49 
.49 
.41 



.416 



.638 , 



.J6 



.487 



.61 
.53 

1.02 
.57 
.64 
.58 

1.02 
.89 
.71 
.61 
.71 
.61 
.65 
.65 



.586 



COST OK PROVISIONS. 

Bread (mc<lium quality) per pound. . 

Meat d<» 

Flour do 

Potatoes do 

Sugar do 

Coffee do 

Salt do 

Cheese one portion . . 

Milk per quart. . 

Oil do 

Beer do 



I 



CrntH. 


ants. 


1.9 


1.9 


14.7 


14.0 


3.0 


3.0 


.7 


.7 


7.0 


6.3 


26.3 


29.5 


2.6 


2.4 


4.1 




6.6 


3.2 


9.3 


9.3 


5.1 


6.0 



Centx. ■ 
2.9 
14.0 
3.5 
.6 
7.0 
24.0 
2.2 
4.1 
4.2 
9.2 I 
7.4 ! 
I 



Cents. 1 
2.8 , 

15.0 ; 

3.7 I 

'2H.0 
2.1 
3.3 
4.2 
9.2 
7.4 



2.7 
14.3 

3.2 
.8 

6.6 
32.0 

2.6 



CenU. 
2.6 
15.0 
3.2 
.9 
6.6 
34.0 
2.6 



5.1 


5.3 


10.6 


11.0 


7.0 


7.4 



The employees live very plainly. Bread, potatoes, coffee, and beer 
is the standard diet. Meat is high, and only indulged in sparingly 
on Sundays. The operatives usually have 5 snacks a day, and at 
Reichenberg the daily cost was figured as follows: Morning meal, at 
6— coffee, 10 hellers (2.03 cents), bread, 6 hellers (1.2 cents) ; lunch, 



AUSTRIA — WAGES AND LABOR CONDITIONS. 138 

at 9 — bread and butter, 16 hellers (3.25 cents) ; dinner, at noon — fried 
sausage and potatoes, 20 hellers (4.1 cents) , bieer, 9 hellers (1.8 cents) ; 
afternoon lunch, at 4- — ^bread ana butter, 16 hellers (3.25 cents) ; sup- 
per, at 7 — bread, potatoes, and coffee or buttermilk, 25 hellers (5.07 
cents) ; total, 102 hellers (20.7 cents). 

Some mills stop a few minutes at 9 and at 4 o'clock for the lunches, 
but at others the luncheon is consumed during work. Beer is the 
staple drink in northern Bohemia; wine is not used. In southern 
Austria wine is more used, and cneese also enters into the diet in 
preference to sausage. 

BENEFITS FOR THE WORKMEN. 

In Vienna a wool mill has besides the regular insurance systems, a 
pension fund for widows and orphans, whereby the widows get 120 
kronen a year, and also some free tuition for their children. There 
are sick benefit institutions at a good jmany mills. Some mills make 
up the difference betweeen the sick benefit and the regular wages for 
one year. In some mills the management pay the workman's family 
full time while he is away on his six weeks' yearly tour of military 
duty among the reserves. In some instances when provisions are 
specially high the mill pays a special extra wage per month of 10 
kronen per married couple and 5 kronen to single men. A few mills 
are introducing participation in profits. Some establishments have 
arrangements tor leave of absence which start with three days and 
rises to fourteen days a year for full pay. The length of free absence 
with full pay is proportioned to the number of years employed. 

In Bohemia especially the mill managers have made efforts to 
satisfy their help, partly for business reasons and partly from al- 
truistic motives, but these efforts have not in all cases been well re- 
ceived, and there is more agitation among the workers there than in 
other parts of the Empire. One manager complained of the fact that 
the hands would not use baths that the mill had gone to some expense 
to erect in up-to-date style, and that they tried to nullify every 
scheme he got up for their benefit. A Government inspector reported 
a case where an altruistic manufacturer bought a lot of hygienic 
ehina spittoons that he hung along the walls of the mills for the use 
of the nands and that had running-water attachments, etc. These 
cost him 33 kronen each, but inside of a month in one way or another 
they all managed to get broken, and the manufacturer concluded 
that his paternal efforts in the interests of the workingman were of 
no avail. Some manufacturers consult with the workmen and have 
more succe.ss. 

Most mills now have lockers for their help to keep their street 
clothes in, and some mills furnish working slippers for the women, 
so that they are protected against risk oi sickness from wet shoes. 
In one case a factory sent three consumptive operatives to a sana- 
torium at the mill's expense and others to the country for a period 
of recuperation from sickness. Any reform in methods of work is 
usually resisted by the operatives, and in cases where mills have intro- 
duced such conveniences as knot tyers they had to be diplomatically 
inaugurated by paying a girl double wages to try the experiment, 
and then proving to the others the higher wages to be made by get- 
ting as much increased production as the inaugurator. 



134 COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. . 

SCARCITY OF SKILLED LAHOR — RENTS OLD AGE PENSIONS. 

In making up their report for the year 1906 the Government in- 
spectors said that many of the textile districts in Bohemia needed 30 
per cent more hands than they could obtain. This condition of affairs 
also existed up to the latter part of 1907, when the labor supply caught 
up with the demand, on account of a slackening up in business due 
to the effects of the foreign money crisis. There is an increasing 
demand for skilled labor, which is hard to supply, and the increased 
cost of living in the last two or three years has of itself forced a ma- 
terial increase in the wages. The cost of living has increased fully 
in proportion to the increased wages, so that the worker has not ben- 
efited materially. This has resulted in the increased establishment of 
canteens, factory kitchens, and soup establishments. Meat is very 
high, and there have been efforts to substitute sea fishes. The emi- 
gration movement is one factor that has contributed to the dearth of 
labor, and it may be noted that employment agencies also act as emi- 
gration agencies. Just at present this labor scarcity is not so seri- 
ously felt, but it will again become a problem demanding attention 
as soon as business picks up. 

The labor problem is also affected by the scarcity of laborers' dwell- 
ings, and rents are high in proportion to wages. Because of this fact 
basements are used as habitations in many towns. The mills have 
built a good many tenement houses in the last year, especially girls' 
and bachelors' homes. Workmen's buildings are also being put up 
by municipalities and by building companies in order to relieve ^e 
house famine. Trieste has recently put up some municiipal buildings 
for laborers. One building contains rooms for 32 families, of which 
28 consist of one room and the kitchen, and four only of one large 
room with range, and every flat has its ow^n closet. The rent for the 
two rooms amounts to 21.5 to 25.5 kronen a month, and for the single 
room 14.5 kronen a month. The taxes amount to 8 per cent of uie 
rent, and water consumption costs 2 kronen a month. In Prague the 
Society for Laborers' Dwellings has done a good work in puttinjg 
up workmen's houses, and in providing for several hundred fami- 
lies. Each habitation consists of one room, one kitchen, and one hall. 
Some have gardens, and the prices range from IGl to 223 kronen a 
year ($32 to $45). 

The housing conditions in Austria as a whole can not be said to 
be good, owin<:^ to the scarcity of dwellings and the high rents, crowd- 
ing to many ramilies into a house and too many persons into a room, 
with all its attendant consequences, but the habitation conditions 
seem to be improving yearly and both mills and municipalities are 
working in this direction. 

The Government has no old age or invalid pension system, as in 
Germany, though efforts are being made to get the syst(Mii established. 
Several mills, however, have instituted such systems for their own 
factories, and also have a graduated pension system which is arranged 
so that full wages are paid after forty years' service. 

SHORTER HOURS OF LABOR CONDITIONS AT VOIL\RT.BER(5. 

In most cases the working time in the mills has sunk below the legal 
limit of eleven hours. The movement for shorter hours goes on in- 
cessantly, especially in lower Austria and Vorarlberg, as well as in the 
districts of Reichenberg and Koniggatz in Bohemia, and Bninn in 



AUSTRIA WAGES AND LABOR CONDITIONS. 135 

Moravia, where such movements have been successful and mills now 
run ten and a half and ten hours and many run only fifty-nine hours 
or less per week. The inspector of one province reports that the in- 
troduction of ten hours in the mills in his province did not result in 
increased production. I was informed by a manufacturer who tried 
it at his mill that he found the same result at first, but as soon as the 
novelty wore off he found he was not getting any more production 
per hour than before, so he lost in proportion to the reduction in time. 
Sunday labor in Austria is prohibited. To work at night or overtime 
textile factories have to get permission of the Government. 
• Most mills now have kindergartens where small children can be 
left while their parents are at work. The charge for this is very 
small. Mills pay off weekly, fortnightly, or occasionally monthly. 
In some cases mills have arrangements with certain shops and pur- 
chases made by hands are deducted by mills, but most mills decline to 
do this. Formerly the mills stopped one and one-half hours for 
lunch, but the tendency now seems to be to stop only one hour and get 
out that much sooner in the evening. 

Vorarlberg is quite a textile center for embroidery and for cotton 
mills making yarn and cloth to be used in the embroidery business. 
During the prosperous times in 1906 and part of 1907 many em- 
broidery works ran far into the night and many of them worked 
double shifts. Laborers had to be brought from Lower Austria, the 
Tyrol, and Styria, but this was unsatisfactory, as they were hard to 
accustom to the different conditions, especially to the higher cost of 
living. Others imported Italians, Croatians, and Bohemians. Quite 
a large number of workmen's houses had to be established. One mill 
built houses containing five perfectly separated divisions, each divi- 
sion containing three families, so there were 15 families to a house. 
Along the bacK of the building were truck farms belonging to the 
building. The monthly rent for two rooms and kitchen, garden, etc., 
lighting included, was 12 kronen or $2.44. One large manufacturer 
leit in his will a sum for an endowment fund so that laborers who 
married after four years should get a marriage portion. 



SALES AGREEMENTS. 



TRADE REGULATIONS GOVERNING TRANSACTIONS APPLICATION TO COTTON 

WASTE, YARN, AND CLOTH. 

The following are the rules adopted by the Vienna Cotton Ex- 
change and by the Austrian Cotton Manufacturers Association for 
the sale of cotton waste, yarn, and cloth, and show the terms and con- 
ditions of sale generally accepted by the Austrian trade : 

Cotton waste is bought and sold in the home trade and on the Vienna Ex- 
change either according to spinning kind or according to sample. The principal 
kinds are the following: 

Spinnereifjiden (spinning threads). Spinnflng (spinning fly). 

Webereifiiden (weaving threads). Haspelkericht (reel-room sweepings). • 

Walzenputs (cylinder strips). Spinnerelkericht (spinning sweepings)^ 

DeckelwoUe (flat strips). Mischlinge (mixed waste). 

Kratsstaub (clearer laps). Anfgeliiste faden (reworked thread 
Durchschlag (picker-room waste). waste). 

The price is understood to be per 100 kilos net. The bales in general weigh 
one-half to one and one-half metercentner (110 to 380 pounds). The tare Is 
deducted from the gross weight of the bales as the actual tare. The packing 
(sack) is paid for extra by the buyer. In the absence of other explicit con- 
ditions the price is understood as cash on receipt of gocxls, without discount. 

Foreign cotton waste is sold according to sample. The following are the 
principal countries and kinds: United States, linters; Egypt, afrit and mako 
scart; France, peigneuse and batteur; England, willow fly, stockings, blowings, 
clearers, and combers. The terms of sale for the direct trade with the TTnited 
States and Egj-pt are, as regards weight, tare, price basis, etc , the same as for 
cotton. The terms of delivery from France are payments in thirty days with 
2 per cent discount. The trade with England is according to the rules of the 
Manchester Exchange for twist, also 4 per cent tare. 

The foregoing terms, both for the home and foreign trade, are considered as 
binding unless there is explicit agreement otherwise : 

RULKS AS TO COTTON YARN. 

Paragraph J. — Cotton yarn shall be dealt in so long ns there is no legal 
restriction in regard to the same, either by the kilo or by the English pound, 
or by the bundle of 2.24 or 4.48 kilos. Single bundles in the gray — that Is, 
not bleached or dyed — must weigh without strings or covering 2.24 kilos, and, 
similarly, a double bundle must weigh 4.4S kilos. In a single l^undle there must 
be five times as many skeins as the number of the hank: in a double bundle 
ten times as many. Every skein must consist of seven leas. Every h»a should 
average SO threads, and every thread should be 1.87 meters long. 

Gray single cotton yarns, according to the decisions of the international 
yarn numbering congress now in force, must not have more than Sh per cent 
moisture. The yarns are weighed on scales connecte<l with a drying apparatus 
and dried at a heat of 105 to 110° centigrade (221 to 280° Fahrenheit) up to the 
weight constancy. The trade weight of the yarn is flgure<l from t\w dry weight 
by the addition of the admissible moisture contents of 8* per cent. This per- 
centage corresi)onds, regarding the normal condition of the yarn, to moisture 
contents of 7t per cent. 

136 



AUSTKIA — SALES AGREEMENTS. 187 

Paragraph 2, — In the case of I»und1e vara, where there is not the (N^rrei't 
number of lea I>an4ls or length of skeins as above, it can, within fonr weeks 
of the delivery of the yarn, be left at the disposal of the seller, if no other 
arrangement was made at the time of sale. 

Paragraph S, — Claims in rejmnl to weifi:ht and differences in yarn numbers, 
also for too large moisture, are to be made within fourteen days of the transfer 
of the yarn. Claims in regard to the quality of bundle yarn must be made 
within fourteen days : in regard to coi>s within six weeks ; after this perioil no 
claim can lie. Claims in regard to excessive tracking weight must be made 
within six weeks after receipt of the yarn. Reg:irding yarn to be sent to 
another place, the day entered on the bill of lading or waybill is to be cim- 
sidered as the commencing day from which the claim must date. 

PROCEKDIXGS FOR ARBITRATION. 

Paragraph 4. — In cases of claims arising, where buyer and seller have not 
previously come to a definite agreement as to a certain quantity, the buyer 
and seller, or the agent of the seller, are together to take from each Imle at 
least one single or double intact bundle, but from every cop case from two 
different places in the case s<*ven cops must be taken, and together with the 
buying samples must be laid l»efore the court of arbitration. This collection 
of siimples must take plact? within fourteen days of the date of claim. Should 
the seller not comply with the necessary regulations resi)ecting this collection 
of sjimples the buyer has the right to take the samples with the assistance of 
the secretary of the court of arbitration, or of a notarj* of the same, and he can 
do this within the following three days. In sampling for the puri>ose of a 
moisture test the following will be observed: The samples can only be taken 
from complete and intact casc»s whieh have not previously been oi>ened. Every 
quality and yam number must be represented. In lots under five cases two 
cas(^ are to be sjinipled: in larger lots one case in every five. Single cases 
can not be accepted for condition test. The cases of cop yarn selected for saim- 
pling are to be weigliHl and the net weight to be given exactly to the tenth of 
a kiio. The samples of approximately one-half kilo are to be taken from the 
inside of the case and to be imcked free of light. Of the selected yarn bales 
a single or double bundle is to be taken out of the middle of the same and to 
be packed so as to be protectetl as much as possible from outside influences. 

The selecte<l samples, packed as stated and with the seal of both parties 
afllxed. are to be sent by first post to a recognized condition testing house of 
the Austrian Cotton Manufacturers' Association or to the Vienna Cotton Ex- 
chjinge. With every sjimple must be given the marks and numbers of the case, 
amount of invoice, and the net weight. By desire of the buyer or seller dupli- 
cate samples c*an be taken and carefully preserved. Sampling for the pun)ose 
of ascertaining the packing allowance must be in a manner according to In- 
structions in paragraphs 1 to 3. From two places in every case some coi>s must 
l)e taken, at least 1(K) cops i)er yarn number and kinds — pin coi)s or warp cops. 
These samples are to be well packed and sent to the Vienna Silk and Wool Dry- 
ing Institute or to one of the conditi(ming houses of the Vienna Cotton Ex- 
change. These hous(»s fix the total weight of the cops, including imcking, as 
well as the weight of the empty cases and packing to the tenth of a gram 
exactly. All costs of the fixing of the tare, together with any traveling ex- 
IK?nses, are to be borne by the party who loses. 

Paragraph 5. — Should bundle yam not reach the normal weight and the dif- 
ference not amount to 4 per cent the buyer must take the yarn against com- 
Iiensation of the diflference in weight. Should this weight difference, however, 
exceed 4 por cent, the buyer can either demand comi>ensation for the diflference 
or the exact weight to be delivered within four weeks, or he can reject the 
yam against i)aynient of all exjienses on all the transjictions. The annulling 
of the transjiction by a buyer is, however, only allowed when the seller does 
not agree to deliver, within three days after receii)t of the threat to annul, the 
full weight of the yarn demand(Hl to rei)lace. 

Paragraph 6. — The " number " of single gray cotton yams corresponds to the 
number of hanks which are contained in an p]nglish jMnnid under normal rates 
of moisture. The number is to be ascertained as follows: In the case of bundle 
yams the sample skeins are to be weighed together in scH»tions of five or ten 
skeins; in the cas<» of cops in lots of twice seven cops, and an entire liank is 
to be reeled off and weighed at the same time. The average of the numbers so 
obtained is regarded as the number of the yarns in the resi)ective bales or 



138 COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 

cases in question. In case the numbers are rejected all existing cases or bales 
have to undergo numbering?, and the result thus reached is regarded as the 
average of the numbers for the whole quantity of the i*ejected yam shipment 
which had to undergo sjiniple drawing. Excluded from this averaging, how- 
ever, are those bales or cases wiiich are found to be under the number to be 
shii)pe<l, as follows: Hy more than 7 i>er cent for numbers up to 14s, inclusive; 
by more than (> per cent for 14s to 248; by more than 5 per cent for numbers 
over 24s. Thes(» bales are to be set aside and can be returned by the consignee 
to the seller on comi)ens4ition of all his charges. On finer yarns there is no 
compensation. 

The limit in which there is no comi)ensation as to gray numbers is fixed at 3 
per cent. If the difference in numbers is averaging more than 3 per cent in 
yarns up to 24s, inclusive, then the difference above 3 i)er cent, or in the case 
of nimibers over 24s, the difference above 2 per cent, is to be comi)ensated 
according to the a<Iditional weight of yarn that has to be consumed in manu- 
facturing. The s(»ller, however, does not have to pay compensation if within 
the time of shipment stipulated (Ui he exchanges without charges correctly num- 
bered yarns for those rejected, provided the same are as yet unmanufactured 
into cloth. In case there is a refusal on the part of the consignee to accept the 
yarn, either on account of too coarse or too fine numbering, the seller has the 
right to ship, within a fortnight after the end of the shipping term agreed upon, 
or within a fortnight after the sample drawing is made, correctly assorted yams 
in substitution. 

Should a difference of numbers be stated at the time the yanis are tested 
for moistun*, which the consignee or the seller can reciuest, in that case a refusal 
can tak(» place* on either one of the two grounds; besides the samples selected 
lor condition test a single or double bundle is to be selected from each bale 
for nunilxM" testing, or in the case of cops twice seven cops from each case 
and the number is tr> be at once, at the place, fixed by the consignee and the 
sell(»r or their representatives. 

In case there are obj(»ctions against the correctne.ss of the testing instru- 
ments employed (re(»l and yarn scales), or against the manner of testing, and 
an agrecnnenl is not possible, the decision comes to the court of arbitration. 
The number agreed upon or decid(»d by the court of arbitration is to be an- 
nounced to the condition testing institute, which has to state the real number 
with du(» regard to the contents of moisture ascertaineil in case the limit of 
moisture of H\ i)er cent, as given in paragraph 2, is exceeded, antf to announce 
it to the consign(Ki and the seller. 

IN LIEU OF SPECIAL AGREEMENTS. 

Paraffraph 7. — Where there are no special agreements the following shall 
be understood in regard to cop shell weight: The weight of the i^aper tubes 
of warp cops shall not exceed 1.2r» iK»r cent and of pin cojis 2.25 i)er cent of 
the full cop weight (weight of yarn and tube). Owing to the fact that small 
deviations are unavoidable, the seller can claim excess paper shell tare only 
wIkmi the shell weiglil, as ascertaine<l according to the last swticm of para- 
graph 4, is nion» than 1.4 per cent of the gross weight for warp coi)8 or more 
than 2.5 per <eiit for pin <(>ps, respectively. In case the sliells weigh more 
than l.i per c(Mit or 2.5 per cent, respwtively, of the gross weight the seller 
is liabh* to conii)ensate the cojisignee for the difference l)etween tlie shell weight 
of 1.25 per cent and 2.25 per cent, respectively, and the one actually ascertained 
and to (Unlnct from the invr)ice at full yarn value. For throstle crops and other 
warp cops on i)obl)ins the seller has to compensate the consignee the full bobbin 
rate less 1.5 per cent, or in tlie case of pin cops or l>ol)bins the full shell rate 
deducting 2.5 per cent of the yarn weight (weight of the yarn without shells) 
at full yarn price. The foregoing regulations do not apply to yarn in stocking 
yarn twist or to cases in which the consignee stipulates on shipment of a special 
coj) shape. 

Paraf/raph S. — The condition tests of yarns are made exclusively by the con- 
ditioning houses, which are iniblicly established by the Austrian Cotton Manu- 
facturers' AssiK'iation or l)y the Vienna GockIs Exchange, the heads of which 
must be taken on oath according to the regulations i)re8cril>ed in these organiza- 
tions. The results of condition tests are to l>e ann<mnced to the consignees, as 
well as to the seller directly by the conditioning institute. The institute which 
is to test the yarn for moisture is to be selected before the sjimples arc* taken, 
and by the consigns. Within three days after re<?eipt of the decision on the 
conditioning either i)arty has the right to claim a second condition test, provided 



AUSTRIA SALES AGREEMENTS. 139 

duplicate samples were drawn. The appointmeut of the institute for the second 
conditioning test is for the seller. In accordance with the results of the* samples 
drawn as per paragraph 4, as well as for the statements on the net weight in- 
voiceil and charged, the conditioning institute has to state whether there is for 
the consignee damage by too great an amount of moisture in the yarns, and to 
what this damage amounts to in percentage. The average of all samples sent 
in to be tested for moisture is regarded as an average of all the lots rejected 
without regard to whether or not l)efore sampling a part of the yarn was al- 
ready manufactured into cloth. In cases, however, where the series is no more 
complete, the number of castas stilted in paragraph 4 must have been sampled, 
or else the condition test can only be regarded as applying to the (luantity ex- 
isting. In case of a double conditioning test the average of the two tests is 
authoritative. All charges of the tests, including all eventual traveling ex- 
l»enses, must be paid by the losing party. 

COMPENSATION FOR REJECTED YARN. 

Paragraph 9, — In case of yam rejected on account of quality, the court of ar- 
bitration has to decide whether or not for the yarn rejected by the consignee 
another corresiionding to the sample or to the sense of the contract is to be 
shipi^eil by the seller, whether the consignee has to take the yarn on compensa- 
tion of the loss due to quality, how great the quality damage is, and, finally, 
whether the contract is to be regarded as void. For cpiality dlflTerences of cot- 
ton yarns which are not bought by sample, but by lal)el, mark, or by the de- 
nondnatlons of certain manufacturers named si>ecifically l)efore the transjictlon, 
ihe seller Is liable to the consignee only inasmuch as the latter can show that 
the yarn shipiWHl varies materially from the quality of the lalxMs, marks, or de- 
nominations in question as it was during the twelve numths preceding the 
contract. 

When yarns are sold by samples the buying sample is to be labeled with the 
date and sealed or stamped by the seller, and is to be given to the buyer in a 
manner which jirecludes the confounding or exchanging of same. In all cases 
where the court of arbitration decides upon the return of the goods the seller 
has to comjiensate all charges connected therewith and tlie damage done to the 
consignee by the dissolution of the contract in conformity with article 47 of 
the general conditions for the trade in goods on the Vienna Exchange. 

Paragraph 10. — If no shipping time is stipulate<l upon when making the con- 
tract the goods are regardeil as to be shipped immediately — that is, shipping can 
be recpiested and made at any time. If gradual shipping in a limlte<l time is 
agreed ui>on shipments are to be made In almost equal monthly rates. If, how- 
ever, gradual deliveries was agreed ui)on without stating the final time of ship- 
ping, acceptance has to take place at most in six months from the day of the 
contract in approximately equal monthly rates. If a contract prescril>es con- 
secutive delivery, this consecutive delivery is to be made and taken in approxi- 
mately the same rates as those immediately preceding. The consignee, in the 
absence of other agreement, has to hand over the particulars to the seller at 
least four weeks before the beginning month of delivery, otherwise the latter is 
liable for no tardiness hi delivery. If the consignee neglects to send In the i)ar- 
ticulars, notwithstiinding that he has been requested to do so by a registered 
letter, the seller has tlie right to deliver the articles in question after his own 
wish, within the limits drawn by the contract. If the consignee neglects to give 
his orders of delivery within five days when also requested by registerwl letter, 
the seller has the right after the IHth of the month of delivery to send over to 
the consignee the wares in question or to store them in a public warehoust^ sit- 
uate<l near Ills place of manufacture or i>lace of business on the account and risk 
of the consignee. 

WHEN DELIVERY IS DEEMED TO HAVE IlEEN MADE. 

Paragraph 11. — The seller has fulfilled his liabilities for delivery if he hands 
over the yarn to the consignee at the latest on the last day of the time of de- 
livery at that place from which it was to be delivered, or if he has hancUnl it 
over to the transportation company to ship. If the seller has not fnlrtlle<l his 
liabilities of delivery, or the consignee has not fulfilled his liabilities of accept- 
ance, the party which has fulfilled the contract may claim the rights stated in 
Iiaragniphs 47 to 5.5 of the general stipulations for the trade of goods on the 
Vienna Plxchange, with the modification that the silent prolongation stii)ulated 
in paragraph 53 of the general conditions is extended to four weeks. 



140 COTTOK FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 

Paragraph 12, — The entrance of superior force (force majeur), as far as such 
renders impossible the delivery contracted, releases the spinner as well as the 
jobber from the obligation of shipping; the latter party, however, only when 
selling yarns by certain labels, marks, or denominations stipulated upon In ad- 
vance. Strikes, epidemics at the place of manufacture, officially ascertained, 
and breakage of transmission appliances or machines are, under certain cir- 
cumstances In their consequences in regard to liabilities of delivery, to be re* 
garded as equivalent to superior force, and in case of controversy this Is to be 
decided by the court of arbitration. 

Paragraph 13, — Invoices are to be paid, first, (a) by cash with 3 per cent dis- 
count within thirty days after the date of invoice; (ft) with bill of acceptance 
of six months, or acceptance of four months and 1 per cent discount from the 
invoice date; (c) on open account, five months from date of invoice. Second, if 
one monthly invoice is produced on all shipments in the course of one month or 
cash or acceptance monthly is agreed on all invoices produced In the course of 
a month, (a) cash payment has to be made up to the 20th of the month follow- 
ing the month of delivery; {h) the time of currency of the monthly acceptance 
begins on the last of the month of delivery ; (c) the currency of the four months* 
open account begins on the last of the month of delivery, so if the consignee 
states in the cash business the time of payment, the amount is due at once and 
the cash discount ceases, but he gets 5 per cent interest for the time elapsed, 
calculated from the date of payment up to the close of the four months' limit. 
Third, if the consignee was permitted to choose between the acceptance or cash 
payment, or if acceptance only was stipulated upon, the acceptance is to be 
sent in at least by the 20th of the month following the delivery. Should the 
consignee omit or neglect this, esi)ecially if requested by registered letter, the 
amount of invoice without cash discount, a compensation of 5 per cent calcu- 
lated from the date of payment up to the elapse of the four months' term, is 
payable at once if the acceptance is immediately sent in. Fourth, by cash pay- 
ment is understood payment in cash, transmission by indorsed checks on banks, 
checks on postal savings banks, or other checks. Checks and indorsements must, 
however, be due at the time stipulated for cash payments. 

Paragraph IJf, — If there is no other agreement for cops of inland origin, 
packed in cases or boxes, 1.4 hellers per English pound or 3 hellers per kilo are 
to be charged for packing. 

Paragraph /J. — Charges for transmission into the house, store, or to the for- 
warding agent of the consignee are, in Vienna, to be paid by the seller. On ship- 
ments to the provinces, charges for forwarding and transmission to the respec- 
tive transportation companies are paid by the consignee. 

COTTON WEAVING, GRAY GOODS. 

Paragraph J. — All goods woven from raw cotton yarns which are not yet 
manufactured are dealt in i)er meter, if there is no other agreement either by 
samples (pieces, strips, or cuttings) or by designation of the make-up, the yam 
Dumber, width, and ai)proximate length of the cloth. If there is no agreement 
as to the length of the cuts the following lengths shall be understood: For 
calico, molinos, percales, etc., an approximate length of 120 meters: for printed 
l)jirchent, approximately 90 meters, and for domestics and inlets, between 50 
and 60 meters i)er piece. The make-up is designated by the number of warp 
and weft threads which are included in a quarter of an inch (old Viennese 
measure) or to a centimeter of the cloth. The width of the cloth is expressed 
in old Viennese inches or in centimeters. 

Paragraph 2. — In the delivery of gray goods, when there is no other agree- 
ment, only cloths manufactured on mechanical looms from cotton yams are to 
be understood. 

Paragraph 3. — Claims for delivery not In accordance with samples or for 
differences as to the make-up, width, length, yarn numbers, and yarn qualities 
must be made by the consignee at least within a fortnight after delivery else 
the liability of the seller ceases. As to goods sent to another place, the date of 
the arrival at place of destination stated on the invoice is regarded as beginning 
the time of claiming. 

Paragraph 4- — In examining into a claim. If the seller and consignee have 
not agreed upon a certain quantity, 10 per cent of the rejected goods, but not 
less than 10 nor more than 100 pieces, together with the actual samples, in case 
there are samples (sample pieces, strips, or clippings) are to be presented to 
the court of arbitration. Rejected pieces of not more than 10 are to be pre- 
sented in full. The selection of the pieces to be Judged has to be made by the 



AUSTRIA — SALES AGREEMENTS. 141 

seller in common with the consignee or by their representatives within fonrteen 
days from the day of claim. In case the seller does not do what is necessjiry 
in this connection the consignee has the right within the next following thret* 
days to have sjtmple pieces talien from the rejected bales by the secretary 
of the court of arbitration or by an imperial notary public. Should the luirtie's 
not agree uiwn the selection of the sample pieces the same are likewise to be 
taken by the secretary of the court of arbitration or by an im[)erial notarj' 
public and the average of all the samples is to be considered the average of all 
the existing quantities of the rejected goods. 

WHERE NO SPECIAL AGREEMENT EXISTS. 

Paragraph 5. — If there was no special agreement between the seller and the 
consignee with regard to the permissible difference in the make-up, all kinds 
of gray goods may be delivered as to warp as well as to weft, with full num- 
ber of threads from correctly numbered yams, but with due regard to the tech- 
nically unavoidable limits of mistakes. Differences in width up to 1.5 iH»r 
cent existing in not more than 10 per cent of the entire quantity does not give 
the consignee the right to reject the goods, but the seller is comi>elleil to com- 
pensate the consignee for the percentage of difference in width as ascertained 
up to this limit. If there is a difference in width up to 1.5 per cent, no more 
than 5 |)er cent of the resulting quantity of the goods are to be taken over with- 
out right of conii>ensation. Goods of better quality than contracted for can not 
be rejected, insomuch as they do not materially vary from the stipulations pre- 
scribed in the contract, but the consignee has no right to claim comi)ensation 
for better goods delivered. 

Differences of make-up, yarn numbers, and quality are to be decided by the 
court of arbitration in case of controversy. If the latter thinks that there is 
a difference it may nevertheless decide that the consignee has to accept the 
goods on compensation for the smaller value than contracted for. If the de- 
cision reads that the goods be not taken over, the consignee may nevertheless, 
on his own desire, accept the goods on compensation of the smaller value of 
the same as decided by the court of arbitration, or he may return the same to 
the seller on settlement of all the charges connected therewith. In the latter 
case the consignee has the right, first, to insist on fulfillment — that is, to re- 
quest shipment of an equivalent quantity of goods as contracted for within six 
weeks; second, to desist from the contract by canceling the shipment in ques- 
tion and thereby shorten the whole contract ; or, third, to request coniiwnsation 
for the damages that can be shown. 

If the consignee wishes to desist from the contract or to request comjiensa- 
tion for loss on account of nonfulfillment, he must announce it to the seller, 
leaving a proper time, which should be decided by the court of arbitration in 
case of controversy, for delivery of goods as contracted for. If this time for 
later delivery has elapsed without result, or if the compensatory delivery does 
not fall within the contract, then the contract is considered void and the seller 
becomes liable for comi)ensation of damages. In case of cancellation of the 
contract the liability for damage can not, if the contract was to be fulfilled in 
several sections of time, be referred either to the shipments formerly properly 
fulfilled or to those due later on. 

DIFFERENCES IN WEIGHT AND QUALITY — ^DELIVERY. ^ 

Paragraph 6. — On contracts where the weight per piece is stipulated, on dif- 
ferences of weight up to 3 per cent over or under the limits stipulatwl, can not 
be considered grounds for rejection, and no comiwnsation whatever is to be 
IMiid by either party. 

Paragraph 7. — On contracts which are not made by sample, but on the regular 
brand of the seller, or by the denomination of certain manufacturers siHJcially 
named before contracting, the seller is liable to the consignee for differences of 
quality only inasmuch as the latter can show that the goods delivennl mater- 
ially differ from the quality as it was averaging during the last six months 
preceding the contract. 

Paragraph S, — On contracts by samples the buying sample lalx^lcd with the 
date and sealed or stamped by the seller in a manner precluding confounding 
or exchanging is to be given to the consignee to file. 

Paragraph 9, — In case there is no certain term of delivery agreeil on wh(»n 
contracting, the goods are considered to be delivered at once— that is, fulfill- 
ment can be requested and made at once. If gradual delivery within a certain 



142 COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 

time was agreed on» delivery lias to take place iu approximately equal monthly 
parts. If gradual delivery was agreed ou without indicating the final time, 
delivery has to take place at most within six months from the date of contract 
in ai>proximately equal monthly parts. If the contract is for consecutive de- 
livery this contract is to be fulfilled and accepted in approximately equal 
periods as that Immediately preceding it. 

Paragraph 10. — lii case there is no other agreement the seller on time con- 
tracts has fulfilled his contract as to deliveries if he has delivered the goods 
not later than the last day of the term of delivery, at that place from which 
they were to be delivered Into the hands of the consignee, or to the transiK)rta- 
tion company or forwarding agent. If the seller has not fulfilled his liabilities 
of delivery or the purchaser has not fulfilled his liabilities of acceptance the 
party which has fulfilled the contract is protected by the rights given in para- 
graph 47 of the general goods trade rules of the VitMina Exchange. 

If a contractor desires to cancel the quantity not delivered or accepted, re- 
si)eclively, or to claim damages, he has to inform the other imrty by registered 
letter, and is compelled to allow the tardy party proper time of prolongation 
If no exactly determined time of deliv(»ry was agnnxl uinm and if the nature of 
the contracts permit so to do. If on time contracts, after a lapse of the delivery 
time agrecHl uiM)n, a part of the quantity c(mtracted for has not l)et?n delivered 
or accepted, resi)t»ctively, because* neither the seller insisted upon acceptance of 
the goods nor the consignee retpiired shipment, a silent i)rolongation takes place, 
and the rest of tlie contract in regard to quantity and time is to be fulfilled 
with shipments averaged in the same way. 

TARDY SHIPMENTS — COST OF DKLIVERY. 

Paragraph lU — If a contract bas Ixhmi made for certain time of delivery, but 
with open particulars, the purchaser in the absence of other agre<»meut has to 
mail the particulars to the seller at least eight weeks before the beginning of 
the month in which the term of delivery in question is endcnl, otherwise the 
latter is liable for no tardiness in shipment. In case of tardy shipments the 
seller has th(» right to fix the time of fulfillment of the Invoice corresiMmdhig 
to th(^ time of delivery originally contracted for. If the purchaser omits to 
send off tlie i>articulars in time, although siKH.*ially nniuested so to do, the 
seller has the right to fulfill the contract in any make-uj), width, and yarn (lual- 
Ity which corres|M)nds to the price basis of the cloth. If no price basis has been 
agreed upon, but the prices for the different kin<ls have been agreiMl uimhi, and 
the buyer, in spite of the demands from the shipper for particulai*s in regard 
to the amounts to be delivered of the various kiiuis, fails to comply, the shlpiwr 
has the right to <leliver the quantities of the various kinds ordereii according 
to his own wishes. 

Paragraph /.?. — In so far as superior force makes the contracted deliveries 
impossible this reli(»ves the seller and the manufacturer and also the seller 
of foreign la-odncts^rom the necessity of delivery, but the latter only insomuch 
as it is a (piestion as t<> the delivery of gocxls nuule iu the factory of the (Mir- 
ticular nianufncturcr mentioned. In how far strikes, epidemics, officially ascer- 
tained, or breakdown of machinery or of transmissicai appliances have action 
n|)on the ntn/essity of (leliv<n*y is. in case of controversy, a question for the 
court of arl)it ration. 

Paragraph l.i. — If nothing else has been agreeil ui>on for delivery of gray 
goods, six months' time is understood as the usual conditions against accept- 
ance, from the date of invoice or cash, with a 3 per cent discount within fourte(»n 
days from the date of invoice. Settlement is to be made at th(i domicile of the 
seller. 

Paragraph t ). — The cost of delivery of gray goods into the house, warehouse, 
or to tlie forwarding agent of the buyer in Vieinia, on the Vienna riaza, nnist 
be borne by the seller. In case of shipment of goods to the i)roviuces the costs 
of delivery of forwarding is to be settled by the buyer. 



REPORTS FROH CONSULAR OFHCERS. 



CARLSBAD. 

EXTENSIVE COTTAGE INDUSTRIES IN THE DISTRICTS OF BOHEMIA. 

Consul John Steel Twells, in the following report from Carlsbad, 
minutely describes the cottage industrial life in that part of Austria, 
so many of the products of which are sold in the United States : 

In the manufacturing districts of Bohemia goods for both home 
supply and exportation are not only produced in factories, but to a 
great extent the raw material is given to men, women, and children 
and taken home, where all members of the family engage in the work 
of producing .various articles which are sold to the home trade or ex- 
ported to the foreign countries. 

This method is known in Austria as " Hausindustrie," or home 
work, and in all parts of the country where textiles, glass, lace goods, 
gloves, etc., are made, men, women, and children obtain their simple 
uving by this means, and consequently it is of great importance to 
thousands of poor people living m the small villages adjacent to fac- 
tory centers, enabling them to make a living, especially during tlie 
long dreary months of winter, when no. other occupation is possible. 
Around perhaps the only table in the only room, in a little house, the 
family assemble, the man, his wife, the grandparents, and children 
with other members of the family, if there be any. When evening 
comes on, an oil lamp, a candle, or even chips of wood are the only 
lights by which they can work. On Thursdays, Fridays, and Satur- 
days the fini^ed articles are taken to the factories and paid for. 

" It is very hard now," said one of the lace exporters from Neudek 
the other day, " to get people in summer to make laces. They prefer 
to go to work in felds or picking hops, for which they get higher 
wages than by making laces. Children get 8 cents a day at that time 
and adults from 25 cents to even 40 cents, and of course we can not 
afford to pay such high wages for lace making." 

GOVERNMENT INTEREST IN IMPROVEMENT. 

The Austrian Government, desirous of improving this sad condi- 
tion of laborers, is at present preparing a new law which has been 
handed to the chambers of commerce for their consideration and 
judgment. The following gives the numbers of persons in Bohemia 
who do home work : 

Aussig 6G7 

Braunau (linen) 4,786 

Dauba . 54 

Deutsch Gabel (weavers) 4,695 

Friedland 498 

Gablonz (glass beads and 

cheap Jewelry) 9, 147 

Hohenelbe (textile) 2,514 

Koeniggraetz 1, 182 

li:{ 



Leipa (cloth, Hneii) . . . 


;;, 916 


I>eltmeritz . 


210 


Keiclieiiberp . 


2. 2r»(j 


Ruuibnrj: (weavers) 


7, S19 


Senftenberj; (textile IIiumi) 


10,051 


Teplitz .- 


l.:57H 


Tetscben (buttons, Hnen ) 


;{, (n>H 


Trautenau (liueu) 


\/xm 



144 COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 

In the district o£ the Chamber of Commerce, in which parts of the 
consular districts of Reichenberg, Carlsbad, and Prague are situated, 
105,897 persons do such home work as has been described. They con- 
stitute more than one-fourth of the entire population of that com- 
mercial district. In the Reichenberg section 68,649 persons are en- 
gaged in home work, i. e., outside the factories. They make mostly 
textile goods, but also embroidered, knitted, worsted, and crocheted 
goods, which are more or less dependent upon the textile trade. 

Next comes glass, stone, earthen ware and clay goods, in which 
16,596 are engaged; three-fourths of these workers belong to the 
glass trade, which is one of the oldest home industries of Bohemia; 
8,168 persons make stays, gloves, head covers (caps, hats), and 8,168 
do cleaning work at home ; 6,427 make wooden, matted, turned, and 
carved goods; and 3,320 metal goods, chiefly metal turners. In the 
Erzgebirge, which belongs to the consular district of Carlsbad, 6,000 
persons are engaged outside the factories with straw and bast plat- 
ting. The raw material — simple wheat straw — comes from the hop 
district of Saaz, while bast or wooden chips are made from Russian 
ebony wood. 

NUMEROUS ARTICLES OF PRODUCTION. 

In the district of Senftenberg are located the basket makers and the 
reed twisters. Mats, pockets, and slippers are made of reed, rush, 
etc., which are likewise used for building purposes, especially for 
reed mats, and articles for smokers (cigarette ana cigar holders, etc.). 
In northern Bohemia and also in some southern parts of Bohemia, as 
in the districts of Muenchengraetz, Neupaka, and Senftenberg, are the 
shoemakers' villages and towns, mostly inhabited by workers who 
make parts of shoes at home for the wholesale makers. 

Thoir goods are called " market goods," because they are exhibited 
and sold on stands at the fairs in the larger manufacturing districts 
which are held every week or month, or several times in the year, 
especially in the districts of Bohmisch-Kamnitz, and at Bensen, 
Tetsehen, and Schluckenau. Wooden slippers are made in the district 
of Rumburg; braces at Teplitz; gloves at Bilin, Kaaden, and at 
I^ra^uo, also at Joachimstal and Abertham. At Schoenau and Hains- 
pach (district of Schluckenau) the ribbon weavers are located, and in 
a southwcstorn direction from Rumburg are the wood weavers or 
makers of Spartorie ^oods, while at Rumburg and Bohmisch-Kam- 
nitz are tlie smokin^-pipe makers. 

In many of the forest villages barrels are made, which trade is 
largely encouraged by the chemical factories at Aussig, that employ 
several thousand workmen. In the southwestern districts of the 
Boehmerwald are many hundred makers of chip boxes; they make 
also a^icultural and kitchen goods of wood, frames for brushes, 
toothpicks, and wood carved goods. Altogether about 3,000 makers 
of wooden goods are scattered in the various villages of southern and 
northern Bohemia. 

CONFORMING TO CHANGING DEMANDS. 

Other kinds of home work depend upon the factories near the vil- 
lages. In the Riesengebirge paper bags and horn or stone buttons are 
made; near Reichenau and Gaolonz snuflfboxes were formerly made, 
but when the use of snuff decreased a new trade began, viz, the mak- 



AUSTRIA — REPORTS FROM CONSULAR OFFICERS. 145 

ing of cheap oil paintings on wood, tin, and linen. This developed 
from the little paintings which were formerly made on the snuff- 
boxes; the paintings were enlarged and the new industry of making 
oil paintings was started. The emigration to the United States from 
Bohemia is partly connected with mis kind of work. If the market 
is good, then all the family works day and night and makes a living, 
but if the market is bad, they lose their employment and lead a very 
poor life. The wages are extremely low. In the Adlerhills weekly 
wages of $1 to $1.20 are paid, but as there are many weeks during the 

{rear when no work can be had the average weekly earnings are not 
arger than 80 cents. In good times husband ana wife work alter- 
nately eighteen hours a day. If the scanty habitations, the rough 
climate, and the poor soil are taken into consideration, some idea can 
be gained of how great is the poverty in these mountain villages. Yet 
it is considered of great value that chip-box making has been intro- 
duced, because the workers, mostly women and children, earn 80 cents 
to $1.40 per week; and linen-shirt buttons are now made, by which 
wages of 60 cents to 80 cents a week are earned. Weavers who make 
at home silk and Jacquard and art work earn $1.40 to $4 a week. The 
straw and bast matters earn from 20 to 40 cents a day, but after the 
" season " the wages are lowered. Wood carvers earn $1.20 to $2.80 a 
week, and the brush makers at Gabel from $1:60 to $2 a week. The 
wood carvers at the Wittigtal earn $1.60 to $3.60 a week, and the 
wood and mat makers at Niemes from $1.20 to $1.60 a week. 

INCREASING INCOME — ^ADJUSTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS. 

In this consular district home work is often done to increase the 
income. People go to work during daytime and in the evening they 
spend their time by making certain goods. The artificial-flower 
makers earn $1 to $2.40 a week. At Prague and Joachimstal, Aber- 
tham, etc., in the consular district of Carlsbad, gloves are made. 
The manufacturers hand the leather out to contractors called " Nat- 
faktoren," who distribute the work among the people. Hundreds 
of women are thus employed in this district who earn $1.20 to $1.60 
a week. There are other female home makers of straps, whip 
makers, cutters of visors for caps, and umbrella makers. 

To many thousands of persons home work gives employment. 
There are districts in which the population lives entirely from this 
kind of work, and although they make a poor living it is a benefit 
to them. On the other hand, it must be admitted that home work 
strongly competes with the smaller manufacturing trades. In 
Vienna, for instance, there are 100,000 to 120,000 home workers mak- 
ing shoes for factories. There are three classes, viz: (1) Masters 
who work with assistants; (2) journeymen who work for weekly 
wages and take on assistant hands, the latter getting food and lodg- 
ing and very small wages, and (3) " Pfuschers " who work without 
assistants. 

The difficulty with which the Austrian Government has to cope is 
that the small trades people have great difficulty to compete with 
home work. Many thousands of both classes make an honest living, 
but one class is pressing the other, and now the Austrian Government 
is studying a problem to regulate home work in such a way that it 
will no longer affect the small manufacturing trades. 
H. Doc. 1270, 60-2 10 



146 



COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 



PRAGUE. 

INCREASE IN SPINDLES, LOOMS, AND MACHINERY IN RECENT YEARS. 

Keplying to an inquiry, Vice-Consul Arnold Weissberger, of 
Prague, furnishes the following information concerning the textile 
industry of Bohemia: * 

There has been an increase of about 700,000 spindles and 20,000 
looms in the cotton industry of Bohemia during recent years. There 
was also large additions of machinery last year, but the extent is yet 
impossible to obtain. 

With the exception of auxiliary hands, all cotton-mill operatives 
are paid by contract, and their daily wages average as follows : 



Class of workers. 



Spinner male— 

Plecer do 

Orawing-fraine attendant female.. 

Auxiliary employees.— 

Throstler female. 



Wages. 



10.80 
.60 
.45 
.50 
.48 



Class of workers. 



Weaver male.. 

Plecer female- 
Warper do 

Bobbin-machine attendant 

Overseers 



Wages. 



10.40 

.44 

.44 

.40 

1.00 



The hours of labor are generally ten per day. Some spinning mills 
are working day and night, with double shirts of employees, of ten 
hours each shift. 

It is difficult to obtain general information regarding the housing 
of operatives. In some dwellings the rooming space costs from 50 to 
60 cents per square yard, or from $12 to $16 per room per year. As 
a rule, the operatives are crowded into small places, say 8 or 9 per- 
sons to about 30 square yards. In the country the dwellings are 
rather cheaper. The style of living depends chiefly on the number 
of breadwinners in a single family and their income. In the moun- 
tain districts the majority of the operatives live on coffee and pota- 
toes chiefly, but in the city and in the open country living conditions 
are somewhat better. 

MILL OPERATIVES AND MACHINERY. 

In weaving mills one operative tends 3 looms on plain cotton goods, 
2 looms on fancy goods, and 1 loom on heavy goods. In isolated 
cases, when mills are fitted up with Northrop looms, a weaver and 
one assistant tend 12 looms. These looms have found as little favor 
as the various English self-acting looms. In the spinning depart- 
ment each machine is tended by one operative, and in the warping 
department one operative tends from 12 to 15 spindles. 

In spinning mills with self-acting machines tour operatives are 
put down to 2,000 spindles, with flyers one operative to 300 spindles, 
and with throstle frames one operative to 500 spindles. 

In the spinning mills English machines are generally used, although 
some mills are fitted with Alsatian machines. The only machines 
built in Austria are those for waste spinning. In the weaving mills 
the power looms are mostly Austrian manufacture, but many English 
looms are in use. The sizing engines are chiefly English, but a few 
Alsatian machines are in use. The warping machines are Enjglish. 

As to speed of machinery, it is estimated that small cotton looms 
make 180 to 190 revolutions per minute, broad, smooth looms about 
160, and Jacquard looms 140 to 150. [Samples of textiles from 
Prague are on exhibit at the Bureau of Manufactures.] 



AUSTRIA — REPORTS FROM CONSULAR OFFICERS. 
REICHENBERG. 



147 



WAGES IN A KNITTING, LINEN, AND WOOLEN MILL. 

Consul Charles B. Harris furnishes the following information con- 
cerning the wages paid in the leading textile industry of Reichenberg. 
The table shows wages paid overseers and operatives in the north 
Bohemian textile mill : 



Operatives. 


Weekly wages. 


Operatives. 


Weekly wages. 


Woolen blankets and carpets: 
Mechanical and hand weav- 
ers- 
Overseers 

Operatives- 
Male 

Female — 

Finishers. _ 

Spinner's assistants- 
Male 

Female — 


16.00 to $7.10 

2.23 to 6.29 ' 
2.23 to 4.06 1 
4.26 to 5.28 1 

2.03 to 5.98 1 
1.82 to 3.65 { 

8.65 to 7.10 
8.65 to 4.26 

! 

1.01 to 2.82 1 
1.01 to 2.43 1 

1 


Woolen and half woolen ladies' 
cloth: 

Male- 

Female-. _ „ 

Ootton and woolen knitting: 

Male - 

Female _ 

Piecework- 
Male. 

Female. 

Linen department: 

Male..- - 

Female — - 

Piecework- 
Male - - 


$5.07 
2.03 

$2.40 to 3.00 
1.80 to 2.40 

8.00 to 4.80 
2.76 to 8.00 


Draftsmen- 
Male 

Female. 1 

Operators under nlnteen 
years— 


2.04 to 3.60 
2.16 to 2.40 

3.0O to 4.80 


Male - 

Female 


Female- 


2.16 to 3.00 



Payment of wages is made each Saturday. The mode of pay- 
ment generally in vogue is by pay roll of 10 or 12 names. The total 
amount, with the pay roll, is handed to the overseer, who pays each 
operative the amount set opposite his name. A few factories use the 
envelope ^stem, while at other factories the operatives call at the 
office tor tneir wages. The hours of labor are ten. 

Manufacturers are compelled by law to insure their employees 
against accident and sickness. [Samples of Bohemian textiles trans- 
mitted by Consul Harris can be seen at the JBureau of Manufactures.] 



HUNGARY 



149 



COnON FACTORIES. 



INDUCEMENTS TO ESTABLISH MILLS INCREASING SPINDLAGE PRESENT 

CONDITIONS IN THE INDUSTRY. 

Cotton manufacturing in Hungary is as yet in its infancy, but it is 
interesting to note the great inducements offered by the Government 
to accelerate its growth. For patriotic reasons the people wish to be 
at least economically independent of Austria and are sparing no pains 
to foster home industries. 

Rozsahegy (German name Rosenberg), in the northern part of 
Hungary, is so far the main cotton manufacturing center and con- 
tains about half the cotton spindles. This industry is succeeding to 
the hand-loom weaving that was formerly established in this dis- 
trict by Saxons. Besides Rozsahegy the mill towns are Budapest, 
Dugaresa, near Trieste, and Rozsony, which lies just across the border 
near Vienna. The largest company is the " Ungarische Textilindus- 
trie Aktiengesellschaft," which was founded at Rozsahegv in 1894, 
and now has two spinning mills of 50,000 and 54,000 spindles, respec- 
tively, or a total of 104,000 spinning spindles, 7,000 twister spindles, 
1,250 ordinary looms, and 900 Northrop looms. These latter were 
made at Rozsahegy under the patent bought from the Draper Com- 
pany. The next largest company is the ''^Ungarische BaumwoU In- 
dustrie Aktiengesellschaft," or, as it is known bv Hungarians, the 
" Magyar Pamutipar R. T.," at Budapest, which nas 13,792 spindles 
and 340 looms. 

The present (January, 1908) status of the Hungarian cotton man- 
ufacturing industry is furnished to me by the Hungarian Depart- 
ment of Commerce as follows : 



Description. 


Number. 


Spindles. 


Looms. 


SploniDg mills only - — - _. 


2 
8 

14 
8 

1 


65,120 
85.040 

""201666" 
1.300 




SpInnlDK and weaving' mills — 


2,126 


Weave mills only - 


2.9/>8 


Thread mills _ — 

Waste spinning mills 


Total-- 


23 


171,460 


6,070 







The present consumption of cotton is about 50,000 bales a year. As 
yet the mills are mainly on coarse goods, Cabots and some colored 

foods. The ones that make finer goods have to send the cloth to 
tohemia to he bleached. 



151 



152 COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPfi. 

SKILLED HELP OBTAINED FROM AUSTRIA. 

The Hungarian mills suffer from the disadvantage of starting in a 
new section and away from the various machine shops, yarn a^ncies, 
bleacheries, and the allied industries that gather around mill cen- 
ters. The Hungarian operative is also inferior to the Austrian, as he 
is unaccustomed to macninery. For this reason the mills are forced 
to import Austrians for the more skilled positions, and these are 
obtained from the mills just over the border by offering special in- 
ducements, such as higher wages, free transportation, eta This bor- 
rowing of their operatives is not relished by the Austrian mills, but 
they can not help themselves. Even with the help of a partial force 
of Austrians the Hungarian mills find it difficult to get results equal 
to those of Austrian mills. The mills at Budapest have the advantage 
of cheap water communication down the Danuoe with Turkey and the 
Balkans, but otherwise the new cotton mills need all the concessions 
granted them by the Government to enable them to succeed. 

The help question is one of the most important, and not only the cot- 
ton mills but the great flour mills and other Hungarian industries are 
beginning to feel the drain caused by the departure of so many emi- 

Sants to America. Just at present, on account of the money crisis in 
nerica, there has been a return tide of the floating class, but most of 
these will return to America as early as conditions permit. One mill 
manager referring to such returned workers said that they had been 
spoiled by the American life ; that before they left they were tract- 
able workers, and recognized that the man who paid them was their 
superior, but that now they regarded themselves as fully equal to any- 
one and were very hard to manage. 

ENGLISH MACHINERY USED — THE WAGES PAID. 

Most of the Hungarian mills use English machinery and are 
one-story mills. The Magyar Pamutipar mill at Budapest is a good 
type of the new mills now being started in Hungary. This mill has 
13,392 spindles and 340 looms, but is being enlarged to 30,000 spindles 
and 500 looms. The mill is one-story with posts made up of two iron 
channel beams placed back to back, has the usual cement floors, and 
saw-tooth roof uiroughout. This mill mixed sawdust with the cement 
so as to make a floor with a little more " give " in it, and one that 
would not be so cold for the help to stand on. Most of the machinery 
is from England, but some is from Germany, while the boilers and 
engines were made in Budapest. The looms are the overpick type 
and the spinning frames have the English system of top rolls. Cloth 
is measured in centimeters, but, as is the case in Italy, Switzerland, 
and Austria, the yam numbering is on the English system and the 
clocks on the speeders, etc., read in English hanks of 840 yards. The 
wages paid at this mill are as follows : 

Picker hands : Men, 2 crowns (crown =20.3 cents) ; women, 1.5 crowns a day. 

Cards: 2.6 crowns (8 cards to a man) ; card grinder, 4 crowns. 

Draw frames : 1.5 crowns on tlie average, paid by hank clock. 

Slubbers : 2 crowns a day average, paid by hank. 

Mules: Two mules (2,000 spindles) on No. 20s require 1 spinner, at 5 crowns; 
2 piecers, at 3.50 crowns, and 2 boys, at 2.50 crowns. 

Ring spinning : Girls run one side of 200 spindles each, get ofiT about 8 hanks 
a day, and are paid 1.2 crowns to 1.4 crowns a day ; they do their own doffing. 



HUNGARY — COTTON FACTOBIES. 158 

Reelers are paid by the pound and make 1.5 to 2 crowns a day. 

Weavers run mostly on Gabots; they are paid 2 crowns for 100 meters 
(meter =39.37 inches) of 15 pick (per quarter inch) goods, and other cloth in 
proportion. 

Coal costs this mill 96 heller per 100 kilos, which is only $1.95 a 
ton, but is Hungarian coal of only some 4,500 calories. The mill is 
now erecting a Targe brick tenement house within the mill ffrounds 
for the operatives. Each family will have a large room, a kitchen, 
and a small room, at a cost of 2 crowns per week, and the mill in- 
tends also to ^rnish them with provisions and with coal at cost. The 
mill is building this at considerable cost so as to secure a class of 
steady help. The object in view is that the operative shall give his 
entire thought to his work and that the mill will furnish hmi with 
everything needed and look after his wants completely. 

THE HAND LOOM STHJi FLOURISHES — ^HOUSING WORKMEN. 

This mill besides its cloth sales has a yam production that it sells 
to hand workers. Robert Weiss, the treasurer, stated that there are 
required for the hand-loom weavers 15,000,000 pounds of bundle yam 
yearly, part of which was supplied by Hungarian mills and part im- 
ported. Hungary is one of the countries where the hand loom still 
nourishes and there are quite a large number, especially in the sec- 
tions farthest removed from the large towns. 

Some of the mills furnish houses for their operatives and some do 
not. One manager with whom I talked thought that it was best for 
the hands to find their own lodging places, for when mills furnished 
houses it tended to concentrate the help in one place and so accentuate 
class interests. At Budapest there is a company organized especially 
for building homes for workingmen, and they have recently built 
100 in the neighborhood of two textile plants. Each single house 
contains one large room, kitchen, pantry, and attic, and there are 120 
square meters of land rented with the house. The rent of each house 
is from 265 to 285 crowns ($54 to $58) a vear. 

The Hungarian mill families as a rule live in very crowded quar- 
ters and their fare is exceedingly simple, meat or eggs being very rarely 
indulged in, but the conditions of life are better than those that obtain 
on the farm in most parts of the country, and the operatives are fairlj 
well satisfied. Though taken all in all the cotton-mill hand with his 
steady work has a better existence than the farmer, there seems to be 
a tendency among the people to class factory work as lower than farm 
work, and this operates in many cases against the mills obtaining a 
full supply of local help. 

CARING FOR OPERAXITES — IMPORTING HELP. 

The operatives have their own sick-benefit societies. One textile 
manufacturer has also instituted a pension system for his employees. 
The company sets aside every week a sum equivalent to 8 per cent of 
its pay roll for this fund. Any employee found medically unfit after 
ten years' work will be paid a pension of 30 per cent of his regular 
wages, and his pension will be increased 2 per cent for every year 
worked over ten, so that for twenty years' work the pension will 
amount to half pay and for for^-five years' work will be full ijay 
for the remainder of his days. This mill also has a special pension 
fund for its officials, but with the exception that they are required to 



154 COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 

furnish half and the mill half of the amounts set aside every month 
for this purpose. 

Mill men complain of a lack of labor everywhere. In Transylvania 
there is the peculiar situation of laborers going elsewhere for work, 
when their own industries are crying out for labor. There are Szecklers 
(Magyars) , Saxons, and Roumanians in this district, but the Szecklers 
are of a migratory disposition and had rather go to Roumania and 
work part of the year there than work steadily in one place, so for 
regular work the mills have to import help from as far as Italy and 
Macedonia. 

STRIKES ATTRIBUTED TO AMERICAN INTLUENCB. 

Though the cotton mills are small, the labor question with them is 
already a vital one. Labor throughout Himgary is beginning to or- 
ganize, and there are an increasing number of strikes. The strikes 
have ceased to be simply for shorter hours and higher pay, but have 
become an instrument in the fight for political power by the labor 
unions. The walking delegate is in course of develoi)ment, and in 
nearly all cases one of the main demands of the strikers is the recogni- 
tion of the union. They also demand that any foreman obnoxious to 
a majority of the workers be discharged, that the plant be shut down 
on May 1, " Labor Day," and also on special occasions when the unions 
desire to make political demonstrations. The employers call the 
spread of the union system the "American influence," and are very 
much opposed to it. The department of commerce, in its inspectors' 
reports, advised the manufacturers to organize to meet the workmen's 
organizations, and this is now being done in all branches. Some of 
these organizations extend throughout the country, so that in case of 
lockouts the laborers can not obtain work at any mill in Hungary. 

THE DUAL MONARCHY. 

Hungary and Austria, while nominally united in a dual monarchy, 
are really on a treaty basis. According to the new law which came 
into effect in January, 1907, " all of the industrial requirements of the 
State, and of municipal authorities, parish councils, or of any insti- 
tute or institutions maintained or subsidized by the same, and of all 
home enterprises engaged in the service of public traffic, must be sup- 

6 lied by the industry of the countries of the Holy Hungarian Crown." 
Ixemption may be granted only in individual cases where there is 
some special reason. 

To insure industrial development of the country, the Government 
offers to remit taxes and duties, haul at cost on state railways, and in 
some cases to grant subsidies to new enterprises locating in Hungary. 
The concessions granted are very similar to those being granted by 
the Italian Government to new mills in southern Italy, but are even 
more favorable in their scope. 

According to the law above quoted favors are to be granted to 
"manufacturing enterprises (factories) recently established in the 
lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown and equipped with the latest 
appliances of technical art, which produce articles not hitherto pro- 
duced at all by manufacture in the said lands of the Holy Hungarian 
Crown, or at any rate not in sufficient quantities practically to satisfy 



HUNGABY COTTON FACTORIES. 155 

the demand, or whicli produce articles the increased production of 
which is desirable from an economic point of view." This law is 
applicable to all new factories, but under its application cotton manu- 
facturing is especially favored. 

CONCESSIONS TO COTTON MILLS. 

Among the concessions granted to new cotton factories are the fol- 
lowing: 

1. Exemption from the payment of direct state taxes due on the 
output of the factory, and exemption from all municipal and parish 
dues imposed on those paying the said direct taxes. This also includes 
exemption from the payment of tolls levied by the Royal Hungarian 
minister of affriculture, either directly or indirectly, on state high- 
roads and bridges, and in state roadsteads or harbors. 

2. Exemption from the payment of Crown (treasury) and parish 
dues and charges exacted for the acquisition, lease, and transfer of 
factory sites and buildings, and of all machinery constituting an 
appendage thereof, as wellas for the registration of the lease, and of 
all equivalents of the same; further, if the said enterprises take the 
form of limited liability companies or cooperations, or if, during the 
period for which the favors granted are in force, they be transformed 
into limited liability companies or cooperations, or be reorganized or 
become associated with other companies, they may, in addition, be 
exempted from the payment of stamps and dues, parish dues, and 
charges on contracts executed on the occasion of the formation of the 
company, the increase of the capital of the company, and the issue 
of shares or preference shares, wnether such be issued on the forma- 
tion of the company or later on with a view to increasing the capital 
of the company, and on all other deeds executed in connection with 
the said contracts, on all legal transactions referring to the paying 
in of shares or preference shares as well as of cooperation debentures 
and on all documents relating to the same as well as on the transfer 
of any property executed for that purpose. 

3. All building materials required for the construction or expan- 
sion of factories and industrial establishments, as previously men- 
tioned, shall be conveyed hj^ the state railways or railways subsidized 
by the state at a rate covering only the working expenses, as well as 
all machinery and parts of machinery required for the equipment of 
the same, and in general all articles of equipment. Side tracks and 
short industrial lines required by said enterprises shall be built by 
the state at cost. Any shunting executed for said enterprises shall 
be at cost of merely the working expenses, or they may be specially 
exempted from all shunting charges for a certain period. 

LIBERAL INTERPRETATION OF THE LAW TO BENEFIT MILLS. 

In interpreting the above the Minister of Commerce ordered : 
The freight charged for the articles above enumerated, which shall 
be carried by slow freight trains, shall be, if they belong to Class A, 
i. e., " sundries," in cases where charges are paid for at least 5,000 
kilograms (5 tons) per car and letter of conveyance, a unit of 32 
fillers (6.4 cents) per 100 kilograms (220.4 pounds) per kilometer, a 
charge of 8 fillers (1.6 cents) per 100 kilograms for " terminals," and 



156 COTTON FABBICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 

other charges payable on the basis of the legal freight dues; if, how- 
ever, the articles in question belong to any other freight class, in cases 
where charges are paid per gross weight for at least 10,000 kilograms 
per car analetter of conveyance, a unit of 20 fillers (4 cents) per 100 
kilograms per kilometer, a charge of 4 fillers (0.8 cent) per 100 kilo- 
grams for " terminals," and the other charges payable on the basis 
of the legal freight dues. The smallest charge per 100 kilograms 
shall be 8 fillers (1.6 cents). For the conveyance of goods on in- 
dustrial lines connecting factories with the nearest rauway station 
the " working expenses '°to be charged shall correspond to 50 per cent 
of the regulation charges in force on the state railways and railways 
enjoying a guaranty of interest on the part of the state. In cases 
where only working expenses are charged, the loading and unloading 
of the goods shall be carried out at the cost of the party enjoying the 
concession. 

The reduction in freight stipulated above generally takes the form 
of a refunding of the surplus over working expenses. 

4. Permanent exemption from house rates is given to all dwellings 
of workmen built by the factory in conformity 5) the requirements of 
hygiene, which are offered to laborers as part payment of wages, or on 
condition that a certain part of their wages shall be devoted to the 
payment of rent or the acquiring of said dwellings on the hire-pur- 
chase system. Also all dwellings built by outsiders for the use of 
workmen as above may be exempted from all house rates for a period 
of twenty years. 

This exemption from house rates includes not only house rates, but 
also the general income tax levied in proportion to the same, the 
national additional tax for the relief oi the sick (sick relief fund), 
and all other public and parish dues contingent on the said house 
rates. 

STATE SUBSIDIES IN ADDITION TO CONCESSIONS. 

Besides the concessions granted above, the Minister of Commerce is 
authorized, where cases of general interest render the creation,* ex- 
pansion, or maintenance of a certain industry desirable, to concede 
a State subsidy to certain enterprises in the form either of a lump sum 
or an annual subvention, payable for a certain number of years, or to 
promote the creation of such enterprises by the offer of state support 
by participation. Under this law the new cotton mills are being 
granted a subsidy equal to one- fourth of their capital stock, and this 
is paid to the company in ten yearly installments. 

The granting of any or all of the concessions described may be 
petitioned for within one year of the day on which the factory started 
work, and the minister may also guarantee the granting of con- 
cessions even before the factory is established. Favors granted are 
for a period of fifteen years, except where otherwise stated. A 
petition may be presented for the prolongation of favors enjoyed 
after the latter have become invalid, but sluj such petition must be 
presented within one year after the concession previously granted 
expires. 

An essential condition of any concession is that three- fourths of the 
workmen and officials shall be Hungarian citizens. Furthermore, 
factories or industrial establishments enjoying such favors are bound 



HUNGABY COTTON FACTORIES. 157 

to procure all the articles for building and equipment, as well as the 
materials and half -finished products required in working, from home 
factories and producers, provided such are made or produced in the 
required form in the lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown. In cases 
where exemption is justified the minister of commerce may grant 
exemption. 

In 1900 there were 80,000 spindles in the cotton mills of Hungary ; 
at the present time there are in operation and in course of erection 
200,000. It is expected that the government aid now being extended 
to the mills will result in the industry being largely increased in the 
next few years. 



SWITZERLAND 



159 



COnON GOODS PRODUCTION. 



SLOW PROGRESS IN MANUFACTURING CONDITIONS AMONG THE MILL 

OPERATI\TES A TARIFF FOR PROTECTION. 

The cotton mills of Switzerland have remained almost stationary 
for the last ten years. Only in special lines of cotton manufacturing, 
such as the embroidery business, has there been any progress, and the 
advance in this direction has been of great help in enabling the mills 
to survive by furnishing an outlet for Swiss cloth and yam. 

The Swiss cotton mill men have had to face higher and higher 
tariff walls in neighboring countries and also a much keener compe- 
tition due to these countries rapidly enlarging their factories. The 
Swiss markets for yarn and cloth lie mainly among their neighbors 
in Europe, so the result of the advancing industrialism of their 
former customers has been to cut off their orders on all coarser grades 
and drive the Swiss mills to finer and finer goods. In their home 
market they have to compete with the inroads of the Italian coarse 
counts and the English fine counts, to which is added, in times of 
depression, sporadic imports of German, Belgian, and French goods, 
which are dumped into Switzerland as the nearest market at what 
the Swiss refer to as " bankrupt prices." The Swiss tariff was raised 
in 1905 especially to enable them to control their home market 
against being used as a dumping ground. 

DISADVANTAGES UNDER WHICH SWISS MILLS ARE OPERATED. 

The Swiss mills have to import all their coal and cotton and most 
of their machinery, and a great number of the mills are located in 
isolated places where water power was available and where country 
help could be obtained cheaply. This has proved quite a drawback, 
for the unfavorable location has made it hard to keep help, and 
some mills are put to a good deal of extra expense for hauling. 
There is a dearth of local help, and the mills are driven more and 
more to the employment of Italians and Germans. The increase of 
the embroidery business, while of advantage, in affording an in- 
creased home outlet, has accentuated the labor difficulty of the mills 
by enticing away their best workmen. Many also go into the silk 
business. Ulien the silk and embroidery lines are slack the cotton 
mills have an abundance of help, but at other times they have to 
stand a constant drain which they only make good by the employment 
of Italians. The Swiss still have very cheap labor, but on coarse 
goods the Italians have the advantage, because their labor is 10 per 
cent cheaper, and their mills can run at night, while on fine goods the 
English have the advantage because of the greater efficiency of their 
operatives, which more than compensates for the higher wages paid. 

H Doc. 1270, 60-2 11 161 



162 



COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 



There are no Government statistics as to cotton manufacturing in 
Switzerland, for the reason that the control of the country is so de- 
centralized there is no power delegated by the people for such a pur- 
pose. The Government is authorized to employ factory inspectors 
to see that the Confederacy laws in regard to factory operation are 
carried out, and these, in their occasional reports, give the number 
of male and female operatives, the number of accidents, etc., but any 
statistics in regard to the extent of the industry can only be obtained 
from outside sources. 

SPINDLES, L00:MS, AND MILLS. 

The ])resident of tlie Swiss cotton manufacturers association (the 
Schweizerischer Sj)iniicr-, Zwirmer-, und Weber- Verein) gives the fol- 
lowing as the nuuiber of spinning and twister spindles in Switzerland 
on January 1, 1007. with a partial list of the nunil)er of looms. 



Canton. 



■ Spindles, 



Zurich ! 051,818 

St. GaU ' •.'.T>.*22^ 

Glarus 200,042 

Aargau 92.170 

Zug: ! 87.0()2 

Schwys 50.110 

Bern.. 50,000 



Tn-istcr 
spindles. 



:{0,S82 

r),4'ji 



Lf)01Tl.S 



8,107 

.■i.0f)7 ! 

3,«KX) I 

70G 

"'"sn I 

40D I 



Cimton. 
Solothurn 


cr.t,.^^^ Twister 
Spindles. , ppindies. 


Looms. 


30,2U !._ 

13,492 1 


lOS 


Thurgau 


1,474 


Luzern 

SchafThntisen _. 

Ai)prnzcll 


12,000 ! 

3,40) 


in 








Total 


1,174,026 1 57,296 


18,842 







Of the looms 2,09G were given as being on colored goods, and 602 
were Jacquard looms. The great bulk or the spindles are mule spin- 
dles. The number of looms slated is only ])artial, due to the fact that 
some weave mills an» independent of the association. 

The figures f(jr cJanuary 1. ll'OS, from the same authority, show 
1,400.170 si)inning s])in(lles, with D.OOO operatives; 117,782 doubling 
spindles, with 2,o42 operatives, and 22,700 looms, with b'L85-l: opera- 
tiv^es. 

The cotton mills are entirely in the northeastern section of Switzer- 
land, mainly in the cantons of Zurich, St. Gall and Glarus. The 
city of Zurich is the largest and most important commercial center 
of Switzerland, and the cotton manufacturing industry (outside of 
the special line of embroidery which centers at St. Gall) has its 
headquarters at that point. There are few mills at Zurich, but the 
larger mills have their oflices there, most of the banking and export 
business is carried on at that city, and the manufacturers association 
has its office there. 



SIZE OF FACTOKIES A^D COST OF OPEKATINO. 

There are cotton mills at Winterthur, Wald, Flums, Baar, Wet- 
ziken, Mels, etc., but the mills are so scattered that none of these 

E)laces can be claimed as big cotton mill centers and, in fact, Switzer- 
and has no great mill center, as each owner has tried, it w^ould seem, 
to locate his mill as far away from any other mill as the small limits 
of the district would permit. ^lost of the mills are small, the aver- 
age being 22,000 spindles or 300 looms. There are four yarn mills 
containing over 50,000 spindles, the largest one being at Zurich, and 
containing 179,520 spindles, one at Flums with 100,000 spindles, one 



SWITZERLAND COTTON GOODS PRODUCTIONS. 163 

at Baar with 58,068 spindles, and one at Langenthal with 50,000 
spindles. The weave mills with over 300 looms are nine in number, 
which contain from 500 to 840 looms. 

About 50 per cent of the cotton mills are operated by water power, 
40 per cent by steam, and 10 per cent by electric or other motive power. 
The new mills are mostly steam or electric, and those that utilize 
water power have it electrically transmitted, and no longer locate at 
the fall, as was necessary with the old mills. A manager of one of the 
water-driven mills told me that while liis motive power was clieaper 
than that of the steam-driven mills, in regard to direct operation, the 
difference was small, and that if the interest be figured on what they 
had had to pay for buying up water rights, to prevent the stream 
being diverted for other purposes, as well as the costs of canal and 
flume and upkeep, his power was actually costing him more than that 
paid by the steam-power mills. The majority of the Swiss mills are 
one ortwo story buildings, of brick or stone, with sawtooth roofs. 
The steam-heating pipes are usually fastened to the wall about a foot 
above the floor, and are made with projecting flanges every couple of 
inches, so as to give the greatest amount of radiating surface. 

The complete cost of a spinning mill is given by the president of the 
spinners' association at about 80 francs ($15.44) a spindle. Most of 
the textile machinery is imported from England, especially the spin- 
ning machinerj^ though a good deal of weaving machinery is made in 
Switzerland, and some machinery, mainly dveing and finishing, comes 
from Germany. There is an import duty of 77.2 cents per 220 pounds 
on textile machinery. All of the embroidery machinery is made in 
Switzerland. Looms made in Zurich are not only operated in Switz- 
erland, but are largely used in Italy, and some exported to other coun- 
tries. All coal used in Switzerland has to be imported and the 
present (January 1, 1908) price of German coal landed at Zurich is 
34.3 francs ($6.62) a ton. 

FACTORY LAWS AND ^IILL EMPLOYEES. 

In regard to legal restrictions, children under 14 years of age 
can not work in the mills. The weekly hours of labor in the mills 
are 64, 11 hours for five days and 9 hours Saturday. The usual 
hours for mills working this time are from G to 11.30, and from 1 to 
C.30. There is a continuous campaign waged by the workers for 
shorter hours, however, and most of the mills do not now run over 
10 hours, some only 9, and the prospect is for still shorter hours. 

One interesting feature of the Swiss laws is that no factory is 
allowed to work at night, and by night is meant from 8 p. m. to a. m. 
For any overtime a permit has to be obtained from the local authori- 
ties, and only in very rare cases, such as the partial loss of the factory 
by fire, is a mill allowed to run up to 12 o'clock at night, and then only 
with extra help; in no case is all-night work allowed. Italy, for this 
reason, has heretofore been able to displace Switzerland in certain 
lines, because of the cheapened cost due to night and day work, but 
under the new Italian law women and children can not work at 
night, and as the Italian mills are operated mainly by women and 
children this practically has the same effect as the Swiss prohibition. 



164 COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 

The Swiss laws are very particular in regard to precautions 
against accidents, and it is interesting to note that a report made 
by the government inspectors in 1906 shows that cotton manufac- 
turing is the safest industry in Switzerland, for, with the largest 
number of establishments and much the largest number of opera- 
tives, it yet furnished less than 1 per cent of the accidents. The 
percentage of accidents in the various industries according to the 
report was as follows : 



Industries. i Percent. I Indirtrics. ' Percent. 



Metals and machines.. 

Woodworking 

Cement, bricks 

Pood, stimulants 

Clocks, Jewelry 

Cbcmical industry 



29.20 
15.77 
14.08 
14.93 
10.45 
8.69 



Paper making 3.44 

Work in brass, etc 1.54 

Textile industry ^_ ,97 

Total _ __ i 100.00 



IMPORTING FOREIGN WORKERS. 



A government report in 1902 (the latest) gave the number of 
workers in the cotton manufacturing industr^r in Switzerland as 
49,023, of which 8,392, or 17.1 per cent, were children from 14 to 18 
years of age; 22,880, or 46.7 per cent, women, and 17,751, or 36.2 
per cent, men. The proportion of women and children tends to in- 
crease, due to the sharp world competition making it imperative to 
keep down costs which are rising with higher price of materials and 
higher wage tariffs. Of the help brought in from Italy the major- 
ity are girls. The proportion of foreign help is becoming larger 
every year. Of the 49,023 workers in 1902, 44,886 were Swiss, 1,673 
were Italians, 1,547 Germans, 874 Austrians, and 43 other nationali- 
ties. This 8.85 per cent of foreign operatives has since largely 
increased, and about an eighth of the hands are now from other 
countries. Italians are used throughout Switzerland for the cheaper 

i'obs, such as road making, etc., and since, as a rule, the wages are 
ower in Italy than in the otlier surrounding countries, most of the 
foreign operatives are Italians ; but the increasing demand for opera- 
tives in Italy itself will in time cut off this source of cheap labor. 
The Swiss are patient, industrious workers, and however small their 
wages they always contrive to have an account at the savings bank. 
In the country their diet seems to be coffee, bread, and potatoes three 
times a day, with meat and wine on Sundays. 

P^ormcrly there was a ^reat deal of hand-loom weaving in Switzer- 
land, but this is now a thing of the past. In the embroidery business 
around St. Gall there is quite a large house industry, but even there 
the hand embroidery machines are being displaced by madiines 
operated by electricity furnished by lines from the power companies. 
Hand looms are now to be met with only in isolated homes. 

The largest cotton manufacturing company in Switzerland has its 
office in Zurich, but the mill is located at the small village of Win- 
disch, some 20 miles north of Zurich. This mill has 179,520 spindles, 
and just at present is doing a good business, but it is significant of 
the fight of Swiss manufacturers against adverse conditions that in 
1900 this mill had 246,692 spindles, and that as spinning frames have 
worn out they have not been replaced. 



SWITZERLAND COTTON GOODS PRODUCTIONS. 



165 



WAGES AND HOUSING OPERATIVES. 

The hours of labor in this mill are eleven per day (with nine on 
Saturday), viz, from 6 to 12, and 1.30 to 6.30. Wlien overtime is im- 
perative a permit of the local authorities has to be obtained^ and the 
operatives are paid one-third extra. There is never any night work, 
as that is forbidden by law. The average dailv wages paid by this 
mill, as furnished me from the books, are as follows: 



O|)erativos. 



Wages. 



Weavers _ ' $1.03 



Picker hands- 

On cards.— __ 

On draw frames.. 
On combers.- 



.74 
..-,8 
.62 
.02 



Operatives. 



On fly frames 

Mule spinners 

Ring spinners 

Twisters... 

On gassing frames. 




Oiwratives. 



I Wages. 



On reels i $0.55 



Outside laborers- 
Wood workers. _ 
Iron workers 



.77 

.97 

1.00 



On account of the scarcity of Swiss workers, this mill, in common 
with most others, has had to employ Italian help. They now have 
125 Italian girls, and for lodging them the mill has built a special 
home, which cost $24,125. The girls are lodged in large rooms, each 
accommodating a dozen or more, and there are bathrooms, a sick 
room, and a large garden attached. The home is looked after by six 
Catholic nuns, who are paid by the firm. Each girl pays 90 centimes 
(17.4 cents) a day for food, lodging, light, etc. The mills as a rule 
have little trouble in getting help irom Italy, and very often a mill 
simply notifies the local priest of the number of new hands needed, 
and he notifies his fellow-clergyman in Italy, who informs his flock, 
and the required number are shortly on hand. 

Besides the special large tenement house for Italian girls, this firm 
has about 100 dwelling nouses, each composed of one living room, 
two or three small rooms, kitchen, and cellar, with 3,240 square feet or 
land for gardening. The rent varies according to location, size of 
rooms, etc., from $15 to $35 a year. The manager stated that in the 
neighboring villages the usual rents for similar dwellings are $48 to 
$58. The mill furnishes operatives with pure milk at 3§ cents a quart, 
the outside price being 4.3 cents. The firm is now building a house 
where bathrooms, kitchen for cooking and warming up, reading 
room, and dining room will be provided for the use oi the oper- 
atives. There are now two kindergartens managed by the firm, 
for which the workpeople pay 4 cents per baby per month. The 
operatives have their own society for cases of sicKness, and they also 
have a cooperative store where they buy provisions, and from 
which they receive at the end of the year a dividend of all profits 
made above cost and expenses, which usually runs about 15 per cent 
a year. 

WAGES AND PRICES OF THE NECESSARIES OF LIFE. 

An Austrian manufacturer who has made an investigation of Swiss 
cotton inanufacturing gives me the following tables as the actual 
average daily wajjes and cost of food at four mills in different parts 
of Switzerland in the first part of 1907, reduced to American cur- 
rency. The first table covers the wages: 



166 



COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 



Operatives. 


No. 1. 


Mills. 
No. 2. No. 3. 


No. 4. 


Blow room: 

Head innn . 






$1.06 


$0.74 


Workman _ __ _. 

Waste man _ 


$5.(35 
.61 

1.42 
.77 

.r.i 

.60 


$0.59 
.55 

.85 
.67 
.51 
.51 


.60 
.56 

1.16 
.62 
.'>9 
.54 


.56 


Cards: 

Headman _. _ _ . _ 


1.12 


Card ffri ruler 


.(id 


Can boys _ 


.51 


Lap carrier „ 


.53 


Oner_„ 


.42 


Draw-frame girls _ ._ . . _ _ 


.48 

1.22 
.61 
.G> 


.43 
.8-1 


.11 

l.OJ 
.61 
.45 
.35 

.87 
.67 
A-i 
..'51 

.91 
.GS 
.0) 
.44 
.37 

1.00 
.43 
.63 
.48 

1.72 

.91 

1.09 

1.16 

1.01 
.87 


.40 


Speeilors: 

Head man _ 


1.10 


Oiler 


.49 


Speeder hands 

Creeli'rs 


.55 
.30 


RlngspluniiiK:. 

Headman _ _ 


1.14 

.(51 

.53 


1.07 
.01 
.31 


1.16 


Oiler.. - - 


.44 


Si)Inner___ 


.13 


Dofl'er - 


.-3 


Mules: 

Hond man _ - ._ _. . 


1.27 

.<51 
.01 

.m 

.53 

.71 
.'v5 
.77 
.17 

1.62 
1.12 
1.12 
1.02 

1.02 
.!)7 
.8-. 
.85 
.S') 
.81 


1.15 

.61 
.73 
.51 
.32 

---- 

.65 
.42 

1.22 
.73 

.69 


1.14 


Oiler 


. 17 


Spinner 


.79 


PIcecr _ ._ ._ 

Rovini? carriers _ _ . 


.53 
.38 


Reeling: 

Head man - 




Kcclers _ __ ._ . . 


.45 


Parkers-— _ ._ 

Women bimdlers — - 

Machine sliop: 

Head man.__ 


.74 
.44 


Machinist _ _ _ 


.99 


Wood worker _ 


.74 


Smith - _ - - . 




Carpenter sliop: 

Cabinetmaker ._ ._ . ___' 


1.02 


Carpenter .._ . 

Turbine minder _ ._ 


.83 
.74 


Fireman _ 


.71 

.03 

.n 


.85 

.66 

.46 


.85 


Transmission leniler.. _ . 




NlRht watchman .• 

Porter .._ 


.63 


Repair department: 

Hea«i man _ ._ _ _ _ 


.01 
.73 
.97 


.91 




Repairer _ ._. 


.59 ] .(55 
.73 1 .70 


..59 


Mason _ . _ 


.76 






Average, per day. 


.63 


.'>0 


.47 


.51 



It will 1)0 noticed tluit some of the mills show no dolFors. In a good 
many ca.^es nono an* eiiiplovcHl, but each three spinners work to- 
gether and doil' their frames themselves. 

The prices of the necessaries of life for the operatives in the four 
mills were as follows: 



Artlrlr. 



Mills. 
No. 1. No. 2. No. 3. No. 4. 



Bread, average Muality 2.2 pounds.. 

Meat - - do.... 

Flour ._ _ d ) 

P«.tat«H's d '.._. 

Supar... _. .1 .... 

CotTee _. 



.d . 



.d.' 



Salt. 

Milk _. _._ quart. 

Kerosene do... 

Beer _ do... 

Cheese .-1 portion. 



I Cents. 

0.9 

34.5 

1 9.7 

1.6 . 
! 10.6 
! 44.4 
I 2.8 
I 3.9 
I 3.5 



Centx. 
0. > 
32.5 
7.7 
1.6 
17.8 
62.9 
4.1 
4.1 
8.5 
6.3 
4.1 



Cents. 

>.8 

2S.S 

9.5 

2.0 

10.6 

42.6 

2.0 

3.7 

4.1 

5.7 



Cents. 

«i.5 

3 5.5 

9.5 

2.0 

13.4 

34.7 

2.2 

3.9 

4.2 

6.7 



SWITZERLAND COTTON GOODS PRODUCTIONS. 167 

SWISS CONTROL THEIR HO^ME :MARKET BY A TARIFF. 

The Swiss cotton industry is an old one and Switzerland was one of 
the first countries to take advantage of the English inventions in the 
early development of cotton manufacturing. The number of spindles 
steadily increased until 1875, when the mills began to feel the restric- 
tions placed upon their export business by the tariffs of other coun- 
tries. This was the high-water mark, and the industry began to de- 
cline and the spindles to dwindle until, in 1905, the sphiners succeeded 
in getting a " fighting tariff" applied to this industry to check the 
inroads of foreign cotton manufactures. This has given the mills 
more control over their home market, nnd with the demand that has 
sprung up for cloth and varn for tjie embroidery business, they have 
once more begun to slowly increase their capacity. The Swiss spin- 
dles now number about 1,500.000. 

Swiss cotton mills now stand in the front rank in the production of 
fine yarns and cloth and in some lines their only competitor is Great 
Britain. There is a good business in medium numbers, but, since the 
Italian and other markets have been lost to them, there is very little 
manufacture of coarse counts. In spite of the fact that the fine counts 
of the Swiss make the cost of the raw material a smaller factor in the 
total cost of the finished article, the price of raw cotton determines, 
in great measure, the profit or loss in the business. The great fluctu- 
ations in the price of the raw material, and the changeability of the 
market for fiiiislied goods, as regards price and quality, was such 
from 1J)00 to 1005 tliat the mills were, on the whole, not very success- 
ful. Since 1905 the business has been better. 

THE FEELING AGAINST COMBINATION. 

In 1905 the Swiss spinners were pleased because the English yarn 
producers were so taken up with the Chinese and Indian markets as 
to leave the Continent free. In the last days of 1904 the majority of 
the spinners united to form a syndicate to fix minimum prices for 
varn, and so stop the ruinous losses they were suffering. This was 
beneficial and resulted in some prosperity to the trade, but only lasted 
as long as the stress continued. This tended to do away with the 
spirit of individual liberty that is usually so strongly manifest. The 
" Canton " spirit, that is so strong in Switzerland, does not tend to 
unity among the mills, even where their interests are identical, and 
where modern ecouomical development makes it necessary for inter- 
ests to work together for the common good. The industry has ap- 
proached a condition where it is not possible to increase the output to 
compensate for the increased cost, due to risin<; wages and the lower- 
ing of the number of hours, and the only solution is to limit the man- 
agiug costs by couibinations, but the mills are too independent for 
any general agreement. 

The yarn exports continued to drop back during 1905, and Austrian 
demand for fine -yarns began to decline under the new tariff, which 
levies :^S kronen ($7.71) instead of 8:^.:^ kronen ($(>.7{>) and 28.5 
kronen ($5.7(S) (on Xos. 50 to ()0 and above No. r)0, resj)ectively), (m 
Xos. 50 to 70, and for Nos. 70 (o SO as nnich as 48 kronen ($S.78) 
against the former 28.5 kronen ($5.78). This caused an increase of 



168 COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE EUROPE. 

fine spinning in Austria. -Germany reduced the tariff on coarse yarns, 
but not on fine yarns, as they were afraid of Swiss competition in the 
latter. The French tariff practically shuts out Swiss yarns. Owing to 
the representations of the spinners, the Swiss Government in 1906 
raised the tariff on yarns, which was an aid to the home mills, but ow- 
ing to the embroidery demands for cloth and yarn, it did not stop 
the import. 

There was a strong demand for broad muslins 120 to 140 centi- 
meters (47.2 to 55 inches wide) , and contracts were made up into 1907. 
This deinand resulted in the establishment of several new weaving 
establishments and in old mills being changed from narrow to broad 
goods. In the regular muslin weaves of 70 to 80 yarns, in widths 
under 100 centimeters (39.37 inches) there was also a good profit and, 
consequently, looms on medium calicoes were changed to these articles. 

PROSPERITY DURING PAST TWO YEARS. 

In 1906 the business was unexpectedly prosperous, and as the whole 
world seemed to need goods the export business revived. Owing to 
the fact that so many looms had been changed from calicoes to mus- 
lins, the calico yarns were slack the first part of the year, but a de- 
mand for calico springing up, prices rose rapidly. In No. 38s, for 
instance, the price in January was 2.35 francs a kilo (45.3 cents per 
2.2 pounds), but in December it was 3 francs a kilo (57.9 cents). 
The strike that broke out in some spinning establishments at Mulhau- 
sen aided in increasing the price of yarn, but the strike did not last 
long. There were continued labor difficulties, and costs of operation 
increased. Production, which had increased through the addition of 
new machines, w^as brought back to the old point by the successful 
agitation for shorter hours. The great increase in the embroidery 
business helped the mills on fine spinning and weaving, and there was 
a great demand for Nos. 60 to 80, and for No. 120s throughout the 
year. A brisk demand for ply yarns resulted, which the twisters 
could not satisfy, resulting in large purchases of yarn, extending up 
into 1908. The embroidery mills are more and more using 40s, 3 ply, 
instead of 60s, 2 ply, so that there was also a good business done by 
the medium count mills. This change has resulted in many spinning 
mills having to change very considerably the counts they spin, which 
involves some outlay. 

During 1907 the industry as a whole, following the lead of em- 
broidery, was very prosperous, but the money crisis in the United 
States affected all branches of the industry adversely. For the year, 
as a whole, the mills made goods profits, and not only the fine weav- 
ing but flannels, drills, blouses, betilles, and other lines paid well. 

The Swiss spinners do not have any uniform selling agreement, 
such as is the case in Italy and other countries, for the reason that the 
mills are hard to get into line on any question. The Spinners and 
Weavers' Association, almost since its inception in 1878, nas tried to 
obtain some uniform agreement on this subject, but could never get a 
majority of the mills to sign. The conditions they have sought to ob- 
tain are: (1) Conditions of payment to be 4 per cent discount and 
one month bank remittance, or 3 per cent discount and 3 months 
bank remittance; interest on current accounts of 5 per cent; (2) 



SWITZERLAND COTTON GOODS PRODUCTIONS. 



169 



shipment of yarn free to the nearest railway station to the receiver; 
(3) return of empty cases; (4) rate of exchange to be mean between 
letter and money on the day of arrival of the remittance. 

IMPORTS OF RAW COTTON — EXPORTS OF COTTON GOODS. 

About 40 per cent of the cotton used in Switzerland is Egyptian, 
the remainder being American, with a small quantity of Indian. 
In proportion to its number of spindles no other country uses any- 
thing like as much Egyptian cotton as Switzerland. The following 
table shows the import of cottons for the years given : 



Kind. 


1806. 


1900. 


1906. 


S^EEEEEEEEEEEEEE 


Pounds. 
28,761,318 
21,880,8n 

2,011,370 
505,508 


Pounds. 

28,299,138 

22,279,854 

372,476 

154,500 


Pounds. 

80,111,268 

19,766.133 

2,271,222 

221, .502 


Total _ 


53,1.-)9,157 
1,658,13* 


51,105,408 
2,624.080 


52,370,125 


Reexports _ _ 


1,128.007 


^'^'^^OTtS 


51,501,027 


48,481,388 


51,242,118 



The Swiss exports of yarns and cloth have been declining, so that, 
in spite of the great increase in the export of embroideries, the total 
export of cotton manufactures was less in 1906 than in 1900, viz, 
35,782,822 pounds and 36,681,833 pounds, respectively. The total 
exports of cotton manufactures from Switzerland to the several 
countries, in 1906, were as follows : 





United 
States. 

$40,916 
21,403 


United 
Kingdom. 

$1,351 
17,949 


£xport< 

Germany. 

$1,444,026 
02,640 


Jdto- 


. 




Description. 


Asla. 


Mexico 
and Cen- 
tral and 

South 
America. 

$18,443 
13,510 


Prance. 


Yarns, single, gray 

Other yarns - - 


$71,305 


$713,907 


38.986 






Total of yarns 


02,319 


19,300 


1,536.666 


713,907 


61.953 


113.201 


Piece goods: 

Gray 

Blcache<l 

Dyed _ 

Printed 


54,812 
206,147 
35.126 


10,984 

146,101 

100,729 

4,825 

2,702 


712,363 
274,832 
145,716 
7,913 
20,265 


4.439 
50,952 
252,251 
684,057 
835,820 


7.141 
01.763 

226.196 
54.040 

129.117 


60.088 

38,000 

113,201 

18,835 


Of dve<i yarn _ - 


2.702 


19,403 






Total of piece goods 


358,787 


277,341 


1,161,068 


1,328,419 


511.257 


230,707 


Embroideries — . 

Lnrca _ 


13,475,046 

965 

8,281 

79J,967 


6,474,059 

1,737 

11.960 

545.032 


1,872.486 

10,036 

28.178 

296,378 


318,836 

386 

6.300 

335,048 


1.650.843 

772 

101.325 

167.331 


1,516,501 
1,737 


Mndo-iiD iroods 


28 757 


Other goods 


44,776 






Grand total 


14,695,965 


6,329,435 


4.90«.832 


2,702,986 


2.492.981 


1,055.882 



170 



COTTON FABRICS IN MIDDLE F.UROPE. 



Description. 



Vnrns, single, gray 

Other yarns 

Total of yarns 

Piece goods: 

Gray 

Bleached-— 

Dyed 

Printed 

Of dyed yarn 

Total of piece gooils- 

Enibroidericg--- 

Laces.- 

Made-up goods 

Other goods.— 

Grand total 





Exported to— Continued. 




1 
1 


Austria- 
Hungary. 


Italy. 

$10,598 
04,181 


Balkan 
States. 

$380 
43,425 1 


All other 
countries. 


Grand totaL 


$227,354 
208,247 


^-.7.900 
127, 7S6 


$1,011,279 
1,372,037 


435,001 


110,782 


43.811 1 


185,686 


3,283.316 


08.816 
08,430 
71,410 
40,899 
3,088 


42.653 

83,a>.-) 

115,028 
93.605 
4,053 


20,458 

86.271 

50,75I> 1 

308,028 

210,370 I 


48,057 
188.368 
2)8.620 
irK).347 
203,808 


1,060.711 
1.328.419 
1,375,12:> 
1,SGS,WJ> 
931,418 


313,043 


339,294 

003, 12.") 
:18,(KjO 
18.721 
40,S99 


675,886 ; 


819,200 


0,070,622 


506,625 
11,906 
6,176 
54,019 


210,177 i 
2.702 1 
6.918 
32,617 


3.138.373 

5.983 

20,634 

250.707 


28,760,264 

74.881 

238.3,55 

2,570,374 


1,333,630 


1,157,421 


972, in 


4,4.-16,583 


41,008.815 



SWITZERLAND S BEST CUSTOMERS IMPORTS OF COTTON GOODS. 

It is seen that the best customers for Swiss embroidery are the 
United States and the United Kingdom, while for cotton-mill prod- 
ucts the best markets are those nearest to Switzerland. The best yam 
market is Geiniany, while gray goods go to Germany, Austria, and 
France, and bleached goods to Germany, America, and England. Of 
the smaller amounts of other cloths the solid dyed goods go to Asia, 
South America, and Germany; colored goods to Asia, the Balkans, 
and South America, and j^riuted goods to Asia and the Balkan States. 

Swiss exports in embroideries are increasing rapidly, and the trade 
in embroidery cloths and fine bleached cloths is also increasing, but 
in most other lines the cotton exports have been declining, especially 
in yarns. On the other hand the imports of cotton goods into Swit- 
zerland have been on the increase, due mainly to the expansion of the 
embroidery business. This condition of allairs is clearly shown by 
the following table, contrasting the exports and imports of cotton 
manufactures in 1000 and lOOG: 



Description. 



Imports. 



1900. 



Sinfflovarns, pray ^lor^.or. s?l.l.T8.n3-2 

Other yarn.s._ 1,->14,403 1.154.307 

Cloth: 

Gray 3.324.720 5,073.391 

IJlcnrhVl 13J.rt(« i 222,!>l-> 

Dvcd ^^^».8-*i^ I :m,S75 

Printed 400.301 5G2,f>81 

Ofdye<lyarn 00,407 I :iOt,192 

Embroideries 115,110 253.3;J2 

Tnros 151. f?.'^') 271,:il2 

Mftdc-up goods — - 039.3.12 2,120,G'>7 

Others - 2.065.900 3,093,879 

Totals 10,038,195 j 15,254,583 



Exports. 



$•2,005,720 
1,199,440 

1,421,049 

352.151 

750.932 

1,511,500 

1,276,354 

21.339.385 

02,771 

71.279 

1,871.294 



32,527,881 



1903. 



,911,271) 
,372,037 

066.711 
328,419 
375,125 
368,040 
931,418 
766,264 
74,884 
233,355 
570,374 



41,003,815 



SWITZERLAND COTTON GOODS PRODUCTIONS. 



171 



EXPORTS TO THE PHILIPPINES. 



The Swiss shipments of cotton manufactures to the Philippines in 
J90G amounted to $334,8G6, and consisted of the following, according 
to the Swiss returns : 



DesiTlif tEon . 



L or 



¥ftrDt bL«acb{hJ, 

EDsrosri^'.L , ^ 

Yarn* dyod or prfm&l-^-^ 

Bleaehcd or meTCtirized 

Oolor«d .^,* 

PrJnlisd, , - , . .^.. 

Of Golored jarn ^^_. 



Foaads, 



Value. 



150,313 
T»714 






DeserlpUon. 



Pounds. ' Value. 



Piqufii^ damafla, brllUan- 

Xflit^^ ULC.^. .._.. 

Urof-^ndtuiw. — .,^.. ,.-- 

FmbrnJdory.-^-^ , 

ETiitiroldci*ed clt^Clia .,.-. 

Other article o£ eott iii 



Tot«L_ 



$2,645 
8,8l'i 
1,703 

11,103 
4,8W 



032,108 



$2,323 

7,178 

2,oa-) 

2I,3SS 
3,UU 



334,8 >0 



The main article shipped by the Swiss is the cotton netting called 
" betilles," used by the Filipino women for shirt waists which are 
worn plain, embroidered, colored, dyed, etc. 



O 



""^"^ S^M/on*** } HOUSE OF RErRKSENTATIVES {'NS^"mo' 



MANUFACTURE 



OF 



WOOLEN, WORSTED. AND SHODDY 
IN FRANCE AND ENGLAND 



AND 



JUTE IN SCOTLAND 



BY 

W. A. GRAHAM CLARK 

Special Asent of the Department of Commerce and Labor 



JANUARY 15, 1909 

Reforreil to the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce 
and ordered to be printed 



WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1909 



Departmknt of Commerce and Labor, 

Ob'fice of the Secretary, 
Washimjton^ January lo^ 1909. 
Sir: I have the honor to tmnsmit herewith, in compliance with the 
act making appropriations for the legislative, executive, and judicial 
expenses of the Government for the fiscal 3^ ear ended June 30, 1909, 
approved May 22, 1908, the report of Special Agent AV. A. Graham 
Clark on the manufacture of woolen, worsted, and shoddy in France 
and England and jute in Scotland. 

Respectfully, Oscar S. Straus, 

Secretwry. 
The Speaker of the House of Representatives. 



CO NTH NTS. 



Page. 

Letter of submittal 6 

French woolen industry 7 

Extent of woolen trade 9 

Manufacturing operations 17 

British woolen industry 27 

Wool-working industry 29 

Wool combing 38 

Wages in Yorkshire 41 

Wool sorting •. 43 

Washing and drying 46 

Preparatory processes and spinning 46 

Weaving, etc 48 

Yorkshire wool workers 57 

Plain worsted coatings 69 

Cost at Huddersfield 80 

English and American costs 86 

Consular reports 89 

Bradford conditioning house 89 

Conditions at Huddersfield 94 

Manufacture op shoddy in the United Einodom 97 

Expansion of shoddy trade s 99 

Complete mill estimate 114 

Jute industry op Scotland 126 

Jute manufacture 127 

Jute workers 137 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Waqes in Yorkshire: Pa^o. 

Fig. 1. Typical Bradford street 63 

Fig. 2. Typical Bradford street 66 

Fig! 3. Older street in Bradford 67 

Plain worsted coatings: 

Fig. 4. Plain worsted coatings ^. 69 

Fig. 5. Sample No. 1. Fancy worsted suiting 81 

Fig. 6. Sample No. 2. Fancy worsted suiting 82 

Fig. 7. Sample No. 3. Fancy worsted and woolen suiting 82 

Fig. 8. Sample No. 6. Wool dyed indigo suiting 84 

Fig. 9. Sample No. 7. Fancy tweed, low quality 84 

Fig. 10. Sample No. 8. Fancy fine woolen overcoating 86 

Consular reports: 

Fig. 11. City of Bradford conditioning house 90 

Expansion of shoddy trade: 

Fig. 12. Improved rag shaker 99 

Fig. 13. Improved rag machine or '*devil " 101 

Fig. 14. Two-swift Gamett waste opener 103 

Fig. 15. Improved self-acting shake willey or teazer 106 

Fig. 16. Fearnought 107 

Fig. 17. Set of carding machines for shoddy 109 

Complete mill estimate: 

Fig. 18. Low shoddy tweed 114 

4 



LETTER OF SUBMITTAL 



Bradford, England, 

November 1, 1908. 

Sir: I have the honor to submit herewith a report on the manu- 
facture of wool and associated fabrics in England and France, together 
with a short sketch of the Dimdee jute trade. In the case of the 
English wool trade, I was directed to obtain the costs of manufacture 
for use by the Ways and Means Committee in their work of revising 
the tariff. I obtained from Yorkshire manufacturers eighteen sam- 
ples of goods, ranging from low tweeds (shoddy) costing 35.8 cents 
a yard up to men's high class worsteds costing $1.42 a yard. There 
was obtained also complete figures for one shoddy mill and one 
worsted mill showing first cost of mill, operatives required, wages, and 
detailed costs of manufacture, including all charges. The samples in 
all cases are now on file with the Bureau of Manufactures. One 
English mill in giving four samples covering their range of manufac- 
tures told of a mill that made the same goods in the United States. 
The American mill later furnished their costs, which furnish the basis 
for an exact comparison. 

In general it may be said that the cost of manufacture of worsteds 
in England is about half that in the United States. They have ( 1) 
cheaper first cost of machinery and building, (2) cheaper money, 
(3) cheaper raw material, (4) cheaper labor, (5) cheaper power and 
(6) cheaper supplies. Their advantage is greater in having cheaper 
raw material than in having cheaper labor, as wool represents the 
largest single element in the total cost. 

The export of manufactures of wool from Great Britain in 1907 
was $185,600,000. There are no production figures, but it is gener- 
ally considered in Great Britain that while they export 80 per cent 
of their cotton production they only export 40 per cent of their wool 
production. On this basis their total wool production would be 
$464,000,000. The United States Production Census in 1905 gave 
the total wool manufactures produced in the United States as 
$380,934,003. The United States impo ts about 5 per cent of her 

5 



6 LETTER OF TBAN8MITTAL. 

manufactured wool requirements. Of a total of $22,357,206 manu* 
factures of wool imported into the United States in 1907, $7,786,398 
came from Great Britain, $5,377,054 from Grermany, $4,432,850 
from France, and $2,922,675 from Turkey. In normal years Eng- 
land supplies a much larger proportion of this total, her share in 1906 
being $9,779,496 out of a total of $22,353,591. 

The methods of manufacture of wool in French and English mills 
are different, and it is due to this fact that England excels in the 
production of worsteds for men's wear, and France in the production 
of softer goods for women's wear. 

Very respectfully, W. A. Graham Clark, 

Special Agent. 
To Hon. Oscar S. Straus, 

Secretary of Commerce and Labor. 



FRENCH WOOLEN INDUSTRY. 



EXTENT OF WOOLEN TRADE^ 



CONCENTRATION OF MANUFACTURING OPERATION* AND DIFFICULTIES IN 
MARKETING THE PRODUCTS. 

France is one of the great wool manufacturing countries and is 
the recognized leader in the manufacture of artistic goods, such as 
women's dress materials. While, however, the great English wool 
manufacturing industry is steadily increasing, the United States and 
Germany rapidly forging ahead and Italy beginning to struggle for 
a place among the leaders, France is lagging behind and the industry 
as a whole is almost stationary. This is due both to home and foreign 
causes. At home the French population is at a standstill, and besides 
they are of a saving turn of mind, so that the increasing wealth of the 
masses is not productive of any great increase in consumption. The 
fact that both coal and textile machinery are largely imported makes 
the first cost, and also the operating cost, of the mills higher than that 
of their neighbors, such as Belgium and Italy. Legal restrictions 
are numerous, and in at least Belgium, Italy, and Germany longer 
hours are permissible. Abroad many former customers are beginning 
to manufacture their own requirements. 

POSITION OF THE INDUSTRY. 

At the present time the French manufacturers of wool and worsted 
ship over half of their exports to England alone and of their main 
export in this line, clothing stuffs, over three-fourths go to that 
country. The French exporter therefore has all his eggs in one 
basket, and though the high artistic taste of the French designer* 
enables him to maintain his foothold there in spite of the keen compe- 
tition of Bradford the slightest fluctuation in that market affects the 
whole French trade. 

What Bradford is in England, Philadelphia in the United States, 
Verviers in Belgium, Brunn in Austria, Lodz in Russia, and Biella 
in Italy, such is Roubaix in France. Bradford, Verviers, and Rou- 
baix^ or rather Roubaix-Tourcoing, are more especially similar, as 
the industry in the other countries is more scattered and therefore 
the head center does not embrace such a large proportion of the total. 
Roubaix and its twin town Tourcoing are in the Department du Nord, 



10 FBENCH WOOLEN INDUSTBY. 

in northeast France, near Belgium, and this department embraces 
over half of the spindles and looms and nearly all the combs wor^g 
on wool in France. The industry belongs to the northeast section 
of the country — old French Flanders, Picardy, and Normandy— of 
which the modem departments are called Nord, Somme, Ardennes, 
Mame, Aisne, Oise, Seine Inferieure, and Eure. Next to Roubaix- 
Tourcoing the most important towns are Rheims, Fourmies, Cateau, 
and Elboeuf . 

SOUTHERN BRANCHES OF THE INDUSTRY. 

Vienne on the Rhone, in the Department of Isere, is the center of 
the manufacture of what is euphemistically called in France " Renais- 
sance cloth," but which in the blunter English language is called 
shoddy, though also occasionally disguised as "merino," etc. The 
Department of the Tarn, a wool manufacturing center in southwest- 
em France, owes its importance to its f ellmongerinff industry. Sheep- 
skins or " fells " are imported from abroad, maimy from the Plate, 
and are here relieved oi their wool by careful soaking and heating 
without the use of chemicals. Part of these skin wools are used in 
France and part shipped to England and other countries. 

The hand-loom industry centers around Cambrai and St Quentin, 
and though declining of recent years, it is still a good-sized industry, 
and some of the most artistic French work is made on these looms. 
Formerly Amiens was the center of this industry and the Picardy 
hand weavers had an inherited skill that enablea them to compete 
with power looms on all lines where skill and address were needed to 
meet the sudden demands of ephemeral vogues. Even in the machine 
industry, however, there are now periods toward the end of each 
season when the mill workers are idle, and though the hand-loom 
weavers eked out their living by farm work, these periods of idleness 
which are more severely felt by their branch of work than by the 
regular mills, have, together with the demand for "tailor-made'* 
clothes among women, driven them to gain their living in a steadier 
occupation, so that there is now little or no home weaving left in this 
section. 

In the Cambrai section there are still villages of 300 to 400 home 
weavers. The business part is carried on through middlemen or " fac- 
teurs," who buy the yarn from exporters, with whom they agree as to 
the kind of goods to be made and fix the price and then make their 
own terms with the home workers. In the Cambrai-St. Quentin dis- 
trict one thing that has cut down the number of such home weavers of 
•late is the fact that they lie in a section that is dominated by the pro- 
gressive lace industry. The " entrepreneur de decoupage or Sip- 
fring contractor makes his house-to-house round throu^ these vil- 
ages, offering work at clipping the floats and cutting apart the lace 
strips, as made on the machines of Caudry and CamT3rai, and though 
the remuneration is small the work is easier and less absorbing than 
that* of hand weaving, besides being much steadier, so that in many 
cases the shuttle is being laid aside for the scissors. 

LABOR AND MACHINERY COSTS. 

There are no accurate figures as to the machines and operatives 
employed in the French wool-working indwstties. A ^parliamentary 



EXTENT OF WOOLEN TRADE. 11 

oommittee inquiring into the trade in 1904 estimated that there were 
1,600 combs, 2,000.000 worsted spindles, 390,000 woolen spindles, and 
35,000 looms. The French census for 1901 shows 161,355 active 
workers in the '' Industrie Lainiere." In the latter case at least the 
jBgures are too small, as several subordinate branches of the industry 
are included under "textile industries not specified.'' It is clear, 
however, that the worsted branch of the business is much larger 
tlian the woolen, and also that the combing branch of the industry 
is proportionately larger than in the case of most other wool manu- 
facturing countries. The combing mills not only supply their own 
spinners, but the export of tops (the roving produced bv combs) is 
a large industry in itself. There is an active future market for tops 
at Eoubaix-Tourcoing, and though efforts have been made to abolish 
this feature (a similar future market for tops at Leipzig was abol- 
ished by the German Government at the request of the trade) it has 
as yet only resulted in stricter legal supervision. 

CONCENTRATED ON THE BELGIAN BORDER. 

The French wool-working industry being concentrated in the 
section around Roubaix-Tourcoing, is just on the edge of the Belgian 
border. It is very close to Toumai, Mouscron, and other Belgian 
towns interested in wool working, and there seems a strong tendency 
for part of the industry to gradually move across the border, the 
operating costs of the Belgian mills in most cases being lower. Land, 
coal, machinery, and building materials are all cheaper in Belgium, 
and as living is also cheaper the wages are lower. Taxes are Tower 
in Bel^um^ and legal restrictions are fewer. Wages in Roubaix- 
Tourcomg itself would be much higher were it not for the large 
number oi Belgians working in the mills there who have their homes 
just over the border in Belgium. 

Part of the machinery used in the French wool- working industries 
is made in France, at Koubaix, Lille, Belfort, etc., though the bulk 
is imported. The old center of the French manufacture of textile 
machmery was at Mulhausen in Alsace and since its loss no new 
center has taken its place. The English supply largely the spinning 
machinery and looms and Mulhausen the mules and combs; Switzer- 
land ships looms^ and there is also some machinery from Belgium 
and other countries. The French manufacturers claim that having 
thus to import machinery and pay the tariff, freight, etc., their cost 
per machine laid down is in most cases at least 20 per cent higher 
than that of the English factories. 

COMPARATIVE OPERATING EXPENSES. 

^ The Roubaix manufacturers have yearly to face keener competi- 
tion from the comparatively young wool-working industries of Ger- 
many and Italy. They say that though Germany still buys large 
auantities of tops, their takings are decreasing, and at the same time 
liey are beginning to reach out for the French markets for tops in 
Poland, Moravia, and other places. They also say that Italy's compe- 
tition is increasing fast, especially in the Levant, where the cheap 
Italian cloths and stuffs, well made and skillfully dyed, are displacing 
similar French goods, which is due to the fact that the Italian work- 
man is similar in his artistic instincts to the FreivcJcvTcv^w^ ^w^ oaxvXv?^ 
cheaper and work cheaper. On this latter po\iA \\, \% ^^^^"t^xsJi, *Ccia^ 



12 FRENCH WOOLEN INDUSTRY. 

they are correct. At Biella, in Italy, the writer went through a large 
woolen mill, and was informed by the management that the ordinary 
workers averaged only IJ lire (approximately 30 cents) a day; while 
on looms 1.65 meters wide, runnmg 75 picks on Jacquard work and 
90 picks per minute on plain work, the weavers, running one loom 
each, were paid 12 to 14 centesimi (100 centesimi=19.3 cents) per 
1,000 picks, and that on looms 1 meter wide, making 120 picks per 
minute, the weavers running two, and occasionally three, looms were 
only paid 2 to 3 centesimi per 1,000 picks. The Italian wages are so 
much lower proportionally than the French that in the last two or 
three years some French manufacturers have begun to organize 
branch mills in Italy for the spinning of the fine wool articles, which, 
as heretofore, has been a branch of the trade little developed there. 

In the beginning of 1904 the French wool-working industry was in 
bad shape. It partly recovered in 1904, had a prosperous vear in 1905, 
and in 1906 had one of the most prosperous seasons of its history. 
This continued until about the midale of 1907 ; since then it has been 
much depressed. The spinning and weaving mills in France do not 
ordinarily run at night, while the combing mills do. The combing 
mills, however, are the most subject to fluctuations, and frequently 
the end of the season sees the stoppage of all night work, and in 
recent years the condition has tended to become chronic to shut down 
much of the dull season from the latter part of August to the latter 
part of November. The weaving mills have to change often to catch 
the popular fancy in stuffs and draperies, for as they do not work on 
fixed standard articles as much as is done in the cotton trade, they 
therefore are not able to sell so far ahead, and might almost be de- 
scribed as working only from day to day. 

TRADE CONCENTRATION TENDENCIES. 

In the following notes I will briefly show where the French manu- 
facturer gets his raw material, what he sells, and to whom, the recent 
tendency of the import and export trade, and then give a few points 
from personal observation as to the French factory methods and 
wages and how they differ from the English and American systems. 

Dunkirk is the port for Roubaix-Tourcoing, as is Antwerp for 
Verviers and the Rhine, and Hamburg for north Germany. These are 
the three " wool ports " of the Continent. The wool imported at Dun- 
kirk is nearly all in the greasy state. The manufacturers prefer it in 
this style for, though the freight cost is doubled, the fibers are kept 
supple on their long journey and do not mat together, as would be the 
case with close-packed washed wool. Most of the wool, whether from 
Australia, La Plata, or elsewhere, is " cross-bred," that is, it is clipped 
from sheep that are a cross of the old Spanish merino breed with 
its short but fine fleece and the English Leicester or Lincoln, with its 
longer, coarser fleece. The Rheims mills which have devoted them- 
selves more to the use of the fine merino wool are decreasing, because 
they have not so readily adapted themselves to the use of the cheaper 
and more popular cross-bred wool, as have the Roubaix mills. In 
olden times Sedan was the center of the woolen industry and Rheims 
of the worsted. The former has almost dropped out of the industry, 
and Rheims is steadily losing, as are nearly all other French wool- 
manufacturing towns, to still further concentrate the industry 
around Roubaix-Tourcoing. 



EXTENT OF WOOLEN TRADE. 



13 



SOURCES OF WOOL SUPPLY. 



The figures for the wool in bulk imported into France in 1907, 
according to the French customs returns, are as follows: 



Country 



Pounds. 



Country. 



Pounds. 



Argentine Republic \ 208,106,970 

Australia ' 164,656,211 

England i 67, 372, 653 

Uruguay ' 37,645,422 

Algeria I 29,810,643 



Turkey 

! Belgium 

; other countries 

I Total 



9.822,126 
3,ai2,981 
67,.T.')0.616 



558,017.502 



The wool shown as coming from England is mostly Austi^lian, 
and that from Belgium is mostly from Argentina, so that there is 
very nearly the same amount contributed by both Australia and Ar- 
gentina. The manufacturers usually class their wool supply as Aus- 
tralian, La Plata (includes Argentina and Uruguay), common (from 
Turkey, Algeria, South Africa, etc.), skin wool, and wool from sheep 
imported for food (laines des moutons importes). 

The foregoing figures are for greasy wool, and to show the amount 
of actual wool consumed by the Frencn factories is diflScult. Not only 
are the figures for the home clip general, but for the reason that the 
greasy wools imported will yield only from a third to a half of their 
weight in actual wool, that part of the wools exported is greasy and 
part washed, that some wool is imported and exported already carded, 
combed, or dyed, but not spun, and that there also has to be consid- 
ered in studymg the total available for mill use the import and export 
of pulled and unpulled waste, accurate figures are impossible to ob- 
tain from any Government records. A French authority, however, 
has recently worked up some figures, based on his experience, that 
are regarded by the trade as the most correct obtainable. He figures 
that the home clip in the greasy state will yield 39 per cent of wool 
in the washed state, that Australian will produce 45 per cent. La 
Plata 44 per cent, the common wools 50 per cent, the skin wools 38 
per cent, and wool from imported sheep 35 per cent; also that allow- 
ing for the proportion of washed wool m the wools exported the total 
washed wool exported may be figured as 60 per cent of the recorded 
figures. Obtaining the net imports of pure wool on these supposi- 
tions, subtracting the net export of wools carded, combed, and ayed, 
and also taking into consideration the waste exported and imported 
and adding the French home clip, he has obtained the following fig- 
ures as the amount of actual washed wool available and ready for 
spinning by the French mills for the last ten yearly periods: 



Year. 



1898. 

1900 ! 
1901. 
1902. 



Pounds. 



150,295,000 
133,764,000 
113,100,000 
157,278.000 
111,640,000 





Year. 


Pounds. 


1903 


136,851,000 


1904 


103,654,000 


1905 


131,586.000 


1906 


151,818,000 


1907 


155,946,000 









NET FACTORY CONSUMPTIOK. 



There are some 20,000,000 sheep in France producing about 
43,000,000 kilos or 95,000,000 pounds greasy wool annually, and as 
these fleeces are figured to give a yield of 39 per cent wa.shed wool, 
this amount produces some 37,000,000 pounds piire wool which would 
be about 24 per cent of the total estimated. VaTV oi Ni\\\^ V^\xv^ Ocl>^ 



14 



FRENCH WOOLEN INDUSTRY. 



is exported, so considering the proportion of the different wools the 
actual French factory consumption is estimated to be made up about 
as follows: Australian 30 per cent, La Plata 30 per cent, common 
(Turkish, Algerian, etc.) 10 per cent, skin wool dj per cent, wool 
from imported sheep one-half of 1 per cent, and French home clip 20 
per cent. 

The French industry in 1907 as shown above used some 155,946,000 
pounds pure wool, and there was exported 19,003,322 pounds of yam 
more than was imported, so that the amount of wool actually turned 
into goods must have been about 137,000,000 pounds. The export of 
woolen and worsted goods that were listed as oeinff of French origin 
was 57,399,213 pounds, which would show that of the total production 
of the French mills 40 per cent was exported and 60 per cent con- 
sumed at home. This seems a large proportionate export, but the 
French wool manufacturing industry, like the English, is largely 
organized on an export basis, and it is probable that m normal years 
the proportion exported will range between 30 and 40 per cent or 



more. 



STATISTICS OF FOREIGN TRADE. 



The French exports and imports of wool and its manufactures in 
the calendar year 1907 were as follows : 



Wool, in bulk 

Wool, in bulk, dyed 

Wool, combed or carded 

Wool, combed or carded, dyed . 



Total wool . 



Yarn, single: 

Bleached or not, combed . 

Bleached or not, carded . . 

Dyed or printed, combed . 

Dyed or printed, carded . . 
Yam.twistea, for weaving: 

Bleached or not, combed . 

Bleached or not, carded. . . 

Dyed or printed, combed . 

Dyed or printed, carded . . 
Yam, twisted, for tapestry: 

Bleached or not 

Dyed 



Total yam 

Clothing stuffs of pure wool: 

Mermos 

Muslin 

other 

Caahmere and other cloths 

Knit goods 

Blankets 

Carpets, pure and mixed 

Pure wool furnitures 

Trimmings and riblwns, pure 

Trimmingsand ribbons, mixed.. 

Tapestry 

List shoes 

Shawls 

Furniture velvets 

List cloth 

Laces and guipures 

Fezzes and rea caps 

Moire 

Lastings 

Embroidery, hand and machine. 

Mixed stuffs 



Total stuffs, etc . 



Imported. 


Exported. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


588,017,502 

28,652 

2.465,174 

73,173 


9106,072,607 
12, 159 
145.6-22 
37,249 


112,318,705 

65,018 

47,689,711 

564.444 


*26,682,817 

80.108 

21.7».692 

811,309 


590,584,501 106,267,537 


160.637,878 


47,783,826 


560,918 
983,425 
86,807 
251.697 

1,654,534 

17,852 

825,310 

29,533 

2,424 
21,819 


94,184 
473,622 

24,511 
135, 4£6 

933,348 

9,264 

184,894 

17,370 

1,168 
11,966 


13,116,224 

7;«,342 

1,975,225 

121,000 

4,156,523 
154,941 

2,278,054 
163,537 

14,767 
169,047 


7,078,854 

261,901 

1,184.647 

47,«71 

2,664,891 
50.880 

1,408.496 
67,650 

8.686 
106,046 



8.884,328 | 1.885,803 I 22,887,660 



I 



153, 178 

1,762,980 

9,345,180 

577.889 

127, 171 

1.127,400 

341,840 

19,836 

11,681 

4,408 

123,424 

441 

16,530 

17,411 

6,069 

1,970 

604.557 

4,628 

881 I 

1,350,391 



158,646 
1,031,971 
5,206,754 
370,753 
6,765 
Ml,l?2 , 
1,158 I 
13,124 I 
14,475 ! 
23,160 : 
54,040 ; 
193 : 
6.562 1 
1.351 I 
6, 756 i 
679 , 
348, .365 , 
5.211 . 
6,211 ,. 
590.966 I 



2,413,380 

19,615 

30.079,531 

17,331.695 

3,666.031 

2,823.103 

1,390.000 

944.634 

343.163 

316,935 

43,198 

539,319 

53.9'J8 

36,145 

126,289 

2.frl5 

18,335 I 

36,807 I 



4.512.249 I 



15.596.W5 



8.387.201 : 64.695,972 



12.786,070 



1,357,M8 

8.299 

21,422.614 

18.245,204 

1.406.610 

1,180,105 

667.008 

697.528 

460.884 

418,424 

272,180 

200,918 

79,709 

21,800 

9,467 

4,246 

3,667 

193 



4.529,710 



45.885,557 



Total manufacture i of wool . 



10.273,004 , 



58.6*20.627 



EXTENT OF WOOLEN TRADE. 



15 



The import and export of other woolen articles were as follows: 





Imported. 


Exported. 




Pounds. 


Value. 
S7, 449, 800 
61,681 


Pounds, j Value. 


Wool waste 


28,710,847 

Number. 
451.400 


43,204,180 

Number. 
760,600 


$7,916,281 


Felt' hats of wool 


168,468 







The exports of manufactures of wool are seen to be (1)' clothing 
stuffs (worsteds); (2) cashmere and other cloths; (3) vam (mainly 
combed); (4) knit goods; (5) blankets; (6) carpets; (7) pure wool 
stuffs for furnitures, and (8) trimmings and ribbons, besides a large 
amount of mixed stuffs. 

COUNTRIES PURCHASING FRENCH WOOLENS. 

Of the pure wool stuffs for clothing, Great Britain takes three- 
fourths (24,675,702 pounds in 1907 out of 32,612,626 pounds) and 
the remainder goes mostly to Belgium, Japan, and United States. Of 
the cashmere and other cloths exported. Great Britain and the United 
States each take a sixth (2,971,433 and 2,387,593 pounds, respectively, 
out of a total of 17,331,595 pounds) and the remainder goes to Italy, 
Belgium, Spain, Switzerland, Algeria, Chile, Argentina, Germany, 
Brazil, and Turkey.^ The great bulk of the yam exported is the 
combed yam and it is bought by Great Britain, Belgium, and Ger- 
many. One-half of the knit goods go to Great Britain and the re- 
mainder to Belgium, Switzerland, and Italy. The blankets go to 
Egypt, China, Belgium, and Algeria; the carpets to Great Britain, 
United States, and Belgium; the pure wool stuffs for furnitures to 
Great Britain and Italy, and the passementerie mainly to Great 
Britain, with some to Spain, United States, and Switzerland. Fezzes 
go to Senegal and West Africa ; shawls to Colombia and Mexico, and 
mixed goods to Great Britain, Italy, and Belgium. 

French possessions and colonies are a very important market for 
the French cotton manufacturer, as they take a fourth to a fifth of 
his total export, but they are of slight interest to the French wool 
manufacturer, as their takings in this line account for but 3 per cent 
of his total sales abroad. 

In the export list the predominance of the takings by Great Britain 
is very noticeable. The French statistics of woolen and worsted tis- 
sues exported in 1907 record the takings of the main countries as 
follows : 



Country, , Value, 

Great Brttaln.„. ' 123,700.693 

Belgltim .- „..- 3,8&^631 

Unttfd SUtC« .-- .--. 3.W3,2§7 

AlifPriil ....,.„..,-„ 1,160,772 

Oermtvny, .„... , t,lS3,S6S 

Turkey ...! I,KP,M6 

jr*Jy...,.,. .,.„.. „. U06&>^3 

Swlu^rlAud , -.,.,......,. 1,MMW& 



CouDtnr. 



, Argentine RepubUe - 

: BmjEii , 

i Bpaln.. .......... 

A u.<itriA- R uti^ry , . . . 

KuFiflift .,,..«,... 

Others 



Totnl. 



Vmlue. 



tftS2,fi74 
6&4,a75 

71,080 
7, €09^^97 

45, B6.\ 557 



COMPARISON AS TO IMPORTS AND EXPORTS. 

The export figures for the last ten years show increasing exports 
of yam, but as the exports of stuffs, cloths, etc., also of tops, have 



16 



FRENCH WOOLEN INDUSTRY. 



been almost stationary, this may then be taken as a sign of the in- 
creasing manufacturing ability of their neighbors, especially Great 
Britain, Germany, and Italy, rather than of their own. The increas- 
ing export of yarns from France and the unprogressive state of the 
country's export of woolens and worsteds is shown by the following 
table, expressed in millions of dollars, for the last ten yearly periods : 





1 1898. 


1899. 


1900. 


1901. 


1902. 


1903. 


1904. 

5.96 
40.86 


1905. 


1906. 


1907. 


Yarn 

Tissues 


1 6.69 

1 43.01 


7.15 
50.96 


6.67 
43.85 


4.67 
41.22 


6.62 
42.61 


6.81 
42.14 


8.00 
37.83 


10.29 
43.22 


12.88 
46.89 








Total 


49.70 


68.10 


60.52 


45.89 


49.13 


48.96 


46.82 


45.33 


53.61 


58.62 



The importation into France of yarn and tissues of wool during 
the same periods, in millions of dollars, was as follows : 





1898. 

1.93 
7.40 


1899. 

1.91 
7.86 


1900. ' 

1.51 ; 

8.10 1 


1901. 

1.33 
7.24 


1902. 1903. 


1904. 


1906. 


1906. 


1907. 


Yarn 


1.71 ! 1.83 
8.31 1 7.98 


1.55 
6.91 


1.71 
7.49 


2.20 
8.07 


1.88 


Tissues 


8.89 


Total 


9.33 


9.T7 


9.61 


8.67 


10.02 1 9.81 


8.46 


9.20 


10.27 


10.27 







The yam imported was about three-fourths carded and consisted 
of coarse singlec (10,000 to 15,000 meters per kilo) and fine ply-yarns 
(40,000 to 50,000 meters per kilo), the great bulk being of tne latter. 
The majority came from Belgium. Of the tissues imported the 
largest amount was men's worsteds and came from England. Switzer- 
land seemed to be the only nation that could ship into France 
women's dress materials in competition with the standard home arti- 
cles, though Germany competed on some of the cheaper grades. 
There was also a considerable import of carpets from Turkey. The 
import of tops was small and principally only those made of the 
brilliant or lustrous wools that are a monopoly of England. 

The French export of goods include the finest made and also some 
of the shoddiest, though in both cases they are beautifully dyed and 
finished. The mixed goods are mostly of cotton and wool, with quite 
a little of fancy goods made with silk and wool, in many cases the 
stronger fibers being used for the purpose of wrapping around with 
the weaker grades of worsted threads on the twister. 

The French manufacturers are at no loss for conditioning houses 
in which to store and test their yarns, tdps, etc., for besides the large 
" Conditions publiques," at Tourcoing, Roubaix, and Mazamet, there 
are other conditioning houses for wools at Fourmies, Cateau, Amiens, 
Lyon, and Paris. 



HANUFACTURING OPERATIONS^ 



TECHNICAL PROCESSES FOLLOWED DITFER WIDELY FROM THOSE IN OTHER 
EUROPEAN COUNTRIES AND UNITED STATES. 

To show the difference between the French and the English or 
American processes in the manipulation of the wool in making 
worsted yarn it is necessary to roughly sketch the difference between 
the main kinds of yam made of wool — the woolen yam, the worsted 
yarn of short wools, and the worsted yarns of long wools. 

Both woolen and worsted yams are, of course, made of wool, the 
main difference being that the former is put through as few processes 
as possible — usually only carding and mule spinning — ^so that the 
yarn more resembles the original material, with short unparalleled 
fibers projecting in all directions ; while the worsted yams go through 
more processes and the long fibers only are retained and these are 
paralleled and smoothed out straight. The woolen cloth from the 
first has usually a fuzzy appearance and this is in many cases in- 
creased by napping, especially for blankets, so as to entirely hide the 
structure of tne cloth. Worsteds are usually not napped at all or 
only slightly as it is important to show the design. 

CARE OF THE WOOL. 

For both classes the wool as it comes from the sheep is sorted and 
then washed to remove the natural grease, perspiration, and dirt 
which, together, make up one-half to two-thirds of its gross weight. 
It is usually shaken in a machine called a willey to remove the loose 
dirt before undergoing this process. After washing there still re- 
main burrs and otner extraneous matters embedded in the fibers. In 
olden times these were removed by hand or by a rough burring ma- 
chine consisting of wire-covered beaters. Then a process of carbon- 
ization with acids was introduced by which the vegetable matters were 
burned out. If not very carefully done this deprives the wool of its 
"nature" and renders it brittle and hard to work up into manu- 
factures where " live wool " is required. There have therefore been 
new inventions to do away with the sulphuric acid bath and to use 
only mechanical means again. One such method known as the " Youla 
nonchemical system " is increasing in use in France and is much 
favored bv the manufacturers. After being washed, cleaned, and 
dried wholly or partially, the wool is oiled with olive oil or a cheaper 
substitute to mate it supple and is then ready for manufacture. 

For woolen yarn or for worsted yarn from short wool the first 
process is carding ; for worsted yarn from long wool it is " preparing." 
The woolen and worsted cards are essential in their main work and 
consist of " sets " of cards (two or three cards arranged together tan- 
dem, the first being called the scribbler and the last the carder), each 
made up of wire-covered cylinders against the upper surfaces of which 

H. Doc. 1330. 60-2 2 17 



18 FRENCH WOOLEN INDUSTEY. 

operate pairs of small " working " and " stripping " rollers instead 
of the top flats as used on cotton cards. The take-off arrangement of 
the woolen and worsted cards are different. In the first the material 
is stripped from the cylinder by two doffers carrying alternate rings 
of card clothing and smooth leather, the card clothing rings of one 
working in theline of the smooth leather rings of the other, so that 
the two doffers together strip the cylinder completely. These doffers 
in turn are stripped of their ribbons of wool which pass between 
broad leather belts which work from side to side with an action like 
that of the hands and roll each ribbon up into a sliver. These wind 
up side by side in cheeses on a beam^ which then goes to the mule. In 
the worsted card the web comes off m one sheet and is condensed into 
a single sliver like that of a cotton card, but instead of winding into 
a can it is rolled up into flat-ended balls by an automatic balling 
attachment. 

THB CABD NOT USED FOR WORSTED YARNS. 

For worsted yarns to be made from long wool, where in some cases 
the fibers are twelve inches or more in length, the card can not be 
used on account of the danger of breaking the fiber. The material 
is "prepared " instead by being passed through six sets of graduated 
"ffiU boxes" which are practically draw frames with combs or 
" f allers " working between the back and front rollers. 

The worsted slivers as made by either process are then put through 
a " backwashing machine " to eliminate the oil and remaining dirt. 
In this machine they are run through bowls of suds, between squeez- 
ing rollers and over drying cans. They are then oiled again and put 
through two more gill boxes. They then go to the combs which are 
"always steam heated ; here the tops* are separated from the noils and 
waste. Only the tops are used in worsted manufacture and the slivers 
of these, after the combing operation, are again backwashed, put 
through two gill boxes and rolled up into balls again. This com- 
pletes the work of making " tops." 

These tops are kept as oalls for a while in a conditioning chamber 
so as to preserve the straightness that has been imparted to the fibers 
and also to bring them to the proper condition. Cotton yams are 
supposed to contain &J per cent moisture and silk yarns 11 per cent 
moisture, but worsted yarns to work well should contain oetween 
16 and 16 per cent. 

Before spinning the tops are put through drawing processes of 
gill boxes and roving boxes and wound on bobbins for use in the 
spinning room. 

ESSENTIAL DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ENGLISH AND FRENCH SYSTEM. 

The foregoing are the general processes used in making yams from 
wool, and we will now notice how the French system differs from the 
English system. It may be noted that it is largely due to the differ- 
ence in the mechanical systems employed that England excels in the 
production of worsteds for men's wear, such as tweeds, coatings, trou- 
serings, etc., while France excels in the production of women's dress 
materials, especially of soft and nicely araping materials for skirts, 
etc., and of draperies in general. 

The essential difference of the two systems is that the French, be- 
sides using the mule where the English use the ring frame in making 



MANUFACTUEING OPEBATIONS. 19 

worsted yam, send the material to the mule with scarcely any twist in 
it at all, while the English send the material to the ring frame with 
some twist already inserted. In other words, the English worsted 
ring spindle uses roving and the French mule spindle uses sliver, 
accordmg to the accepted definition of these terms. 

In England the tops, after storing and conditioning, are put 
through gill boxes and then through roving boxes and wound on the 
bobbins of vertical spindles by means of flyers. The rotation of the 
flyer inserts sufficient twist to enable the roving to stand the strain 
on the ring spinning frame. In the French system the top slivers go 
through the gill boxes as above, but there are no roving boxes. For 
them there is substituted a machine, the " bobbinoir," in which the 
slivers in passing from the back set of rollers to the front are sup- 
ported by a porcupine cylinder and are then wound onto horizontal 
Dobbins. No twist at all is inserted, except that rubbing leathers like 
those of a woolen card are employed to give firmness to the slivers 
to stand the slight strain put on them by the mule. 

The worsted sliver in the French system therefore goes to the mule 
in the same form as the woolen sliver, though, of course, the fibers are 
longer and more cleaned and paralleled. The difference between the 
English and the French system is important, and as the French sys- 
tem puts so much less strain on the yam they can spin relatively 
short fibers to much higher counts than possible in the other system. 
The yams so made are softer and have a different feel from those 
made on the English plant and give entirely different qualities to the 
goods made therefrom. 

CX)MBING VARIATIONS MIIiL ORGANIZATIONS. 

In England also, while the Heilmann comber is largely used for cot- 
ton, the Noble comber is ordinarily used for worsteds. In France all 
makes of combs are employed — the Lister or nip combs (for long 
wools only), the square motion Holden combs (mainly in factories 
of the Holden name) , the Noble, the Offerman, etc., but the bulk are 
mainly of the Heilmann type, as this is especially suited for the 
French work and for short staples. Much of the French combing is 
also " dry ;" that is to say, oil is not used at all to limber up the fibers, 
or else only in small quantities such as can be entirely washed out of 
the tops after combing and before the final gilling. The French also 
have special methods of dyeing and finishing, which are too technical 
to describe here. 

Turning from the mechanical to the commercial side of the busi- 
ness there are still other differences in the French manufacture 
from the American, noticeably in that they are familjr businesses, 
that they individualize the separate processes, and in their system oi 
commission work. 

The majority of the mills in the United States are incorporated com- 
panies; in Enffland they are part stock and part private^ while on the 
Continent and especially in France they are almost entirely " family 
businesses " and there are comparatively very few stock companies, 
in some cases the same family handing down the industry with an 
increasing, or possibly a decreasing, number of machines and of 
customers from father to son, to grandson, and to greatgrandson. 



20 FRENCH WOOLEN INDUSTRY. 

DIVISION OF MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS. 

In the United States most mills carry on the complete operation 
of making yarn from wool or else finished goods from yarn, and 
many buy the wool and turn out the finished product ready for the 
customer, doing their own washing, dyeing, combing, spinning, 
weaving, and finishing. Such a thing is almost unheard of in the 
worsted business in France, and the few of the larger companies 
that really carry out most of the processes have a separate mill and 
manager for each. The making of tops is a great branch of the 
industry in France, the mills in this line doing nothing else and not 
only supplying their home spinning mills, but exporting millions 
of dollars worth to other countries. 

In the United States it is probable that in Philadelphia, Lawrence, 
or Providence there will not oe found a single mill that confines itseli 
exclusively to making tops, as American conditions are different. In 
France combing, spinning, and weaving are not only carried out in 
separate mills, in most cases bv separate companies, but the finishing 
and the dyeing are also nearly always done outside, and there are 
also many establishments that confine themselves only to the wash- 
ing of wools. The woolen branch of the business in France is not 
so universally specialized as the worsted branch, yet even here the 
dyeing and nnisning are usually separated from the manufacturing 
process proper. 

In regard to commission manufacturing, this is rare around Rheims, 
is largely used around Roubaix, and is the customary practice in 
the Fourmies-Cateau section. The men in this business who are called 
" manufacturers " do not usually own combs, spindles, nor looms of 
any kind. They buy wool and sell tops, yarn, or goods, the work 
in each case being done by the specialized mills on commission. Of 
late their field of operation has oeen somewhat reduced by the fact 
that many combers have gone into the buying of their own raw 
materials and selling the tops therefrom, claiming that the com- 
petition in the combing line at home and abroad has become such 
that the commission price for combing in many cases affords them no 
profit and that they must make their profit on the difference in price 
of the wool and the tops in order to keep their factory going. 

CONSERVATISM IN BUYING NEW MACHINES. 

I went through several of the Roubaix-Tourcoing mills. They do 
not average as large as the American, though the large ones are Duilt 
in the best style of modern mill architecture and are well operated. 
The older mills in some cases have less conveniently arranged quarters, 
and owing to the pronounced conservatism of the French manufac- 
turers there is to be seen a good deal of old machinery, which is well 
kept up. At one mill I saw looms that had been running for forty 
years, and the manufacturer said as long as he was making a good 

Srofit on them he saw no reason to change. This conservatism and 
islike of buying new machines as long as they can make a profit 
on the old is possibly one factor that has a bearing on the unpro- 
gressive state of the industry as compared with more modem com- 
petitors like the United States and Italy, where the manufacturers 
are always eager to see and hear of something new in the machinery 



MANUFACTUBINQ OPERATIONS. 21 

line and to throw away the old for the new if the change will be found 
to nay for itself. 

One of the most up-to-date firms at Roubaix and also one of the 
largest is that of Almd Motte & Co. I visited their combing mill 
and also their spinning mill, the two being located separately. 

At the combing mill I was informed that there- were operated 160 
Offerman-Ziegler combs, 72 Lister combs, and 42 Noble combs, and 
that their yearly production of tops was some 12,000,000 kilos, which 
is about 26,000,000 pounds, almost equally divided between their three 

grpes of cards. Or this amount they say that usually 70 per cent is 
a Plata wools, 15 per oent Austrahan and New Zealand. 5 per cent 
French and Algerian, with the remainder from South Arrica, Chile, 
Spain, etc. Some 1,600,000 kilos, or 3,500,000 pounds, is washed for 
export, going to England, Germanv, Russia, etc. This factory em- 
ploys some 2,000 operatives all tol5, and the motive power consists 
of two 800 horsepower engines. The mill is a large four-story build- 
ing with heavy brick waUs, iron posts, stone floors, and all modern 
appliances for making tops and lor utilizing the by-products, such 
as grease, etc. 

SORTING AND CLEANING THE WOOL. 

The wool is received from Australia and other countries in bales 
and the first process is sorting. The sorters stand at small tables, 
which are on a stone floor and under a saw-tooth roof, so that the 
quarters are clean and well lighted. Each sorter had a bale opened 
beside his table, and each layer as it was laid on the table was rapidly 
inspected and the different grades thrown into bags marked 1, 2, 3, 
ana 4. These men get 35 to 65 centimes (100 centimes or 1 franc = 
19.3 cents) an hour, according to their aoility, and sort 300 to 400 
pounds a day. 

After sorting, the different grades are stored in separate bins in 
another room, and from here each kind as desired is carted to the 
washing room to be degreased and cleaned. On natural wool there 
are three classes of materials — dirt, sand, and loose vegetable mat- 
ters, dried perspiration or "suint,"' and natural grease or yolk. 
They are removed separately. The dirt, etc., is first shaken out in a 
willey. The suint or perspiration consists chiefly of potash com- 
bined with ormnic matter which is easily soluble in water, so this 
is then washea out in a succession of boxes filled with water through 
which the wool is mechanically driven. This process is known as 
dessuintage. It is then scoured with alkali to remove the natural 
grease and then blown over by fan through tin pipes to the cards 
and preparing apparatus. 

Before showing the manufacture of the wool itself I will note what 
becomes of the materials thus removed. 

BY-PRODUCTS. 

From the dirty liquid resulting from the " dessuintage " they 
first extract carbonate of potassium by calcination, using what they 
call a " Porion " kettle. The liquid is first heated until it is of the con- 
sistency of sirup^ when it is allowed to spread out ; the water evapo- 
rates, the organic matters are consumea, and there remains in the 



22 FBENOH WOOLEN INDUSTBY. 

kettle a bluish-gray mass which contains 70 to 75 per cent carbonate 
of potassium, 3 to 4 per cent of carbonate of soda, and some^ of the 
sulphates and chlorides. The potash is refined and put up in iron 
drums for shipment either to France or abroad, this firm making 
regular sales to a house at New York. The residue is made into low- 
grade chemical fertilizers. 

TTie waters of the " lavage " or washing proper are run off into 
large vats, treated with sulphuric acid and automatically stirred 
for a couple of hours, when they are allowed to stand for six to eight 
hours. The wool grease contained it is impossible to saponify com- 
pletely, but the result is a complete emulsion consisting of soapy 
particles and water and a portion also sinks to the bottom or collect 
on top. This latter is skimmed off, being called " lanoline," some- 
times ^^ suintine,'' and is used to make salves which are said to possess 
^)ecial curative powers. The emulsion after partial evaporation of 
tne water is used over again in the mill to clean other wools and thus 
to cut down the amount of soap used, which is an important economy 
in a factory using as this one aoes 50,000 kilos of potash soap a week. 

SHIPMENT or COMBED WOOL — ^FACTORY WAGES. 

To resume the treatment of the wool itself, the short-stapled 
wools are run through two-card sets and the long wools preparea by 

going through six gill boxes. The slivers are then backwashed, put 
irough two ffill boxes, combed, backwashed, put through two gill 
boxes, and rolled up into flattened balls weighing 5 to 6 kilos each, 
and for shipment 20 of these are put into a wooden box bound with 
iron straps. For tops of which the selling price requires to be lowered 
the cheaper La Plata wools are mixed with the finer Australian 
during tne processes. The finished tops of La Plata wool sell for 
about 4.5 francs a kilo and the pure Australian much higher. The 
wool that is not combed in this lactory, but only washed for export 
to Germany or elsewhere (part being sent to a combing mill owned 
by the same firm at Warsaw), are put up in 250-kilo bales wrapped 
in burlap and bound with six wire noops. 

Li regard to wages paid at this factory there is no piecework, but 
everything is by the hour. As above noted, the sorters get 35 to 66 
centimes an hour, the washers get 40 centimes an hour, the grease 
removers 27^ centimes an hour, the carders 33 to 42 centimes an 
hour (one man to seven cards), the wool carrier 33 centimes an hour, 
the giller 27| centimes an hour, and the comber 34 centimes an hour. 
These were the prices as given me from the books. The mill also runs 
at night, and as there is no cessation of work when the shifts are 
relieved there is no stoppage of the machinery from Monday morning 
to Saturday night. However, processes on which women are em- 
ployed can only be operated in the daytime, as the law prohibits 
women or children working in mills at night. 

MULE SPINNING. 

From this combing mill I went to the yam mill owned by the same 
company, situated in another part of the town. This is a plant^ of 
82,000 spindles of which the majority are mule, while some are ring 



^ 



MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS. 23 

spindles. The tops come in 5 kilo balls or cheeses. They are put 
through three sets of gill boxes drawing six into one. They then go 
to the " bobbinoirs," of which there are four processes. Tne slivers 
are drawn two into one and, as previously described, in passing from 
the back to the front roller they are supported by a small porcupine 
cylinder, pass between rubbing leathers, and are wound up on hori- 
zontal bobbins to go to the mule. " Each bobbinoir contains 50 hori- 
zontal bobbins. TOie hands operating the gill boxes, the bobbinoirs, 
and the few roving boxes used for making roving for the ring spindles 
are all paid 30 centimes an hour. 

In the mule spinning room I found the majority running on yam 
measuring 30,000 meters a kilo. From each 500-spindle mule there 
was required 90 kilos per day. The mules on this yam were making 
six 1.5 meter stretches per minute. The operatives are paid a fixed 
price per day and get a premium for production over that required. 
For 2,000 spindles there were employed one spinner, three piecers, and 
one boy. The spinner was paid 45 centimes an hour, each of the 
piecers 35 centimes an hour, and the boy 20 centimes an hour. With 
the addition of the premium the spinner's wages, when the work is 
running well, will reach 6 francs a day, each piecer about 4J francs, 
and the boy about 2.75 francs. 

RING SPINNING. 

The ring frames have five top rollers, of which three are " carry- 
ing " rollers. Running on yarn measuring 30,000 meters a kilo the 
production required when running with good grade material was 70 
kilos a day per side of 170 spindles, and I lounathe speed of the front 
roller to be 101 revolutions per minute. When lower grade qualities 
are used the required production figure is reduced, sometimes down 
to 40 kilos for the same number as a fi)ve. One girl runs one side, does 
her own doffing, and is paid 22 francs a week with a premium on work 
over that required, which occasionally gives her one or two francs per 
week more. 

Some of the ring spinning frames in this factory, instead of having 
the usual band driving for spindles, were run by means of a line of 
bevel gears on each side, which geared with other bevels on the Icmff 
spindles. This gives a positive drive without slip. The spinner said 
tnat it was not a new, but an older system, and that the newer frames 
all had the regular band driving from drum to spindle whirl, as it 
Pjermitted of higher speed. All the spindles in this factory, both 
ring and twister, were fitted with knee brakes for stopping the spindle 
while piecing up. 

Part of the yam was sold in the single and part twisted. In the 
latter case the bobbins were put on a douoler where two ends were run 
together on cones without twisting and then each cone run off sepa- 
rately to a bobbin on a twister, thereby twisting together the two ends. 
There were employed 450 hands in this factory and part of the 
factory, employing 100 men, worked at night, the remamder of the 
work being mostly that of women and girls working daytime only. 



24 



FRENCH WOOLEN INDUSTRY. 



WEAVING METHODS. 

At a 500-loom woolen weave mill, I found that the yam was bought 
on the cop, run on to cheeses and these placed in a warper creel, same 
as spools, warped, slashed, drawn in, and woven; the dyeing, nap- 

Eing, etc., being done by another firm. For drawing-in a man and 
oy working together on 5-hamess work were paid 35 centimes per 
1,000 ends, and made together about 5 francs a day. Looms were 
mostly 140 centimeters wide and ran about 110 picks per minute aver- 
age. The speed varied above or below this, according to the quality 
of wool being worked. On some of the " bon marche '' or very cheap 
grades of goods being made the speed was 100 picks or less per 
minute. There was one weaver to each loom. On looms one meter 
wide the speed was given me as 150 picks per minute for good grade 
of wool and weavers ran two looms, in some cases only one. The 
wages received by the weavers was stated by the management to vary 
between 18 and 30 francs a week, according to their ability and the 
class of work they were on, the average skifled weaver making about 
25 francs a week. 

The productions of the Roubaix factories vary between articles 
made of pure merino wool elaborately worked and finished and arti- 
cles made of cheap grade wools with a mixture of rag wool, wool ex- 
tract, or cotton. Some factories require a much higher grade of 
skilled labor than others and have to pay accordingly. 

SCALES OF WAGES. 

To compare the wages obtained by wool workers in various coun- 
tries, it will be readily imderstood, can only be done in a general way. 
Even where averages can be ascertained approximately it has to 
be borne in mind that the amount and quality of the work required 
for the different classes of operatives will vary in the different coun- 
tries ; for instance, a girl ring spinner in some places will only spin, 
in other places she also has to ao her own doffing, etc. Though ex- 
actly accurate comparisons can not be made, yet by taking the average 
wages as computed by active manufacturers in the leading centers 
of the industry in the various countries, the general level of wa|^ 
can be brought out clearly enough to be of value. In the followmg 
table, comparing Italy, France, and England, the figures for the 
first two countries were obtained personally at Biella and Boubaix. 
and Bradford wage tables and textile publications have been reliea 
on for the last. The figures in lire, francs (lira or franc = 19.3 
cents), and shillings (shilling = 24.3 cents) are as follows for the 
average weekly wages paid in worsted day work : 



Sorters 

Washers or dyers 

Carders 

Gill boxes , 

Comb minders 

Boss spinner 

Mule spinner 

Ring spinner 

Wenvera 

Fullers and pressers 



Italy. 


France. 


Lire. 


Francs. 


21 to 27 


80 to 36 


12 to 18 


18 to 24 


9 to 15 


18 to 24 


9 to 15 


16 to 22 


9 to 15 


16 to 22 


36 


48 


27 to 3:i 


27 to 86 


9 to 15 


20 to 22 


12 to 18 


18 to 80 


16 to 20 


20 to 24 



ShWings. 
28 to 82 
20 to 26 
14 to 20 
11 to 14 

11 to 14 

60 

24 to 36 

9 to 16 

12 to 20 
20 to 80 



MANUFACTUBINQ OPERATIONS. 



25 



Reducing the foregoing to dollars and comparing with average 
American wages in the worsted industry the following table is 
obtained : 



Sorters 

Washers or dyers 

Carders 

Gill boxes 

Comb minders 

Boss spinner 

Mule spinner 

Ring spinner 

Weavers 

Fullers and p reisers 



Italy. 
$4.60 


France. 


England. 


16.40 


r7.80 


3.00 


4.25 


5.60 


2.30 


4.00 


8.90 


2.30 


3.70 


3.00 


2.30 


3.70 


3.00 


7.00 


9.25 


12.00 


5.80 


6.20 


7.30 


2.30 


4.00 


8.00 


3.00 


4.60 


4.00 


3.50 


4.25 


6.00 



United 
States. 



$12.60 
7.00 
6.00 
6.00 
6.00 
18.00 
9.50 
6.00 
9.00 
7.00 



The cost of living is cheapest to the operative in Italy, higher in 
England, still higher in France, and highest in the United States; 
the wages are lowest in Italy, higher in France and England, and 
highest in the United States; the productive efficiency of the opera- 
tive is lowest in Italy, higher in France, still higher in England, 
and highest in the United States. 



BRITISH WOOLEN INDUSTRY. 



27 



WOOL WORKING INDUSTRY* 



TENACIOUS HOLD OF BRITISH MANUFACTURERS ON THE TRADE — CON- 
STANTLY SEEKING NEW MARKETS IN THE WORLD. 

Wool is grown more or less in all quarters of the globe, but is 
mainly manufactured in Great Britain, United States, Germany, 
France, and Belgium. 

At the beginning of the eighteenth century woolen goods made up 
two-thirds of En^and's exports, and until after the middle of the 
eighteenth century it was the leading industry. With the invention 
of the steam engine and the great development of automatic me- 
chanical appliances resulting therefrom wool was removed, from the 
premier position and cotton became king. The cotton industry of 
(jreat Britain is now twice as important as the woolen industry, and 
it is increasing at a more rapid rate, which in large measure is due 
to the fact that cotton manuiacturers sell to the world, while woolen 
manufacturers still rely largely on their home market. It is esti- 
mated that 80 per cent of England's cottons are sold abroad and only 
40 per cent of its woolens. Wool, however, still holds the second 
place, and England still leads the world in the manufacture and ex- 
port of wool. 

The French treaty of 1860 greatly aided the trade with France, 
and then the American civil war by curtailing the use of cotton gave 
a great temporary impetus. The Franco-German war paralyzed com- 
petition, and for a short period England supplied the wool-goods de- 
mands of the world, reaching in 1872 the as yet unexceeded high- 
water mark of exports of wool manufactures of $195^093,070. The 
industry being then developed in the United States, Germany, and 
France there ensued a period of depression for the English manu- 
facturers, but from this they gradually recovered by securing new 
markets and by specializing in certain lines. The direction in which 
this stream of goods has been diverted is shown by the fact that in 
1872 one-fourth of the woolen exports were taken by Germany alone, 
nearly one- fourth by the United States, and that less than one-eighth 
went to British possessions; while in 1907 over one-fourth went to 
British possessions, as compared with less than one-tenth to the 
United States and Germany together. In this twenty-five year period 
shipments of British woolen manufactures to the United States, Ger- 
many, France, Italy, and the Continent in general have decreased, 
while they have very largely increased to Canada, Australia, India, 
Japan, and Argentina. 

VALUE OF THE TRADE. 

From 1890 to 1901 the number of operatives in the wool industry 
in Great Britain decreased from 301,556 to 284,441. There are many 
who say that as the decrease was almost entirely of half-timers and 
youthful workers under 20, and as per machine and per operative 



80 BRITISH WOOLEN INDUSTRY. 

there is a much greater output now than formerly, the industry itself 
did not lose ground. At any rate, there was no progress. From 1901 
to 1907 there was an increasing consumption of wool and a rapidly 
expanding export trade, but there are no statistics to show the present 
number of operatives. The value of the export of wool and worsted 
manufactures from the United Kingdom fell from $142,000,000 in 
1890 to $112,000,000 in 1894. Many causes contributed to bring 
about this decrease, among them the fact that in this period British 
wool dropped 9 per cent in value and foreign imported wools 17 
per cent m value. British wool and worsted goods exports reached 
$149,000,000 in 1895 and $143,000,000 in 1896. In 1901 the value of 
the exports dropped to $114,000,000, since which time the manufac- 
turers nave adjusted themselves to changed conditions in the United 
States and found new markets, resulting in an export trade in 1907 
of $185,600,000. 

In studying the trend of the industry it is found that the percent- 
age of cross-bred wool is steadily increasing, that the percentage of 
reworked or rag wool is increasing, and that the percentage of Eng- 
lish wool is decreasing. The price per pound oi wool steadily de- 
creased from 1872 to 1901, since which foreign wool has made a 
substantial advance and English wool a very large advance. The 
amount of cotton used in the wool trade is steadily increasing. In 
1903 it was estimated that 100,000,000 pounds of cotton was used 
in the wool industry, of which 45,000,000 pounds were used in woolens 
and 55,000,000 pounds in worsteds. Bradford stuffs are made mainly 
with cotton warps, and a large amount of the cotton used for this 
purpose is Egyptian. 

CHANGING DEMANDS. 

The width and weight of wool goods is increasing, so that a linear 
yard as used in the export statistics means more than it did formerly. 
This is due partly to the fact that the raw material and the cost of 
manufacture per pound has been decreasing, and also to the fact 
that goods over 54 inches in width are more economical to manufac- 
ture and also more economical to cut up. The export of woolen tis- 
sues as a whole is increasing, while the export or worsted tissues is 
decreasing. In 1890, for instance, there were exported 56,485,600 
yards of woolen tissues and 172,420,500 yards or worsted tissues, 
while in 1907 there were exported 84,800,700 yards of woolen tissues 
and only 99,016,200 yards oi worsteds, an increase in the former case 
of 48.4 per cent and a decrease in the latter case of 42.6 per cent. 

English manufacturers recently began to supply their home trade 
in many lines that they had heretofore left to foreign countries, and 
they were led to make specialities for which in time they found a 
new market abroad. The import of foreign wool manufactures into 
England was steadily increasmg until 1897, when they amounted to 
$49,897,500, being mostly specialties that were not maae in England, 
but since then the English manufacturers have beg[un working on 
these lines, and imports have steadily decreased until they are now 
only $34,101,170. 

There is an increasing demand both at home and abroad for fre- 
quent changes in style, so that though improved machinery has cur- 
tailed the operatives required per pound in the preliminary working 



WOOL WOBKING INDUSTRY. 81 

processes it has increased the number of operatives in other branches 
of the industiT. ^ The^ work of the designer, the pattern weaver, the 
dyer, and the finisher is now a larger percentage oi the total cost than 
ever before, and as numerous small orders of many designs are now 
received instead of a few lar^e orders of plain goods, a much larger 
staff is needed to handle and sell the goods. Formerly the weaver 
was required to deliver the piece perfect into the taking-in room, but 
owing to the great variety of makes and more complicated designs 
this is now impossible, and factories now have to employ very large 
numbers of menders and burlers. 

RAW MATERIAL AND ITS UTILIZATION. 

Heretofore England has almost boycotted South American wools on 
account of its burry quality and has used almost entirely Australasian 
wools. The Continent, on the other hand, has almost monopolized the 
South American wool, and by using the *' French process '' has been 
able to make good yarns of this cheaper material and to sell them at 
prices that the English could not touch. In large part, owing to this 
fact, England excels in men's goods, but France and other Continental 
countries in the softer women's goods. Less than a fifth of the wool 
imported into England is of foreign growth, while France, Belgium, 
and Germany use South American and similar wools to the extent of 
nearly half their requirements. The specific weight of these wools is 
less than that of a similar quality of Australian, and therefore the 
Argentine crossbreds work up closer and -make a better faced cloth. 
They are shorter stapled and therefore better adapted for worsteds 
and to blend with mermos than long bright New Zealand wools. They 
are deficient in handle to Australian wools, but are cheaper, and as 
Continental manufacturers have made a special study of how to treat 
and finish goods made therefrom they have been enabled not only to 
make cheap tops, but to make well-finished cloths at a price that de- 
fied competition. The English have recently found that they were 
making a mistake in refusing to use South American wools and that it 
was resulting not only in their losing opportunities in foreign mar- 
kets, but also in their home market, so that they are now beginning to 
adapt themselves to their use, and the small importations of Argen- 
tine and Uruguay wools are increasing. 

HANDLING THE WOOL. 

In studying the handling of the wool between the OTower and the 
manufacturer in the case of the English trade, it Is found that only 
the Enfflish and the Australasian wools need be considered, the 
former Toeing sold at auctions held at stated intervals in various 
towns, especially London, and the latter being sold either at London 
or, according to the system now coming into use, in the Colonies. 
Much of the South American wool is bought by commission buyers 
or by representatives of European firms in open market at Buenos 
Aires, Montevideo, or Punta Arenas^ who then ship direct to the 
manufacturers or else resell at Roubaix or Antwerp ; but as neither 
England nor the United States uses much of this wool, 90 per cent 
of it goin^ to the Continent, it is not necessary to go into the specific 
terms of these sales in this article. 



82 



BRITISH WOOLEN INDUSTRY. 



It will be noted first where England obtains her raw material. The 
import of wool and other animal fibers into Great Britain in 1907 was 
as follows: 



Sheep and lambs' 
wool: 

Australia 

New Zealand 

South Africa 

British India.... 
Argentina and 

Uruguay 

France 

Chile 

All others.. 



i 



Quantity. 



Pounds. 
321,470,654 
168,406,266 
91,606,138 
46,683,905 

46,147,603 
24,486,763 
20.704,208 
49,731,919 



Value. 



$70,991,047 

37,262,854 

16.096,372 

7,056,206 

9,444,670 
6,781,694 
3,480,964 
8,480,954 



Quantity. 



Value. 



Other animal fibers: Pounds. , 

Mohair I 31,334,401 $9,868,508 

Camels hair 9,952,671 1,691,934 

Alpaca, vicuna, 

5,049,380 1 1,837,835 



and llama. 
Wool waste and 
flocks , 



Total. 



2,546,555 



324,367 



808,120,252 



172,223,162 



Only a portion of these materials are manufactured separately, the 
majority being mixed with cotton, silk, or shoddv. 

The British cotton trade is dependent on the United States for its 
main supply of raw materials, taking only a portion from Egypt and 
a trifle irom India, but the British wool trade is independent of for- 
eign sources of supply. Of the 759,237,245 pounds of wool imported 
in 1907, it is seen tnat 622,104,166 pounds, or 82 per cent, were obtained 
within the bounds of the British Empire, and ii consideration is given 
to the total amount of wool manufactured in Great Britain, including 
the home supply and taking into account the exports and reexports, it 
is discovered that only a fifth to a fourth is of foreign origin. 

PRICES PAro FOR THE PRODUCT, 

The average prices paid for home and imported wools in Great 
Britain for the past twenty vears will be given, and then the commer- 
cial organizations for handling wool in the home and the colonial 
markets will be shown. The average prices for the main home and 
imported wools have been as follows, in cents, per pound : 



Ycfir. 



I 



Home wools. 



188S 
18M« 

1S9J 

imi 

183ft 

\m\ 

18S7 

1895 
190(1 
1901 
190-2 
1903 
19<H 
1905 
1900 
1907 



m 
m 
m 
10 

30 
2Gf 
IM 
Iftj 
11^ 

m 
m 

ID 

n 
m 

23 
2h 



20 
2tf 



20( 

m 
m 



m 

2A 
23 

nk 

211 
21 



2», W{ 

m W 



Hi 

m 

15 
19 
241 

271 



Ml 
22 

191 

m 
m 

24 

191 
171 

w m 

20 I ISf 



m 
m 

2IJ 
2^1 



131 

m 
m 

21 
25 



'^1 

m 
*M 

25 
24 

23 
2-Ji 
3U 
20i 
IB I 

m 

Hi 

m: 

2& 
271 
2Sl 



c 



Imported wools. 



s i 



1 



ni' 

HI 

nj 
111! 

11 

lor 

m 

m 

lOj 

* 
Hi 

lAt- 
17 , 

ml 






m 
n 

20 
171 
I7i 

le 

161 
181 

m 

211 

10 
36 
24 

27 
27 

m 



u 
m 

15 
131 
12 
12 

lot 

lU 
121 
12 
131 

17 

m 



5^ 



j li 



12il U 



17 
IS 

m; 
la 



IBi 

i9i 

21 
2D 



12 

m 

lU 

ic 

?i 

H 

u 
111 

12 

m 
m 

18 



n 






U 
15 

m 
u 
:ai 

H 

13 
14 

H 
l'2k 

u 
lU 

" 

la 

m 
1* 
m 
1$ 

17 



i 




N 




< 








*a 




33 


t2 


<fl ir 


'd 


fL 








< 


^ 


m 


2fl 


m 


93^ 


m 


3U 


27 


2)6 


27 


361 



2W. 

St 

23 

:» ' 

30! 
2t| 
28i 

as I 
an 



aoi 

29 
44 

411 

3*21 

34 

38 

371 

3« 

30 

2>*1 

291 

291 

321 



361| 341 



WOOL WORKING INDUSTBY. 88 

These figures show clearly the almost continuous decline in wool 
values down to about 1901 and the remarkable rise that has taken 
place since. This rise has been due to several causes, but especially to 
the cramping of the wool supply of the world due to the Australian 
drought. It seems that the world's wool growth has reached its 
limit. In Europe the wool supply has not increased for thirty years 
and in several countries has declined. Unsettled conditions tor a 
time prevented any expansion in South Africa, and the system of 
small growers does not give promise of any substantial increase 
soon. In Argentina the farmer is steadily encroaching on the wool- 
grower and cattle and corn are supplantmg sheep; also, malignant 
sheep diseases are rife, especially the " foot-and-mouth disease '' and 
the deadly " lombriz " or bronchial worm. 

Australia now has artesian wells and other means of combating the 
drought, but this factor will always have to be reckoned with in that 
country, and the mutton trade, not to mention the gradual settling 
up of the country, will tend to prevent any rapid advance. In the 
United States pasturage is being disputed between the cattle rancher 
and the sheep grower, grazing lands are being cultivated, forest re- 
serves developed, and legal restrictions passed to prevent the former 
extensive migrations, so that there is not much prospect of any sub- 
stantial increase in this quarter. Both England and the United 
States are yearly forced to buy more and more in the international 
markets. 

SHEEP-RAISING INDUSTRY. 

In 18G8 the flocks of the United Kingdom reached 35,000.000; in 
1907 they were estimated at 29,500,000. The United Kingdom car- 
ries more sheep in proportion to its area than any other country, but 
the demand for mutton and lamb will not permit of much increase, 
even if the size of the country were not taken into consideration. 
The majority of the sheep are raised for mutton rather than wool. 

Owing to their .system of mixed farming sheep are to be found in 
every country in England, and only seven counties contain less than 
100.000 each. Yorkshire has 1,750,000, Lincoln and Northumberland 
over 1,000,000 each, and Devon and Kent over 800,000. Scotland 
has about 7,000,000, Ireland 4,000,000, and Wales 3,500.000. The 
English wools are- divided into the long, coarse, lustrous wools, of 
which the most important are the Lincolns and Leicester, the Cots- 
wolds, and the Romney Marsh, all of which are crossed more or less 
with each other; and the fine, short-wools, of which the South Down 
is the most important. The English fleeces run from an average 
of 14J pounds, unwashed, Leicester and Lincoln (average washed, 
lOJ pounds) to 3^ pounds, unwashed, for the Welsh sheep (2} pounds 
washed fleeces). For 1907 the home clip of Great Britain was esti- 
mated at 130,500,000 pounds, of which 34,500,000 pounds were ex- 
ported, leaving only 96,000,000 pounds for home use. The United 
States is the most important buyer of English wool, the value being 
several times as much as the American purchases of English wool 
manufactures. The Irish clip especially is largely taken by the 
United States, and in some years this is almost monopolized. 

The home trade in English wools is carried on by means of auc- 
tions in various towns, especially those of London, Leicester, and 

II. Doc. i:WO. (R)-2 3 



84 BBITISH WOOLEN INDUSTRY. 

Bradford, and direct purchase of wool by the manufacturer from the 
grower is rare. The middleman, who is equipped to supply a great 
variety of different qualities, is a necessity. Among the spinners it 
has become customary, especially with the smaller ones, to buy tops 
rather than wool. The tops may be bought direct from a top maker 
or from a merchant, who buys the wool, has it combed on commission, 
and then sells the tops to the worsted manufacturer and the noils 
to a woolen manufacturer. In such cases the wool merchant usually 
does not buy the wool until he has sold the tops to be made therefrom. 
Buying tops from wool merchants is often financially more con- 
venient to the spinner, for when buying wool he has to pay cash, 
whereas the merchant will frequently give him four or even six 
months' time. This credit system is being broken down, but is still 
in force in many cases. In the English top markets there are no 
" futures," or " terme " dealings, as they are called on the Continent, 
but there is much future delivery business where spinners call for 
regular deliveries of so much per month and do not pay until deliv- 
ery. The best spinners prefer to buy and sort their own wool, as 
otherwise there are frequently much cheaper Soutli American grades 
mixed in, and once combed it is almost impossible to determme of 
what clip the top is made. 

MARKETING COLONIAL WOOL. 

In the sale of colonial wool the most striking feature at present is 
the fight going on between London and the colonial towns as auction 
centers, and in this fight London is steadily losing. Formerly there 
was only one selling center — London — and in 1875 practically all 
the colonial wool came on the auction floor of the great Wool Ex- 
change, at Coleman street, but in 1890 only 60 per cent of the Aus- 
tralian clip was sold in London, and to-day only about one-third of 
the Australian and one-half of the New Zealand are sold there. 

London has an advantage because of the fact that it handles wool 
from all over the world and is not confined to any one clip, but as 
the bulk of the spinners use only Australian wool this is not such a 

freat advantage. In London every bale of wool sold is required to 
e shown, while in Australia only 10 per cent. Sales in London are 
strictly for cash, the buyer having to pay in seven days and to re- 
move the wool within fourteen days. The selling brokers charge 
one-half per cent to the importer, who passes the charge on to his 
Australian client, while the manufacturer pays one- fourth per cent to 
the buying broker. 

Formerly not only the English but the Continental and American 
manufacturers bought colonial wools only through the London mar- 
ket. Now there is an increasing tendency toward direct sales, which 
has been very welcome to the Australian grower as relieving him of 
the heavy charges he formerly had to pay for numerous middlemen 
and for London dock charges and also giving him quicker returns. 
Transporting the wool from the interior of Australia to the shipping 
port frequently took several months by way of the flat river boats or 
DuUock carts, and then another six months, probably, before the wool 
was sold in London, making in many cases a year before the grower 
got his final returns, during which period he was paying interest on 
advances by banks. The grower first delivered his wool to the car- 



WOOL WORKING INDUSTRY. 85 

rier, who carted it to Sydney or Melbourne. Here the banker had it 
appraised by a valuer and advanced on it, and, the wool, then being 
under the control of the bank, was turned over to a shipper, who 
transported it to London, where there were incurred dock and ware- 
house charges of about 4 shillings (97 cents) a bale; one-half per 
cent commission was paid to the selling broker, and then 1 per cent 
to the colonial merchant, who was also responsible to the bank for 
deficiencies. Finally, if there was anything left after deducting all 
charges and advances, it was turned over by the bank to the grower. 
This method is still followed in some cases, but as the Continental 
and American buyers go to Australia more and more every year to 
buy direct the English buvers have been forced to adopt the samcj 
plan and the percentage oi London sales continually decreases. 

CX)ST OF SELLING. 

The increasing financial facilities of Australia permit the financing 
of wool transactions at as good rates, sometimes better, than can be 
done through London. England sells large quantities of goods to 
Australia for which gold bullion would have to be sent home by the 
banks at 25 shillings per £100, or 1^ per cent. Suppose an English 
topmaker desires to buy direct. The Australian banks, to save the 
above exchange, will give the seller a sixty days' after sight draft 
(besides the five or six weeks for mailing hlefore invoices and drafts 
arrive to sight) for a nominal exchange, usually about one-half per 
cent, though sometimes for nothing. If it is done at one-half per 
cent, the topmaker is getting accommodation at less than 2 per cent 
per annum and running no risk. Knowing when his wool is to ar- 
rive, the topmaker can sell tops to the spinner for future delivery 
and be out his capital only durmg the time necessary to manufacture. 
The spinner in turn has sold for future delivery to the manufacturer. 
This system permits of lower prices to all concerned than if the top- 
maker had to pay spot cash at the London auctions and borrow at 
London rates. 

The direct sales have been largely brought about and are mainly 
carried on by means of huge " pastoral agency associations." These 
companies combine within themselves facilities for acting as carrier, 
shipper, banker, seller, and supply agent. They take the wool from 
the grower, carry it to the nearest port, and sell at auction, remitting 
immediately to the grower, or else they buy outright and then ship to 
London or direct to the manufacturer. To-day after raising the wool 
a grower pays for shearing and other charges 2 to 3 cents a pound, 
and then, if selling in Sydnej^, about 1 cent for selling charges, so 
that his total expense after raising the wool will not be over 3 to 4 
cents a pound. By the old method it was much larger. The possi- 
bility now of a quick turnover is a very important factor, as it is 
tending to gradually break up the vast ranch system by inducing 
many smaller men to start in on their own account. 

NEW SHIPPING COMPANIES IN AUSTRALIA. 

There are four of these large omnibus companies selling wool in 
Australia [names on file in the Bureau of Manufactures], and also 
numerous smaller ones. Recently there have been formed large 



36 BRITISH WOOLEN INDUSTRY. 

farmers' cooperative associations, by means of which the growers 
themselves sell direct to the manufacturers. 

As London is gradually eliminated, wool is going direct to Conti- 
nental ports and to Yorkshire. Formerly Yorkshire bought through 
London entirely and reshipments were usually by rail, but already 
Hull, Goole, and, to a smaller extent, Grimsby are becoming impor- 
tant landing places for wool, and the small takings of South America 
are also beginning to come in by way of Liverpool and some through 
the Manchester Ship Canal. The Humber and the Mersey will event- 
ually supplant the Thames in this trade. 

The London sales are divided into six series — January, March. 
May, July, September, and November — but with the increase oi 
direct shipments it is considered probable that the London winter 
sales in November and January may in a few years be dropped, as 
they conflict with the chief summer sales in Australia. 

POSITION OCCUPIED BY MIDDLE3IEN. 

In considering the time and discounts allowed in the sale of Brit- 
ish woolen and worsted yarns and goods it is ascertained that there 
is no uniform system owing to the fact that the trade is large, com- 
plex, and fluctuating. There is much less uniformity than prevails 
m the cotton trade, and the trade is much more affected by the vaga- 
ries of fashion. The home demand is much more important than the 
export demand; in the former trade a very large amount of the busi- 
ness is done on a direct basis, but in the latter middlemen are still 
a necessity. 

Between the worsted spinner and the manufacturer there is ordi- 
narily no middleman, such as is common in the cotton-yarn trade, and 
the sales are made direct. The manufacturer in this case buys yam 
either for delivery on a fixed date or else for " delivery as required,** 
in which latter case the trade understanding is that two-thirds of the 
contract must be completed within six months and the remainder 
within a further three months. The terms of sale vary, but are 
usually short, monthly settlements with a discount being the most 
common. 

In the export of yarn some of the spinners sell to foreign buyers 
at the mill and some of the largest spinners do their own exporting, 
but this is not customary, and most of the spinners making export 
yarns have no direct relations with the foreign purchaser, selling to 
export firms located at Bradford. These export firms are them- 
selves in many cases of foreign origin. In selling yarn to a Bradford 
export merchant the usual terms are that all sales during a month 
are to be paid for, with a 2^ per cent discount, on the second Thurs- 
day of the following month in a fourteen days' draft on a London 
bank. The export merchants selling in their turn to foreign coun- 
tries have no fixed system of payments, as their rules have to be flexi- 
ble enough to meet the widely varying demands of different countries. 

DIRECT SALES AND SHIPMENTS. 

In the sale of wool manufactures the goods, whether for home or 
foreign consumption, formerly went through the hands of merchant 
firms who specialized in woolens or worsteds, but as the trade has 



WOOL WORKING INDUSTRY. 87 

grown larger and more intricate this class of middlemen has dropped 
out and been replaced by mercantile houses handling all varieties 
of textiles, which supply small clothiers^ drapers, and small retailers. 
Much of the home trade is now done direct without any middleman 
whatever by the manufacturers selling to the large clothiers at Lon- 
don, Leeds, etc. Only the smaller clothiers are now supplied by deal- 
ers, and the large retailers also find it more profitable to buy direct. 
The terms of sale in the home trade vary according to the section 
and the specialty, as well as according to individual agreements. The 
longest terms seem to be those of the Scotch tweed trade, where the 
customary terms of sale are six months' credit plus an additional 
four months' bill and then 2^ per cent allowed for cash. In the great 
clothing center of Leeds the system of payment is equivalent to about 
four months' time, as the spring goods delivered in January are sup- 

Sosed to be paid for in May and the winter goods delivered about 
uly are supposed to be paid for in November. In the Bradford dis- 
trict long time is exceptional and usually monthly payments are 
demanded, a discount being given ; and in many cases sales are made, 
with a larger discount, for cash in seven days. 

METHODS OF PLACING ORDERS. 

In exporting wool manufactures a few of the larger manufacturers 
do their own exporting, but this is not usual. Some, sell to foreign 
buyers who make trips every season to the mills to inspect the new 
styles being gotten out, but the bulk of the export trade is in the 
hands of the " export merchants " and of the " shippers.'' The dif- 
ference between the two is that the " export merchants " make their 
own selections from the season's samples submitted b}^ the mills, order 
goods made to sample, and trust to their own judgment of being able 
to dispose of them abroad, while the " shipper " forwards the sam- 
ples received from the mills to his agents abroad and only orders 
foods to be made by the mills when he has received specific orders, 
toth handle the export trade on their own account, but the latter is 
a safer business in so far as it calls for less capital and risk, and 

E rices can frequently be shaded closer, but the merchant exporter gets 
is goods on the field first and so frequently gets the trade over the 
cheaper goods that can not be delivered until later. 

Only in certain limited branches of the wool trade is it permissible 
to " make to stock," as is done in the cotton trade, and the great bulk 
of the goods are *' made to order." In selling to the export merchant 
the manufacturer Fells by the season, as above noted, for the Leeds 
home trade — that is, two yearly payments, with 2i per cent discount. 
Ii\ selling to the shipper, who does not have to tie up so much money 
as does the export merchant, the manufacturers usually require 
monthly payments. 



WOOL COMBING. 



A BRITISH MONOPOLY IN PRODUCING WORSTEDS ^A LARGE WOOL COMBERS 

TRUST. 

The manufacture of worsteds in Great Britain is almost exclusively 
a monopoly of the West Riding of Yorkshire, and factories manu- 
facturing wool in other parts oi the country are mainly for woolens. 
Wool combing, which is a process only employed for worsted yams, 
naturally centers in this West Riding, which, according to the in- 
spectors' reports of 1904, contains all except 278 of the 2,924 wool 
combs of Great Britain. Combing on commission is not as large a 
business in England as in France or Belgium, but is yet of consider- 
able size. The bulk of the mills that do combing on commission 
have been bought up and amalgamated into one company called the 
" Woolcombers, Limited," of Bradford. This company owns 23 
branch mills, which contain from 8 to 34 combs each, with a total of 
434. These are practically all Noble combs, there being only 6 
Heilmann combs and a very few of other types among the total. 
There are some firms outside of this association that do combing on 
commission, but as this association embraces a seventh of all the 
combs of the country it embraces the bulk of all those open for com- 
mission work, and the prices fixed by this association are accepted 
by all. ^ i' y y 

PRICES FOR COMBING ON COMMISSION. 

The product of wool combs are "tops" and "noils." The tops 
are the long-fibered slivers which have been combed out parallel and 
wound up into balls weighing about 7 pounds each, ready for draw- 
ing and spinning. The noils are the short fibers that have been 
combed away from the long fibers, and are unfit to be used for 
worsted. The noils are used m the woolen trade. The wool combers 
take the wool and deliver back the finished tops and the noils made 
therefrom. Their prices are interesting for comparison with those 
in the United States, for thev include the total costs of such work 

?lus a profit. Recently they have increased their standard prices by 
i per cent. 

The present (October, 1908) standard prices in pence per pound, 
to which 7i per cent is now added, by trie Woolcombers, Limited, 
of Bradford, for combing on commission, are as follows converted 
into American currency : 



Pence. 

East Indian, Egyptian, and kin- 
dred wools: 
Whites- 
Tearing 6 to 1 and over- 2i 
Tearing 4 to 1 and under 

6 to 1 3 

Tearing under 4 to 1_— _. 31 
Greys — 

Tearing 6 to 1 and over.. 3 
Tearing 4 to 1 and under 

6 to 1 31 

Tearing under 4tol 3i 



Pence. 
Medium crossbreds (minimum 
price; burring one-eighth ex- 
tra) : 
30s to 46s— 

Tearing 6 to 1 and over__ 2i 

Tearing under G to 1 2f 

50s 3 

56s 3i 

Merinos : 

Tearing over 5 to 1 4 

Tearing between 4 and 5 to l-_ 4J 
Tearing between 3 and 4 to 1 *_ 5 



^ Under 3 by special arrangement ; burring one-fourth extra. 
38 



WOOL COMBING. 



89 



Pence. 

Merino laps 4J 

Crossbred laps 3i 

Shearlings, low locks, etc.: Mini- 
mum price 4 

Low foreign wools: 

Tearing over 7 to 1 3 

Tearing between 4 and 7 to 1> 3i 

Tearing between 3 and 4 to 1_ 3i 

Tearing under 3 to 1 4^ 



Pence. 
Camel hair: 

Firsts, second Chinas, and sec- 
ond Russian 3} 

Third China and Russian 3| 

Minimum price for double 

combing ! 5i 

Alpaca and mohair: 

Tearing 6 to 1 and over 21 

Tearing under C to 1 3 

Vap mohair : Any tear 3i 

All mixtures are considered as low foreign wools and are charged 
accordingly. 

SPINNING ON COMMISSION. 

Spinning on commission is not as large a business in Yorkshire as 
combing on commission, but the total amount thus done is consider- 
able. A good many mills prefer to buy and sort their own wool to 
be certain of getting exactly the quality and staple desired in their 
product, and thejr may comb also, or else have the combing done on 
commission, but if they use a great varietjr of yarns they find it pays 
them to have at least a portion of their spinning done on commission 
by some outside spinning mill. This is convenient for many reasons, 
and a mill which does its own combing, sorting, and weaving, but, 
say, only half its spinning, is able to change quicker to meet the 
fluctuating demands of the market than if they were entirely self- 
contained. Supposing the mill only contains " cap " spinning, then 
they spin most of the nonlustrous yams that they use, but the portion 
of yarn made from the lustrous wools that is required will be spun 
in some outside mill containing " flyer " spindles, and if woolen yam 
is also required this is spun in some mill containing " mule " spindles. 

Many mills use cotton warps and worsted weft in the Bradford 
district, so that it is usually worsted weft that is thus spun on com- 
mission. Where there is only one special lot to be spun a price may be 
named per pound, but where a manufacturer has more or less spin- 
ning done on commission regularly he is usually charged for this by 
the°' gross of hanks," irrespective of the number within a reasonable 
range. In Bradford a " gross of hanks " means 144 hanks of 560 yards 
each, and worsted weft yarns are usually traded in by this quantity, 
the weight in each case, of course, depending on the counts. 

PRICE FOR SPINNING WORSTED WEFT YARNS. 

One of the largest manufacturers in the Bradford district says that 
the present commission price he is charged for having his worsted 
weft yarns spun on commission is 16 pence or 32 cents a gross. He says 
some firms are getting this done at 15 pence, but 16 pence is the 
present regular price among the higher class spinners. He said that 
this is the uniform price he pays for any numbers from 8s to 60s 
worsted weft yarns, his mill supplying the tops and receiving back 
the finished yam. This price is oasecTon the gross of hanks lie re- 
ceives in return. It is agreed that the amount of waste shall not be 
over one-eighth. This manufacturer also said that in spinning simi- 
lar numbers in his own mill he figured on 18 pence as covering similar 
charges, including waste. 



40 



BRITISH WOOLEN INDUSTRY. 



To ascertain the weight of a gross of hanks of any given count 
divide 144 by the count and the result is the weight in pounds. Thus 
if No. 8s worsted weft is spun on commission at 16 pence or 32 cents 
per gross, we find that the weight so spun is 144 divided by 8, or 18 
pounds, which is 0.89 penny or 1.78 cents a pound. Similarly for 
other numbers from 8s to 60s at 16 pence per gross the commission 
price for spinning per pound works out as follows, reduced to Ameri- 
can currency : 



Worsted weft. 


Spinning 
price per 
pound. 


I 

' Worsted weft. 


Spinning 
price per 
pound. 


Worsted weft. 


Spinning 
price per 
pound. 


88 


Centf. 
1.78 
2.22 
2.66 
3.10 
3.64 
4.00 
4.44 
4.88 
5.3. 


1 26s 


Cents. 
5.76 
6.22 
6.66 
7 10 


1 

l44s 


Cents. 
9.76 


lOs 


28s 


46s 


10.22 


12s 


30s 


48s 


10.66 


14s 


328 


60s 


11.10 


16a 


348 


7.54 
8.00 
8.4t 
8.88 
9.32 


62s 


11.54 


188 


36s 


{v4s 


12.00 


208 


38s 


568 


12.44 


228 


40s 


68s 


12.88 


248 


, 42.S 


60s 


15.82 









WAGES m YORESHIRL 



EXTENT AND LOCATION OF MILLS — ^AGE AND SEX OF OPERATIVES — 
RATES OF WAGES AND COST OF LIVING. 

To give a clear idea of the unit cost of production in the various 
processes employed in the wool industry in Great Britain is a very 
difficult matter. It would be much simpler in the case of cotton 
manufacturing, as the machines and processes in that industry have 
become standardized and uniform wage schedules are made up 
between organizations of manufacturers and organizations of workers. 
In the wool industry there is not only a great difference between the 
two branches of woolen manufacturing and worsted manufacturing, 
but in each case there is wide room for variations in methods and in 
number of machines employed. 

There is a great variety of materials employed and in the qualities 
and proportions of mixture of these materials, with consequent varia- 
tion m production per machine; and as neither the employers nor the 
employees are strongly organized there is an absence of any univer- 
sally accepted wage schedules. Certain sections making certain 
classes of goods pay more than others; thus a Huddersfiela worsted 
weaver geta much more than a Bradford worsted weaver, and there 
is freguently considerable variation between mills in the town and 
mills m the country on the same class of goods. 

Weavers, warp dressers, warp twisters, reelers, and sorters are 
usually paid by piecework. Mule spinners also work by piece- 
work, for though a good many are paid by the week they are 
required to get off a certain production, which amounts to the 
same thing. Ring spinners are paid hy the "side" of so many 
spindles, but as their wajges do not vary m proportion to the counts, 
and hence the weight of the yam produced, tnis is one specific case 
where it is almost mipossible to ascertain what would be considered 
the unit cost of production. Nearly all other operatives in the wool 
industry — washers (steepers, feeders, and wasnbowl minders), gill- 
box minders, drawers, combers, doffers, dyers, finishers, etc. — work 
almost entirely by the week, and with the great variation in wages 
and in materials worked the production per operative, and hence the 
unit cost of production, is extremely dimcult to analyze even for a 
specific class of goods. 

In the following notes I shall endeavor to give an idea of the varia- 
tions of the industry according to the different sections of the West 
Riding, show the average weekly wages, and to give some lists of 
piecework prices that will enable the American manufacturer to get 
a fairly accurate idea of the wage difference between the wool worker 
in Yorkshire and in the United States. 

41 



42 BRITISH WOOLEN INDUSTRY. 

CENTERS OF THE INDUSTRY. 

According to the latest census of the industrial workers of Great 
Britain, that of 1901, there were engaged in wool, worsted, and shoddy 
manufacture 259,909 persons. Woolmanufacturing is scattered over 
very nearly the whole of the United Eangdom, but the main centers 
are the West Riding of Yorkshire, southeast and west Scotland, the 
west of England (around Worcester and Bristol), and around Roch- 
dale in Lancashire. 

York is the largest shire in England, and is divided into three 
"ridings," the wool industry being confined to the West Riding. 
The West Riding has nearly all of the worsted manufacture of Great 
Britain within its Umits, as well as the bulk of the woolen manufac- 
ture, and of the total operatives over three-fourths, amounting to 
187,204, are in this section. Within the West Riding itself the wool 
area is limited to the country embraced between tne Wharfe, the 
Calder and the Colne. Woolens are chiefly made in the east and 
south of this section, worsted in the west and north, though there is 
no sharp line of demarcation. 

Bradford is not the largest town in the West Ridings nor would its 
factories alone dominate the industry, but it has become the great 
buying and selling center and therefore the head of the industry in 
Great Britain. Bradford is a worsted district pure and simple, and 
its specialty is "stuffs" for ladies wear. In this it uses a great deal 
of cotton warps. Nearly all of the mohair, alapca, and similar 
materials used in the country are also worked in mills in and near 
Bradford. Huddersfield is also a worsted district, but its specialty 
is heavy worsteds of high grade for men's wear. It also has a good 
deal of woolen manufacture and the Colne valley above Huddersfield 
is noted for its medium priced tweeds. Leeds is the headquarters 
for the heavy woolen district, but now contains also a gooa many 
worsted mills. Dewsbury and Batley, in the Leeds section, are the 
centers for shoddy manufacturing. 1 will treat the shoddy industry 
in a separate article so wages given in this report will refer only to 
regular woolen and worsted mills. 

Yorkshire monopolizes especially the combing industry, and the 
commission combing mills are nearly all in the Bradford district, 

DIVISION OF LABOR. 

In the woolen industry as a whole about two-fifths are men and one- 
fifth are women. The work is begun and ended by men, but the bulk 
of the intermediate processes are performed by women. That is to 
say, the sorting and washing is a man's job, as is also the dyeing and 
finishing processes, and few women are here employed. On the other 
hand, combing, spinning, and weaving is woman's work. There is no 
clear division between the work of men and women in these interme- 
diate processes, and some of the heaviest work is done by women, but 
the overseeing, the adjustment of machinery, etc., is always in the 
hands of the men. In the Bradford section the weavers on the nar- 
row ** Bradford stuffs" are nearly always women, and in fact through- 
out Yorkshire women are usually employed on light, fast-runninc 
looms. In the Huddersfield section, where the looms are heavy ana 



WAGES IN YORKSHIRE. 43 

average about 80 inches width, the weaving is mainly in the hands of the 
men. Women are also employed for weavers on such wide looms, but 
the custom is to give the men the preference by a 15-pcr-cent difference 
in the piecework schedules. 

Workers in the wool industry of the United Kingdom do not receive 
as high nor as regular wages as workers in the cotton industry, which 
is due to the difference m conditions, the greater variations in the 
methods of manufacture, and also probably to the more scattered 
state of the industry and the fact that the wool workers are not 
strongly organized. It is estimated that 80 per cent of the cotton 
goods made in England are exported and only about 40 per cent of the 
wool goods, which possibly also affects the question. • The variations 
in the demand sometimes affect whole bodies of workers adversely, 
and the wool combers in general, but particulariv the night wool 
combers, are frequently out of work for long periods at a time. 

WOOL SORTING. 

The first process after the wool arrives at the mill is that of ''sort- 
ing" by hand. In 1901 the census, which gave 209,740 workers in 
the wool industry as a whole, classified 4,978 as engaged in woolwork- 
ing, and of these 3,930, or about 80 per cent, were m the West Riding. 
Formeriy the wool was bought by a ''wool stapler," who sorted it into 
different grades, according to the quality and length of staple (hence 
the name wool stapler), and then sold these different sortings in small 
lots to the manufacturers according to their requirements. With the 
growth of the wool industry this system has been done away with; 
the wool stapler is now only a wholesale merchant, and the manufac- 
turers do their own sorting at the factory. 

"Sorting" is a very general word as employed in the trade, for it 
may cover anything from simply skirting the fleeces to dividing them 
into a dozen different qualities. The unit cost of sorting, therefore, 
varies greatly. Fleeces arrive at the factory in different sized bales, 
but those from Australia are supposed to weigh 400 poimds each of 
greasy wool. Very frequently a manufacturer will not use all the 
different grades of wool to be found on a fleece, but in such case he 
will buy such fleeces from which he can get the largest proportion of 
the type that he desires, and then sell the other sortings to another 
manufacturer. The fleeces are usually bought in uniform lots, either 
of crossbred or merino and according to the type of breed, length of 
wool, hog or wether, etc. As above stated, a skilled sorter can pick 
out from one fleece a dozen different qualities, but ordinarily it does 
not pay to sort over six. With the advance in fancy woolens sorting 
tenas to become more and more careless, and at some factories fleeces 
after being bought in uniform lots are simply skirted and the fleece as 
a whole then thrown into one of two or three piles, according to its 
general appearance, and the whole fleece wool is then started through 
the processes of manufacture. The costs of "looking over" in this 
style, or of simply tearing off the soiled "britch" and then sorting 
into two or three qualities, and the costs of careful sorting into six or 
eight types will of course be quite different. English and crossbred 
wools are more usuallv really "sorted," while merinos are ordinarily 
only "looked over" after having been "classed" at the station. 



44 



BRITISH WOOLEN INDUSTRY. 



WAGES PAID. 

Wool sorters are sometimes paid ty the day, but more often by the 
"pack" of 240 poimds. As tne extent to which the sorting process 
is carried is so different in different cases there can be no uniform rules 
established for all cases, but in the Bradford district the following may 
be taken as the average piecework wages: 

Merinos. — One shilling per pack when looked over, i. e., when sorted for low quality. 
Colonial crossbred.— Sorting for 32s, 36s, 406, 46s, and 50s qualities, 15 to 18 pence 
per pack. 
English wools. — ^Three shillings to 5 shillings 6 pence per pack. 
Mohair. — Turkey, 9 shillings 6 pence, and Cape, 5 shillings 6 pence per pack. 

The average good wool sorter makes from 28 to 33 shillings ($6.80 to 
$8) a week, so &om this can be figured the amount sorted a day. An 
extra good sorter sometimes makes up to 35 shillings or even 40 shill- 
ings, but there seems to be a general understanding among sorters that 
ns a rule they shall not exceed 32 shillings. Their reason for this is 
oasily seen. 

As a specific instance of a mill where the sorting is done very care- 
fully, I give the following wage schedule for wool sorters, which is 
copied from the board on the wall in a large mill near Bradford. 
iSices are per 240-poimd packs: 



Mohair, etc.: s. d. 

Choice Turkey 10 3 

FineTurkey 8 

Average Turkey 7 6 

Capekids 8 3 

Alpaca 20 



English wool, etc.: s. d. 

Mixed hogs 5 6 

Mixed wethers 4 6 

Bulk hogs 4s. 6d. and 5 

Bulk wethers 3 6 

New Zealand, fine 3 

New Zealand, strong 2 6 

The above are the piecework wages by which most of the work is 
performed, but some sorters are paid by the day. The manager gave 
the following as the average weekly wages made by the wool sorters 
at this mill : 



English wool. 



Mohair. 



I 



Winter. , Summer. Winter. Summer. 



Piecework , sorter . 
Day sorter 



28 
25 



33 
31 



30 I 
30 



35 
3S 



The sorting at this mill is very carefully performed and the 
wages average somewhat higher than those I gave above as usual 
in the Bradford section. From the piecework wages, together with 
the average weekly wages above, there can be figured the amount 
sorted on an average for each kind of wool per man. Thus, on the 
mixed hogs the average first-class sorter in summer will handle some- 
thing over 250 pounds, while on the coarse New Zealand he will han- 
dle fully 500 pounds. 

SORTING CLASSIFICATIONS. 



The wool at this mill was sorted for six quaUties. The wool sorting 
was carried on in a long, narrow, well-lighted room by men standing 



WAGES IN TOBE^HIBE. 45 

at long continuous tabling along the walls on either side. Each man 
had his own particular section of the table, and as he sorted each 
fleece he threw the different guaUties into the various roller carts 
(each about 2i by 3i feet by 3 feet 3 inches deep) which were grouped 
around him. Wnenfull, these carts were rolled across the room and 
each lot examined and resorted by another sorter to insure correct- 
ness of grading. 

The mohair sorting was carried on in a separate room. This 
room had stone floonng, and running imderneath the whole length 
of the tabling was a large tin pipe, and at the end an exhaust ran 
to create a suction. Over an opening in the exhaust pipe in front 
of each sorter there was inlet a wire screen made of J-incn meshes one 
way and J-inch meshes the other, and as the wool was opened out on 
this screen the induced draft carried away the impurities, dust, etc., 
and discharged it outside the room. The workers tables were about 
4 feet high. 

The screened tabUng is sometimes also used for ordinary wool, but 
it is by law obligatory for Van mohair, alpaca, East Indian cashmere, 
and camel hair, as sorting these articles is classed among the ''dan- 
gerous trades.'' This is due to the risk of the worker contracting 
anthrax, which, when it first appeared some seventy years ago, was 
called tne ''wool-sorters' disease.'' Bales of Van mohair and "Per- 
sian locks," which are most liable to carry disease, are not allowed to 
be opened until they have been steeped in water. The law is very 
particular in specifymg all precautions to be taken in this work, such 
as the conditions under which meals are to be eaten, the details of 
the wash-room fixtures, the nail brushes, etc., to be used at the mill, 
the overalls to be worn, the general conditions of cleanliness to be 
observed, etc., so as to avoid all risk of the workers contracting or 
spreading anthrax or other contagious disease. 

LEARNERS IN THE TRADE. 

In regard to apprenticeships, this is still usually required, but the 
very long periods formerly reauired, which were in some places seven 
years or more, are being cut aown considerably. Ordinarily now an 
apprenticeship is from two to four years, according to the mill and 
the class of work to be done, and the two-year period is becoming the 
most conunon. Where only two years is required the first year is 
devoted to the rather uninviting task of clipping off burs, dimg, dirt, 
tar, etc.,from the fleeces for whicn the apprentice receives a fixed wage 
of 10 shillings ($2.40) a week. During the second year he is put on 

f piecework at the regular rates but has to retmn to the firm one- 
ourth of the wages made. After the two years he is paid by the 
piece. 

In the case of the particular mill above noted, where very careful 
sorting is necessary, I foimd that they still recjuire a full five years' 
apprenticeship, which is now unusual. In this mill the apprentice 
tne first year receives 8 shillings ($1.92) and this is then increased by 
1 shilling a year to 9, 10, and 11 shillings ($2.16, $2.40, $2.64, respec- 
tively) per week. He then starts on piecework and pays back one- 
fourth of his wages to the firm, and only after the full five years does 
he get full wages. 



46 BRITISH -WOOLEN INDUSTRY. 

QUALITIES AND FLUCTUATIONS. 

Wool from a fleece is sorted into different piles, which in some mills 
are denoted by special names, but usually only by numbers or the 
qualities into which they will spin. A **quahty here refers to a 
yarn coimt; thus wool being sorted for 36s worsted means that all 
wool suitable for making worsted yam of which 36 hanks of 560 yards 
go to a pound will be tm*own into that pile. 

English wool, except Downs, are usually sorted into suitable lots 
for 30s to 40s; Australian crossbreds into lots for 36s to 58s. Cross- 
breds are not suitable for yarns over 60s, the higher counts being 
made from merino wools. South African and Argentine merinos are 
suitable for 60s to 66s, and the Australian merinos for 60s to 90s. 
Some special brands of the Australian merinos, like *'Ercildoune," 
etc., are sorted for as high as 100s quality. 

The wool sorting as a whole suffers from fluctuations almost as 
much as wool combing. In 1907 a deputation from the Bradford 
Woolsorters' Society and the National Union of Woolsorters had a 
conference with the wool trade section of the Bradford Chamber of 
Commerce, to whom they appealed to take some measures with a 
view of relieving the suffering and privation during certain parts of 
the year consequent upon lack of employment among wool sorters. 
Thev suggested a more equitable distribution of what work there 
might be among the whole of the men instead of some being dis- 
missed and the remainder being kept on full time, and the manufac- 
turers agreed to take this into consideration. 

WASHING AND DRYING. 

After sorting and being run through a willey to knock out the dust 
the wool is washed to remove the impurities and dirt, and also to 
separate from it the wool fat and wool perspiration. The washing is 
carried on by means of a series of trougns or *' bowls'' through which 
the wool is moved by a succession of mechanically driven forks to 
rollers, which squeeze it out and pass it on. The longer and coarser 
wools are then dried artificially bv a hot-air process, either '* table" 
or ** machine,'' but the shorter and finer grades are ready for working 
with only the drying ^vcn by the squeezing rolls. The ordinary 
three-bowl washer, using about 10 packs a day of greasy wool, 
employs two operatives, who are paid by the week, averaging about 
20 sliillings eacn. 

PREPARATORY PROCESSES AND SPINNING. 

From the cards, where start the manufacturing processes proper, 
up to the spinning there is practically no piecework, and everybody 
is paid by tne week. As a rule the girls on the drawing and combing 
are the lowest paid of any in the industry. As the wages in the pre- 
paratory processes vary little, if any, according to either the quality 
or Quantity of the work put through, such a thing as ''unit cost of 
proauction" can not be averaged. 

I give below the average wages paid workers in the Bradford dis- 
trict, showing in contrast the averages as furnished by the unions and 
by the manufacturers. The union figures were furnished by the 
central office of the trades council at Bradford. This trades council 
represents, as they inform me, 21,000 workers, and each union pays 



WAGES IN YORKSHIBE. 



47 



to the central organization 3 pence per member per annum. The 
dyers are strongly organized, having about 95 per cent of their mem- 
bers in the imion, but the spinners and weavers are little organized 
and the combers scarcely at all. Only about half of the total oper- 
atives in the Bradford district belong to any union, and, taking the 
Yorkshire industry as a whole, the proportion is still less. 

Following are the average weekly wages in the Bradford district, as 
furnished me by the central union and by large manufacturers: 



Day sorters 

Piecework sorters. 

Wool washers: 

Day work (55J hours) 

Night work (63J hours) . . . 

Women on cards 

lien wUleyers and card "fet- 

tlers" 

Women combers, day work.. . 

Men combers, night work. 

Box minders 

Drawers 



Union 
figures. 



SMUings, 

28-32 

18-22 
18-25 
12-14 

20 -2S 
12-14 
18-24 
12 -14 
9-11 



Manufoo- | 
turers' i 
figures. 



ShiUingt. 

28 

28-35 

18-26 
20-26 
12-14 

22-28 
12-14 
18-26 
12-14 
9-13 



TT*.ir%«« I Manufao- 
fiiSS turers' 
^K"^- I figures. 



3 side spinners (72 to 100 spiU' 

dies per side) 

Half-time spinners 

DofTers 

Warp dressers (men) 30-34 

Warp twisters (men) 32 

Women weavers on 2 narrow i 

(40-inch) looms I 8-16 

Spinning overlookers ' 26-30 

Assistant overlookers 20 

Dyers (54 hours' work) , 24-28 



^ShiUings, Shmings. 



8-14 
2|-4 
8-10 
30-38 
30-38 

12-17 
30-36 
20-30 
24 -28 



Except where specially shown, as for instance fifty-four hours in 
case of dyers, the nours per week are fifty-five and a half, which is 
the legal hmit for the work of women. Night work is always by 
men, women not being allowed to work between 9 p. m. and 6 a. m. 
The maximum weekly hours for half-timers between 12 and 14 years 
of age is thirty-two and a half. Where men only are employed, as for 
instance on night work, there is no legal limit. 

VARIATION IN OPERATIONS. 

The foregoing wages may be taken as typical of the Bradf()rd 
worsted industry, but there is more or less vanation between the mills 
in the town and in the country, and there is no uniformity even 
between two mills running side by side. 

A manufacturer whose mill is in a small village about 10 miles 
from Bradford gave me the following as the wages now being paid 
in his mill and in four neighboring mills. He had just made these 
up to show his operatives, who had complained that they were not 
getting as much as those in some other mills, but when the figures 
were made up it was found that his mill (shown as No. 1) was actually 
paying in most cases more than neighboring mills and the discontent 
was quelled. The figures are as follows and show average weekly 
wages in five Bradford country mills: 

I No. 1. I No. 2. No. 3. No. 4. ' No. 6. 



Drawing room: 

Can gill minders 

Drawers 

Rovers 

Spinning room: 

Roving girls 

Spinners, 4 sides 

Spinners, 3 sides 

Spinners, 2 sides 

Half time spinners, 2 side^. 

End lappers 

Takers off 

Bobbin letters 

Full time doffers 

Half time doffers 

Jobbers (head doffers) 



*. d. 
15 



15 
12 

9 

12 
9 



9 G 
9 6 
9 G 
9 6 
4 3 
10 C 



8. d. ' 


«. d. ' 


8. d. 


8. d. 


11 


12 


12 , 


11 6 


11 


12 1 


12 ' 


11 


9 


12 1 


12 


11 


8 1 


11 . 






10 G 


12 G 


12 


i4 6 






10 G 

8 G 


12 


7 G 


.......... 


9 






4 

8 G 


4 


8 


10 G 


9 


8 


8 


8 G 


9 


8 


8 


8 G 


9 


7 G 


9 


8 G 


9 


3 G 


4 3 


4 , 


4 3 


8 G 


10 


10 ' 


10 



48 BRITISH WOOLEN INDUSTRY. 

Mill No. 1 was running flyer spinning frames of 144 spindles each, 
and about half of these were equipped with the Arnold-Forster 
doffing motion (m^de by Hall & Stells, of Keighley) by which, with 
the assistance of only two doffers, instead of the eight usually required, 
an entire side of boobins are dofl'ed at one time with a total stoppage 
of less than a minute instead of the three minutes usually required. 

The head overlooker in spinning at this mill (corresponding to boss 
spimier) was paid £4 ($19.44) a week, the assistant head overlooker 
48 shillings ($1.1.52), and the other overlookers 35 shillings ($8.40) a 
week. The warp twisters (men) at this mill averaged 30 shillings 
($7.20), the warp dressers 35 shillings ($8.40). (Work in this depart- 
ment very irregular.) When working, the mechanics were paid 
32 shillings ($7.68), the head engineer on 800 horsepower 60 shillings 
($12), the head weaving overlooker 50 shillings, and the weaving 
overlookers 35 shilHngs. 

VARIATION IN SPINNING. 

Woolen yams here as elsewhere are always spun on the mule, 
but in Great Britain worsted yams are always (with exception or 
probably half a dozen mills using the French system) spim on either 
the fly, cap, or ring spinning frame. The brilliant wools are always 
spun on tne fly spinning frame, as this keeps the yam more par- 
allel and with less twist than is possible with either the cap or the 
ring frame, so that the natural luster is better preserved. 

The Bradford district being a worsted section has little inule 
spinning, which obtains to a larger extent in the Leeds section. 
Hudderefield has both worsted and woolen spinning. I foxmd that 
the women spinners on frame spinning averaged about 12 shillings 
($2.88) a week and the men spinners on the mule about 25 to 30 
shillings ($6 to $7.20). 

In mule spinning the wages depend largely on the class of work. 
For a mide spinner in charge oi one pair of mules in the Leeds 
heavy woolen district 30 shillings is the rule per week; somewhat 
more if paid by the piece. Two pairs of mules bring the spinner 
35 to 40 shillings. 

At one large mill in Leeds I foimd a spinner and two piecers 
running a pair of mules of 720 spindles total on No. 36s from Eng- 
lish wool. The spinner was paid 7 pence (14 cents) an hour, whicn 
is at the rate of 32 shillings ($7.68) a week, and the two piecers 
were each paid 18 shillings ($4.32) a week. There is very little 
indirect payment, and it is only in a few of the coarser yarn mUls 
that the custom obtains of paying the spinner and letting him 
engage his own help. 

WEAVING, ETC, 

The weaving wage is the largest single wacje item in making 
cloth and so forms a good basis of comparison between wage costs 
in different coimtries. In this connection it is interesting to note 
a comparison that has been made by a Yorkshire expert who re- 
cently visited American worsted mills. He states that American 
worsted weavers average $12 to $15 a week and some nm up to 
$24 a week. Similar weavers in Yorkshire averafre 13 to 17 shillings 
a week ($3.16 to $4.13), with a limit for the best weavers on meirs 



WAGES IN YORKSHIBE. 49 

fine worsteds of 30 shillings ($7.29). He states that the American 
weavers as a whole probably average three times as much as York- 
shire weavers, and contrasting the average manufacturing condi- 
tions in the United States with Hudder^eld (the most highly paid 
section of the English wool indxistry) he obtains the following figures 
(for men's wide worsteds) as th0 total cost of manufacture: From 
raw material to finished cloth, United States 1.5 cents per yard 
X picks per inch; Huddersfield 0.75 cent per yard X picks per 
inch; from yam to finished cloth. United States 1 cent per yard 
X picks per inch, Huddersfield, 0.5 cent per yard X picks per mch. 
ouch a comparison is boimd to be more or less general owing 
to the great variety of goods classed under the head of worsteds, 
but the author stated in private conversation that, from a con- 
trast he made of figures obtained in the United States with figures 
in England in mills making the same class of ^oods, the American 
costs m most cases showed ]ust about twice as high 

PREDOMINANCE OF WOMEN. 

The bulk of the weavers in the Yorkshire wool district are women. 
In Bradford, especially, they are practically all women, while in the 
Huddersfield district, whicn is an exception^ to the rule, they are 
mostly men. In Leeds district they are mainly women, but there 
are also a good many men weavers. As a rule, the weavers on 
narrow looms (28 to 44 inches) are women, each of whom rims 
two looms, while the weavers on wide looms (60 to 90 inches) are 
mainly men, who nm one loom each. There is no very clear divi- 
sion, nowever, and districts making a specialty of one class of goods 
have more or less mills on the specialty or some other district. 
Thus Bradford is noted for worsteds for women's wear, especially 
** Bradford stuffs," and the weavers are women who average about 
15 shillings ($3.60); but there are also in this district a good many 
mills mating *' coatings," woven by men weavers, who average 
nearly as much as the men weavers on the Huddersfield specialty 
of men's fancy worsted, making from 20 to 25 shillings ($4.86 to 
$6) a week. Leeds is the center of the heavy woolen district and 
therefore uses wide looms operated partly by men and partly by 
women, but it now has also a good many narrow worsted looms 
operated mainly by women. Throughout Yorkshire, as a whole, it 
may be said that women nm two narrow worsted looms and men 
one wide woolen or worsted loom. On very narrow goods a weaver 
sometimes nms over two looms, but this is exceptional. 

A board of trade inq^uiiy published by the British Government 
in 1908 gives the following as the average wages of women weavers 
in the four main centers in shillings (1 shilling = 24 J cents) : 



Bradford. I °!J?!lf^ ' Halllax. Leeds. 



aeld. 

_ I ! 

Shmingt. I SkiUings. Shiaings. 

One>loom weavers 15-21 12-16 

Two-loom weavers 13-17 13-17 



ShiUh 



Ings. 
lO-K 



11. Due. ia:jo. GO-2- 



50 BBITISH WOOLEN INDUSTRY. 

LOOM SPEEDS. 

For a clear idea of the wages it is necessary to take into con- 
sideration the type of looms used and the speed at which operated. 
In the cotton trade, looms on staple goods have standard speeds, 
but in the wool trade there is sucn a great variety that it is very 
difiicidt to give any standard speed, even for a specific width loom 
on specific cloth, for the reason that the matenals vary, so that 
giving the warp coxmts does not give any clear idea as to the 
strength of the warp. The 1908 Wool Year Book, however, gives 
the foll(>^^'ing as showing the general range of speeds in the York- 
shire wool districts: 



, Picks 
Type of loom. | per 

mmute. 



00-inch reed space, heavy woolen or worsteu font \v: 1 kv: 7.'»- ft:> 

00-inch reed space, medium woolen or worsted couun,: l^vj..; 00-105 

70-inch reed space, worsted coating loom 105-140 

40-inch reed space, Dlain dress goods loom lSO-210 

40-Inch reed space, drop-box dress goods loom 140-150 

40-inch reed space, circular box dress goods loom 130-170 

40-inch reed space, single lift dobby 120-140 

40-inch reed space, double lift dobby 140-180 

40-inch reed space, single lift Jacquard 120-130 

40-inch reed space, double lift Jacquard ; ltlO-180 



In the woolen industry there are two main types of looms — 

(1) The heavy woolen loom with reed space up to 154 inches and 
a speed for 110 inch reed space of 90 picks per minute. This loom 
is adapted for the heaviest woolen goods and is very strongly built 
with heavy framing and gearing. The treading motion for 2 to 6 
cams is usually inside the loom, and the shuttles used run up to 9 
inches long by 2 J inches diameter. As ordinarily made by the nrm of 
Geo. Hattersley & Sons the lay is underswimg, but some woolen 
manufacttirers still cling to the old ^'overswung" type, which is 
now elsewhere only used on hand looms, especially for very heavy 
woolens woven at a speed of 50 to 60 picks per minute, as they 
claim it gives a heavier compacted cloth with less strain on the warp. 

(2) The second type, the medium woolen and worsted serge 
(Dobcross) loom as constructed by Hutchinson, HoUingsworth & Co., 
is made with a dobby capacity up to 36 shafts, is of the imderpick 
type, and for a 90-inch reed space can be nm up to 105 picks per 
mmute. 

For worsted looms we find — 

(1) The medium and heavy weight coating or tweed loom, which 
is usually of the overpick type and fitted with a four-shuttle rising 
box at either side, for odd and even picks. Pirns are used in the 
shuttles up to 8 inches length by 1 A inches diameter. For an 84-inch 
reed space the loom is run up to 105 picks per minute. 

(2) The one shuttle coating loom for 76-incn reed space, 28 shafts, 
the speed will be about 140 picks per minute. On these, as on most 
other worsted looms, the treading motion is at the end of the loom, 
as this is easier to get to, and in the worsted trade there has to be 
frequent change of patterns. 



WAOB8 IN YOBKSHIBE. 51 

(3) The plain one shuttle dress goods loom more nearly approaches 
in desiffn and speed the looms as used in the cotton industry, and in 
fact a large part of the Bradford stuffs are made with cotton warps. 
For a 40i-inch reed space this loom can be run up_[to 210 picks per 
minute with first-class material. 

(4) The revolving box loom to weave checked goods of mediiun 
weight with six or seven shuttles is used to a fau-ly large extent, 
and with a 36-inch reed space can be nm up to 190 picks per minute. 
The Keighley nonpositive dobby as made by Hattersley is used for 
looms up to 47-inch reed space. A good many Jacquard looms are 
used, and the following sizes are given by Professor Barker as the 
standards for the respective districts: Bradford 300, 600, 1,200; Hud- 
dersfield, 200, 400; Manchester cotton district, 400. 

The wide looms used in the Huddersfield district are mainly of the 
Dobcross type, as made by Hutchinson, HoUingsworth & Co., of Dob- 
cross, in the West Riding of Yorkshire, while the main loom used in 
the weaving of narrow worsted is the outside tappet style as built 
by Geo. Hattersley & Sons, of Keighley. 

As a rule the imderpick motion is used for heavy fabrics and wide 
looms as giving a stronger blow to the shuttle. It is also cleaner, as 
there is no danger of the oihng getting on the cloth, and there is a 
saving in picking-strap expense. The overpick motion is, in England, 
usually applied to fast running looms, as it is claimed that the move- 
ment of the shuttle being more gradually applied a smoother pick 
is obtained. 

VARIOUS WAGE LISTS. 

In the Bradford and Leeds districts where men and women work 
on the same ffoods thev receive the same wages, according to the piece- 
work schedme. In the Huddersfield section, however, men weavers 
are given the preference by a 15 per cent difference in the piecework 
prices. 

Pattern weavers in the mills usually work on hand looms, as there 
is only needed short lengths, which have to be very carefully made, 
and the pattern is changed at frequent intervals oy taking out or 
putting in more ends, etc. These are picked weavers and are paid 
Dv the day according to their skill. As a rule they average higher 
than other weavers and get up to 30 or 35 shillings ($7.20 to $8.40) 
a week. 

The overlookers or tuners (American loom fixers) look after about 
24 wide looms and get about 35 shillings a week. The number of 
looms they tend, also their wages, are variable. Some get less than 
30 shilling and others up to 40 shillings, but 35 shillings is assumed 
to be their standard wage. The head overlooker, corresponding to 
our boss weaver, usually gets 50 shillings, and the assistant head 
overlooker 40 shillings, but here also there is great variation accord- 
ing to the size of mill and the kind of goods. Some head overlookers 
get up to £4 ($19.44) a week, but above this is very rare. Head 
carding overlookers, as a rule, are paid more than head weaving 
overlookers. 

BRADFORD RATES. 

In the Bradford district there has been made up a standard wage 
list for weavers which was adopted by the Bradford Chamber of Com- 
merce after consultation with the Bradford Trades and Labor Coimcil. 



52 



BBITISH WOOLEN INDUSTRY. 



This list was made up several years ago and has not been adopted 
uniformly by the trade owing to the independence of the manuf ac- 
ttirers and also to the many variations m goods and methods of 
manufacture, which no uniform list will fit. I have been informed, 
however, by several of the larger manufacturers that they are now 
paying according to this list, and that it can be accepted as represent- 
mg the average conditions of piecework payment to weavers in the 
Bradford section of the industry. This list is as follows: 

Dress goods , linings y etc., for 70 yards warp. 

Price In pence per pick per one-fourth inch.j 

All weaves up to and including 8 shafts, woven with any one color of warp with 
white weft: Pence. 

Up to and including 38-inch reed space 2 

Above 38-inch but not exceeding 47-inch reed space 2^ 

Above 47-inch but not exceeding 57-inch reed space 2i 

Above 57-inch but not exceeding 66-inch reed space 2t 

Above 66-inch but not exceeding 76-inch reed space 3 J 

For variations there are added the following extras to the above prices: 



I Up to and » k«,«» k- 

Including f„^^' 

SMnchreed ^"^^ 
space. "P***^- 



1. White mohair and mixture or colored weft otiicr than alpaca per pick. 



a. (a) Al] 



Alpaca, gray; plain weave (IXI) do 

'Llpaca, gray ; twills do 

iingle twist botany warps, over 72 sot and with more than 18 picks per 

i mch per pick. . 

CO) All other single-twist worsted warps do 

. Stripes in warp, up to 8 shafts, inclusive: 

Jo} Up to 4 colors inclusive do 
b) 6 colors or more do 
«d stripes, with or without extra shafts do 

, Shafts above 8, whether dobbles or tappets per shaft. . 

. (a) Boxes, up to and inclchling 3 shuttles per pick. . 

lb) Boxes, above 3 shuttles do 

(c) Skip or drop boxes do 

Pick and pick looms do 

(o) Jacquards do 

(b) Jacquards with alpaca weft do 

»p weft do : 

Weft of 16s count and thicker do j 

12. One weaver to one loom (for special weaves) do '. 

13. Rollers or extra beams per piece . . I 

U. Below 9 picks do. ... | 

16. Warps of 140 yards or shorter for whole warp. . • 

16. One end of warp in one roed per piece of 70 yarcw. . j 

17. Extra for finding pick, excepting all plain (IXI) weaves and goods made 

from alpaca per piece of 70 yards . ' 



Pence, 



Pence. 



tl J, 

!l 
J 



Coatings. 



1 weaver 
to 1 loom. 



1 weaver 
to 2 looms. 



Up to 84-inch reed space, speed 120 to 130 picks per minute, 70 yards warp: Pejtce. 

All weaves up to 8 shafts por pu-]: 

All weaves up to 12 shafts .j 5^ 



Pence. 



3| 



WAGES IN YORKSHIRE. 
For variations there are added the following extras to the above: 



68 



1. Plain drafted stripes, up to 3 colors ..per pick. . 

2. Plain drafted stripes, 4 colors or more do. . . 

3. Cross-drafted stripes, up to 3 colors : do. . . 

4. Cross-drafted stripes, 4 colors or more do... 

6. Colored weft, except where color is paid for in the warp, as in Extras 

1 to4 per pick. 

6. Revolving boxes do 

7. Skip or drop boxes do 

8. Jacquards do . . . 

9. Looms running 110 to 119 picks per minute do. . . 

Per piece: 

10. Above 8 shafts per shaft. 

11. Above 12 shafts do. . . 

12. Above 80 set each 6 set. . 

13. Above 2 shuttles per shuttle. 

14. A second beam per piece. . 

15. Below 9 picks do 

16. Warps shorter than 140 yards for the whole warp. . 



1 weaver 
tol loom. 



FVMt. 



9 
12 

9 
18 



1 v.oaver 
to 2 looms. 



Pence, 






1 
9 
9 
9 
12 



HUDDERSFIELD RATES. 

The foregoing prices are for goods as woven in Bradford district, 
where the main goods are women's worsteds and linings, and the 
women weavers usually run two narrow looms each. In the Hud- 
dersfield section the main specialty is men's worsteds, and usually 
one man runs one wide loom (62 to 90 inch reed space). 

In the Huddersfield section the weaving rate is usually based on the 
"string'' of 10 feet. There are variations in weaving price according 
to circumstances, but the following is the piecework rate that has been 
adopted by the Huddersfield manufacturers and that is generally in 
force: 

(For men weavers on wide looms nmning 80 picks per minute in i)ence per 18 strings of 10 feet each.] 



A. One shuttle. 



B. Two shuttles. 



Tor woolens, mix- 
tures or solid 
colored worsteds : 

1. One beam... 3d. X number of ' 6 per cent on col- 

picks per inch umn 1 A. 
with Is. added. 

2. Two beams..' 22J per cent on col- 

umn 1 A. 
For colored worst- 
eds: 

3. One beam. . . 5 per cent on 1 A ' 6per cent on 1 B 

4. Twobeams 37j per cent on 1 A. . 

For looms running 

110 to 120 picks: 
6. One beam ... 5 prr cent off 1 A 5 per cent offl A 



C. Three shuttles. D. Four shuttles. 



10 per cent on col- 
umn 1 A. 



27| per cent on col- 
umn 1 A. 

5 per cent on 1 C. 5peroentonlD. 
42)percentonl A.' 50 per cent on 1 .« 



17} per cent on col- 
umn 1 A. 

35 per cent on col- 
umn 1 A. 



Add 9 pence per cut for every two healds above 16, and add 6 pence to 1 shilling for 
odd cutfl, according to the picks per inch. 

The above wages are for men on single wide looms. For men running two looms 
there will be paid 35 per cent less than above scale. 

WomaV^ «(a/c.— Deduct 12^ per cent from above men's scale. For single white 
worsteds, I beam, 1 shuttle, pay 2.6d. X picks per inch. For serges, 1 beam, 1 shut- 
tle, pay 2.12d. X picks per inch. 



54 



BBITISH WOOLEN INDUSTRY. 



LEEDS FINE WORSTED PRICES. 

In the Leeds heavy woolen district where there are made many 
styles of goods, from shoddy to fine worsteds, there is no uniform scale 
recognized by the manufacturers. One large manufacturer operating 
a fine worsted mill (wide looms) in the country near Leeds gave me the 
following as his rate of wages to weavers, there being no difference in 
rate between men and women: 

Plain looms. — Rate: One and one-half pence per pick in 1 inch for 60 yard cut. 
Extras: Six pence for 18 shafts, 1 shilling for 24 shafts, 1 shilling 6 pence for 30 
shafts, 6 pence for mixtures, G pence for woolens, 1 shilliiie for 2 beams, 6 pence for 
every 10 sets above 100. Looms with box at one end 1 shnling per piece extra. 

American fancy looms. — Rate: Two pence per pick in 1 inch for 60-yard cut. 
Extras: One shilling for each shuttle above 1, 1 snilling for double beam, 6 pence 
for mixtures, 6 pence for woolen weft. 6 pence for 24 shafts. 

Hatteraley four-box Iootos. — Same as lancy looms, but with one-twelfth off. Extras: 
One shilling extra for all cut warps. 

OTHER LEEDS' COSTS. 

In the above-mentioned fancy worsted mill near Leeds the piece- 
work prices for healding, twisting, and dressing were as follows: 

Eealding and twisting. — ^Twisting single beams, 5 pence i>er 1,000 ends; twisting 
double beams, 6 pence per 1,000 ends; twisting second beam in frame, 6 pence extra; 
twisting, loom, 6 pence extra per beam; twisting 2/lOs. yarns and under, 10 pence 
per 1,000 ends; side looming, IJ pence per 100 ends; slaying, 3J pence per 1,000 
ends over 2 per reed, 4J pence per 2 reeds. Extras: Two pence per warp casting 
out, 2 pence per warp filling up, 4 pence per warp for broken lease. Extra lor beams 
in looming same as twisting. 

Time rate, 6 pence per hour. Winding on patterns, 4 pence for narrow under 
20 yards, 7 pence for broad. 

Dressers* price list. 
[All warps with ends less than 2,000 to be paid for as 2,000.] 



Ends In warp. 



2.000 to 2,500.. . 
2,501 to 3,000... 

.3,001 to 3,500... 
3,501 to 4.000... 

4.001 to 4,500... 
4,501 to 5,000... 
5,001 to 5,500... 
6,501 to 6,000... 
6,001 to 6,500. . . 
6,501 to 7,000... 
7,001 to 7,500... 
7,501 to 8,000... 
8,001 to 8,500. . . 
8,501 to 9,000... 
9.001 to 9,500... 
9,501 to 10,000.. 
10,001 to 10,500. 
10,501 to 11.000. 
11,001 to 11,500. 
11,501 to 12,000. 





Per cot 


First cost. 


after- 




wards 


1 8. d. 


d. 


2 1 


3 


i 2 4 


3 


i 2 7 


4 


2 9 


4 


' 3 


4 


3 3 


4 


3 6 


6 


3 9 


B 


3 11 


6 


4 2 


6 


4 4 


7 


4 6 


7 


4 7 


7 


4 11 


7 


5 1 


8 


5 3 


8 


5 3 


y 


5 5 


9 


5 6 


10 


5 8 


10 



All warpa containing cne ccior cr.ly 70 ycirds lonj; constitute one cut. 

All warps containing more than one color 60 yards constitute one cut. 

Half cuts and under > 6 pence off cut prices; over half cuts claim cut prices. 

One shilling for cutting warp? 

All warps containing more than one color 2 pence per color per cut. 

Extra is paid, excepting "splits," where two colors are on one pair of rods. 

For splits they will be paid for as one color. 

Pattern slaying will be paid 3i pence per 1,000 ends. 

Winding on, 4 pence for narrow looms under 20 yards and 7 pence for broad. 

Time rate, 6 pence per hour. 



WAGES IN YORKSHIRE. 55 

STANDARD PIECEWORK PRICES. 

The foregoing actual piecework prices from a large Leeds fine- 
worsted mifl may be taken as typical of that class of work in that 
section. For the Bradford district the Bradford City Technical 
College has compiled the following as representing the standard 
practice for the aoove work: 

Bradford dressing and tvnsting-in list. 

[Average wage for dressing 70 yards of warp, end and end.] 

Ends in warp: »• d. 

1,801 to 2,200 2 6 

2,201 to 2,600 3 

2,601 to 3,000 3 6 

3,001 to 3,400 4 1 

3,401 to 3,800 4 8 

3,801 to 4,200 5 3 

4,201 to 4,600 5 10 

4,601 to 5,000 6 7 

5,001 to 5,400 7 2 

5,401 to 5,800 7 10 

5,801 to 6,200 8 6 

Extras: For each above two colors, 3 J pence per color. 
Time work: Six and one-half pence per hour. 

Bradford price list for looming and twisting. 

Twisting: 

In twisting frame, 5 pence per 1,000 ends. 

In twisting frames (stripes), 5i pence per 1,000 ends. 

At loom, 6 pence per 1,000 ends. 

Sleying: Four pence per 1,000 ends. 

Looming (drawing-in and sleying) per 1,000 ends: s. d. 

Straight draft up to 14 shafts 1 

Straight draft 14 to 20 shafts 1 3 

Straight draft over 20 shafts 1 6 

All drafted styles 1 6 

Jacquards 1 3 

Extra rollers or beams, 1 shilling por beam or rolh^r. 
Time work: Six ponce per hour. 

EXPLANATORY DEFINITIGNS. 

It is hardlj necessary to explain the above terms, but to avoid any 
chance of mistake will say by ** twisting" is meant the work done by 
the **twister-in" man in t'wdsting each thread of a new warp with the 
corresponding threads of the old w^arp before it has been entirely nm 
out of the hoddlos and reed. *^ Looming" is starting a new set of 
warp threads tlirough clean heddles and reed; drawing the warp 
threads with a reed hook (usually called heald-hook in England), 
being kno^\^x as ''dra's^ing-in," and then dra'wing these threads en 
through the reed, being known as *' sleying." Warps are spoken of 
as **sleyod" 1, 2, 3 or more ends according as there are 1, 2, 3 or 
more ends dra\m together tlirough each opening or **sp)Ut" (dent) 
in the reed. The term '^dn^ssing" has no referenci^ to sizing (there 
is very httle sizing done in the Bradford district), but refers to the 
work of running the warj) as alnuxdy made with a certain definite 
number of threads on to the loom beam in regular order. 



56 BRITISH WOOLEN INDUSTRY. 

The specific number of ends required for a specific warp are usually 
collected together on a horizontal ''Bradford miir* in the Bradford 
district, or on a vertical ''Scotch miJl" in the other wool districts, and 
then unwound from the mill into a ball. This ball of warp is then 
taken by the "dresser," and by running up, over and imder cross 
beams of wood is spread out eyenlv under tension and woimd on the 
loom beam. In "beam warping as used in* the cotton trade the 
"dressing'' is done away with, and this system is beginning to be 
more largely used in the woolen trade. 

. . SIZING, DYEING; AND FINISHING. 

In the cotton trade warps are nearly always sized before weaving 
to prevent chafing in the weaving, and very often they are heavily 
sized, sometimes up to 200 per cent of their weight, bv adding weight- 
ing materials, such as China clay, etc., to decrease the cost of manu- 
facture for cheap goods. In the worsted trade any sizing that is put 
on could onlv be for the first reason, as the size materials will nec^ 
essarily all be washed out in the scouring, dyeing, and finishing 
processes to which the cloth is subjected after manufacture. Ordi- 
narily in the Yorkshire worsted trade there is no sizing used whatever, 
either for the wool warp or for the cotton warps used in the Bradford 
stuff industry, except for warps that are found to be too tender to 
weave without it. Woolen warps as used in the Leeds district are 
nearly always sized, but it has been found that good worsted, good 
cotton, and reasonably long-plied "spim'' silk warps weave all right 
without size. 

All the dyeing and finishing operatives are ordinarily, paid by the 
hour or week. The girl menders are usually paid 4 pence (8 cents) 
an hour. The girl "burlers" who inspect the cloth and remove small 
defects are usually paid by the hour, but in a good many cases by 
the piece. Their remuneration varies considerably, according to the 
goods and the care with which the work has to be performed, but an 
idea of their wages can be obtained from the fact that on men's fine 
worsteds they will get from 9 to 11 pence (18 to 22 cents) per 58-yard 
cut. On cheaper goods they will average about 4 pence an hour. 
The male "miller*' and the "cloth scourer"' will average about 5 pence 
(10 cents) an hour. Milled cloth ready for finishing is called here 
"balk." In the case of ordinary materials that call for no special 
skill, scourers, raisers, steamers, etc., will not make more than 20 to 
22 shillings ($4.80 to $5.28) per week. On finer classes of work their 
wages will run up to as high as 30 shillings ($7.20) a week. The high- 
est paid finishers are usually tlie foremen fullers and press setters, 
who will make from 31 to 37 shillings ($7.44 to $8.88) a week. 

The dyers are paid by the week, but as they are stronglv organized 
their wages in each district arc much more uniform than that of other 
classes of workers. At tlio present time (October 21) their average 
wages in the Bradford district are about 26 shillings ($6.24), in tne 
Leeds and Halifax districts 25 shillings ($6), and in the country 
districts 24 shillings ($5.76) per week. 

Dyeing and iinisning are sometimes carried on in the same works as 
the actual manufacturer, but are usually done by special firms. The 
average commission prices for dyeing and finishing in the Bradford dis- 
trict, as compiled by the Bradford Technical College, are as follows: 



WAGES IN YORKSHIBE. 



57 



Prioufor dyeing and finishing. 

Under 9 ounces per yard, all-wool (plain finish): Black, 3f pence; colors, 4^ pence 
per pound (grey). 

Over 9 ounces per yard, all-wool (plain finish): Black, 4 pence, colors, 5i pence 
per pound (grey). 

Figured mohairs: Not over 50 inches wide, 50 yards long, and 20 pounds, dyeing 
black, 5 shillings 6 pence per piece. 

Lininp and Italians: Not over 60 inches wide, 54 yards long, and 28 pounds (grey), 
dyeing black, 7 shillings per piece. 

Finishing and degumming plain silks: Twenty-seven inches wide, \\ pence per 
yard; 28 to 36 inches wide, IJ pence per yard. 

Finishing and degumming orocades: Twenty-seven inches wide, } pence per yard; 
28 to 36 inches wide, 1 pence per yard. 

Silk handkerchiefs: About 6 pence per dozen. 

Prices for finishing only. 

All wool (plain finish), IJ pence per pound (grey); milled or vicuna finish, 2 shillings 
6 pence per piece (extra); "Pirle" finish, 1 pence per yard (extra); ** proofing," IJ 
pence per yard (extra); "stove white," 3 shillings per piece over color price. 

YORKSHIRE WOOL WORKERS. 

Of 1,029,253 persons employed in textile factories in Great Britain 
in 1901, according to the census of that year, 522,623 were working 
in cotton factones and 259,909 in worsted, woolen, and shoddy 
factories. Of these latter 86,266 were employed in the Bradford 
district, 54,066 in the Huddersfield district, 25,861 in the Halifax 
district, and 20,176 in the Leeds district. The next largest groups 
of wool workers were shown as 11,532 in southeast Scotland, 9,892 m 
the Rochdale section of Lancashire, 7,268 in the Worcester section, 
and 7,156 in the Bristol section of the west of England. It is seen 
that the bulk of the wool workers of Great Britain are in the West 
Riding of Yorkshire— 187,235 out of a total of 259,909— with smaller 
groups in Scotland, the west of England, and Lancashire. 

Wool manufacturing is the main industry of the West Riding, and 
one-twelfth of all the male workers, and over one-fourth of all the 
female workers, are engaged in this industry, while in Bradford itself 
the industry takes one-fifth of all the male workers and nearly half of 
all the female workers. About one-third of the total population of 
the West Riding is directly or indirectly dependent on this industry. 

NUMBER AND SEX OP OPERATIVES. 

Of the total operatives employed in wool manufacturing in Great 
Britain three-fifths are females and only two-fifths males. The 
arrangement of th>9 operatives according to sex and age in 1901 was 
as follows: 



Children, 12 to 14, half-timers 
Young persons. 14 to 18.. .". . . 
Persons above 18 

Total 



Male. Female. 



Total. 



3.722 3,763 7,476 

19,266 35,117 54,383 

83,610 114,441 198,051 



106,598 153,311 259,909 



The government figures for the total number of operatives employed 
in wool manufacturing]: in Great Britain showed 301,556 in 1890 and 
284,441 in 1896, and the above 259,909 in 1901, which are the latest. 



68 



BRITISH WOOLEN INDUSTRY. 



Those figures would seem to show a decline in the industry, which is 
probably true for the period 1890 to 1901, though others claim there 
was no decline but instead a small advance, for the following reasons: 
The persons over 20 employed in 1890 were 161,394, and in 1901 they 
were 160,999, about the same, so that the decrease was almost entirely 
of half-timers and other children. In 1890 the half-timers numbered 
22,806 while in 1896 they were only 12,505, and in 1901 only 7,475. 
Owing to stricter regulations their number seems to be steadily 
decreasing. Another point is that machinery in being continually 
improved, so that the productive efficiency of each operative is 
greater. Another very important fact to be considered is tne increas- 
mg proportion of foreign materials, especially cotton, that is now used 
in Doth woolen and worsteds, but especially the latter. In Yorkshire 
there is now a comparatively small proportion of the wool manu- 
factures that are made of wool only. Taking all these facts into 
consideration it would yet seem that from 1890 to 1901 there was no 
progress in this industry, but since 1901 there has been a steady 
progress up to the latter part of 1907, when the world began to suffer 
from a financial crisis. 

There are no figures of production in the United Kingdom, but the 
industry can be fairly well judged by the exports. Tne exports of 
manufactures of wool of all kinds from Great Britain in 1890 was 
$141,984,950, and in 1901 this had fallen to $114,355,836, but in 
1907 it rose to $185,603,950. Though there are no figures in regard 
to the total number of operatives since 1901, it is clear that with this 
great increase in exports, even though there is a larger and larger 
proportion of other materials included, there must have been a con- 
siderable increase in the number of hands needed to run the wool 
factories. 

FEMALE OPERATIVES PREDOMINATE. 

Leeds is the sixth largest city in the United Kingdom and is the 
commercial and industrial center of the West Riding for everything 
but wool, in which it is exceeded by the smaller town of Bradford. 
Bradford has become the chief manufacturing and selling center of 
the wool trade of the Kingdom, and in 1900 the British Association 
Handbook computed that '^five-sixths of the wool manufactured or 
partly manufactured in this country is at some stage the subject of a 
bargain in some Bradford merchant's warehouse." Considering only 
the city of Bradford the workers in wool and worsted according to the 
last census are as follows: 



Under lo. 



V> to 24. 



2f) to 44. 



Process. 



Sorting 

ComhinR 

Spinning 

Weaving 

Other \\orkers 



Total. 



Male. Female. Male. Female. Male. .Female. 



I 



5 

41 

2,014 

209 

388 



2 

22 

2.910 

268 



312 , 
1.000 I 
1,159 

674 
2.091 



11 

962 

5,883 

5.816 

807 



820 ! 
1.4.^) 

644 
1.379 I 
2.912 



20 

1,020 

1.591 

5, 548 

601 



45 and up. 



Male. Female. 



565 
689 
262 
820 
1.474 



12 

18.i 

220 

1,354 

121 



Total. 



Male. I Female. 



1.702 
3.186 
4.079 
3.082 
6.865 



45 

2.189 

10.604 

12.986 

1,665 



2.657 i 3,a38 I 5,236 13.479 7.211, 8.780 I 3.810 1.892 118,914 1 27,489 



It is seen that while the men predominate in the beginning and 

end of the manufacture, that is in the sorting and finishing proc- 

esses, the great bulk of the operatives in the intermediate manu- 

facturing processes proper, combing, spmmwg, «iwA. v^e«.v\]i^^ are 



WAGES IN YORKSHIRE. 59 

women. One-sixth of the women in the wool industry, say some 
19,000, are wives or widows. Over 12,000 of these are weavers, but 
in proportion to the total number of women employed the largest 
number is in the combing industry. As has been shown, the number 
of children from 12 to 14, the *' half-timers, *' are steadily decreasing, 
and leading authorities say that the number of married women are 
decreasing also, but there are no fibres to corroborate 'this. Of the 
four main textile centers of Yorkshire the largest percentage of chil- 
dren under 14 is to be found in Halifax, ana then comes Bradford, 
Huddersfield, and Leeds in the order named. The largest percentage 
of wives and widows is to be found in the Bradford industry, whicn 
is followed by Leeds and then Huddersfield and then Halifax. 

WAGES AT LEEDS AND YORKSHIRE. 

Besides its regular woolen and worsted manufacturing, I^eeds is 
noted as a great center for ready-madia clothing. The 1901 census 
showed that among persons employed in **nontextile factories'' in 
Leeds there were 20,220 classed as being in the clothing business, 
the great bulk of these being women and girls. In this industry the 
men cutters get $6.80 to $8.25 a week, the women machine sewers 
$2.67 to $3.89, and the women finishers $1.94 to $3.40 a week. The 
wages of operatives in the woolen and worsted factories have been 
treated elsewhere, but the wages of full-timers run from 8 to 30 shil- 
lings ($1.94 to $7.29) a week; a few up to 35 shillings ($8.50). Over 
$8.50 a week is very rare even for the most skilled workers. 

As a rule the Yorkshire wool worker gets more than the French 
wool worker, but in some parts of the industry the French worker gets 
the higher wage. The English wool worker, however, is better off, 
for even where he does not get any higher wages the purchasing power 
of those wages is greater, tor both food and clothing are cheaper in 
Yorkshire than in France. On the other hand, the Yorkshire wool 
worker gets smaller wages than the Lancashire cotton worker, while 
according to recent investigations by the Board of Trade the charges 
for both rent and food are nigher in Yorkshire than in Lancashire. 

EMPLOYMENT IRREGULAR. 

Employment in all branches of the wool industry is more or less 
irregular, for not only are there good and bad years, but the fluctua- 
tions of the demand for various kinds of wool manufactures some- 
times throw a whole locality making some specialty mto the depths 
of distress, and at the same time pernaps raise another to the heights 
of prosperity. This changing demand some times acts onlv between 
towns making various specialties and at others affects a whole country. 
When there is a great demand for very soft draping goods, France is 
prosperous and England can hardly keep her mills going, while, when 
the demand is for firmer worsteds and tailor-made goods, England 
will be prosperous and perhaps France losing ground. Sometimes 
woolen goods are in demand and then worsteds. One season the ail- 
wool goods. may bring in the most profit and another season, with 
high-priced wool, only the sections making mixed goods can show any 
profit at all. The wool industry is thus subject to many fluctuations, 
and in that sense is not a stable industry as are, for instance^ certei^s. 
branches of the cotton trade making staple eVoVVv^ \\v^a\. ^\^*vcv ^^\s\a.^^ 
year in and year out. In the wool trade \V\oto. V\«ive Vo\ke. w^n^ ^^VjNr^ 



60 . BBITISH WOOLEN INDUSTRY. 

gotten out for the summer and winter, and the demand of the public 
for variety is growing all the time, so that the mills have to employ 
a larger niunber of men in their designing and sales departments, wnicn 
adds to the cost. 

All of this, with many other details that could be enumerated, espe- 
cially the fact that in some lines cotton goods for underclothine, etc., 
now enter into competition with wool, directly affects the conditions 
of employment of the wool operatives. The combers are perhaps 
tile ones most affected. Combing mills always try to run night md 
d»yj but there is scarcely a year but what not only night work luets 
to De discontinued but even day work interrupted for certain periods. 
Only men can be employed at niffht according to the law, and the 
Bradford labor organizations say that night combers do not average 
three and one-half nights a week. 

LIABILITY TO DISEASE. 

The work in woolen and worsted mills is, on the whole, a healthy 
occupation, but wool sorters have to face the danger of anthrax. The 
oombers work in a high temperature, which maKes night work dan- 
gerous sometimes to health on accoimt of the extremes of heat and 
cold to which they may be exposed, and rag pullers frequently get 
"shoddy fever. *' Anthrax is a most dangerous disease, but is usuwly 
only to be dreaded by those who sort mohair, .amePs hair, etc., and 
in these cases the Government has enacted strict rules in regard to 
preventive measures to be adopted. In shoddy manufacturing there 
IS no danger of disease — at least there is no record of any disease con- 
tracted by the workers — except that the operative who watches the 
rag shaking and pulUng machines sometimes gets influenza, or * * shoddy 
fever," as it is called, from the irritation of the dust and wool impreg- 
nated atmosphere getting in liis throat. 

LABOR ORGANIZATIONS. 

In regard to organizations of operatives, these are very rare in 
Yorkshire. The Lancashire cotton operatives are very strongly 
organized, and it is partly due to this fact that they get better wages 
than the Yorkshire wool workers. The larger portion of tne 
Yorkshire workers are women, but while there are nearly 100,000 
women in unions in Lancashire, there are scarcely 1,000 women in 
unions in the Yorkshire trade. There are several reasons for this 
lack of unions among the wool workers. In the first place, the Lan- 
cashire workers are enabled to organize by reason or the fact that 
there are great bodies of workers at one center, and in each mill 
there are large bodies of workers in the same line. In Yorkshire the 
industry is more scattered, and the mills being smaller the men are 
more separated. In most rooms the men are differentiated from the 
women by the fact that the women form the bulk of the common 
workers, while the men are in positions of trust, such as overlookers, 
loom fixers, etc., or working on a different line of machines. The 
overlookers have a strong union of their own, as also have the dyers, 
for the dye department of the mill is a place where there are a num- 
ber of men working side by side. The men workers outside of these 
are usually in the minority in the rooms in which they work, and, 
being scattered in different mills, they do not combine, and where the 



WAGES IN YORKSHIRE. 



61 



men are not combined it is always difficult to get the women to com- 
bine. There is also jealousy between every neighboring town in 
Yorkshire and between every neighboring mill, and this tact is one 
thing that tends to prevent combmation among either employers or 
employees. The unions that have been formed among the operatives, 
therefore, are not strong, and their main concern usually is in friendly 
society work and mutual aid, as they are rarely strong enough to 
initiate any general strike for higher wages. 

For wool sorters there is usually required an apprenticeship, but 
the period of apprenticeship is decreasing and is now not more than 
two years. There is also usually some apprenticeship to be served 
before becoming a loom fixer or overlooker. For the other branches 
of the industry there is no formal apprentice system, but the hands 
start in young and gradually work up from a lower-paid job to a 
higher. 

FACTORY LAWS. 

The following summary of factory laws as affecting the woolen and 
worsted industries in various coimtries is taken from a recent book 
published by Prof. J. H. Clapham, but was originally published by the 
Office International du Travail at Bale : 



Great Britain. 



FraDCd. 



Germany. I nolland. 



DAY WORK. 

Number of classes of work people af- 
fected by the laws. 
Minimum age of workers 



Class 1: 

Age limits 

Maximum day's work... 

Maximum week's work. 



2.. 
12. 



12-14 

6i hours; 5 
Saturday. 



Class 2: 

Includes. 



Maximum day's work... 

Maximum week's work. 

Class 3: 

Includes 



Women and 
young per- 
sona (14-18). 

10 hours; 5| 
Saturday. 

55i hours 



Maximum day's work... 
Maximum week's work. 

Grown men: 

Maximum day's work... 



Maximum week's work. 

NIGHT WORK. 

Legal definition of 



Is it forbidden for children and yomig 
persons? 



Is it forbidden for womenf 

From what age may men work at night? 
Legal holidays 



Not laid down. 



Not bod down. 



9i>.nu-««.m. 



18 ,. 

Sundays mm 
- aoCherdayt. 



3 


3 


2. 


12 


13 


12. 


12-16 


13-14 


12-16. 


10 hours 


6 hours 


11 hours. 


60 hours 


36 hours 


66 hours. 


Young per- 
sona (16-18). 


Young per- 
sons (14-16). 


Women • over 
16. 


10 hours 


10 hours 


11 hours. 


60 hours 


60 hours 


66houis. 


Women abore 
18. 

10 hours 

601ioan«« 


Women aboTs 
16. 

Uhouis. 

06 hours. 




10hoiiir,w]MO 
nowooMOor 
childfsnsai- 


Not laid down. 


Not laid down 



Tai 
Ti 



62 



BRITISH WOOLEN INDUSTRY. 



nelgium. 



Italy. 



Switzerland. I Maaaachuaetts. 



DAY WORK. 

Number of classes of work people af- 
fected by the laws. 
Minimum age of workers 



1: 

Age limits 

Maximum day!s work., 



12-14 

Hi hours.. 



Maximum week's work 67i hours.. 



Class 2: 

Includes. 



Maximum day's work... 
Maximum week's work. . 

Class 3: 

Includes 

Maximum day's work... 
Maximum week's work. . 



Grown men: 

Maximum day's work... 



Young persons 

(14-16). 
11| hours, 



12-15 

11 hours (with 
exceptions). 

66 hours (with 
exceptions). 

Women over 
15. 

12 hours 



67i hours 72 hours.. 



14-16 

11 hours.. 



65 hours.. 



All over 10. 



11 hours... 
65 hours... 



Women 16-21 . 

lU hours 

G7i hours 



Maximum week's work. 

NIGHT WORK. 

Legal definition of 



Grown men Not laid down .| 11 hours., 
arc not dealt 
with nor are 
grown wom- 
en. 

do 



Not laid down. 65 hours.. 



Is it forbidden for children and young 
personsf 

Is it forbidden for women? 

From what age may men work at night? 

Legal holidays 



8p.m.-6a.m. 
summer, 9 
p. m.-5 a. m. 
winter. 

Yes 



9p. m.-5a. m.' 8p.m.-6a.m. i 
I summer, 9 
I p. m.-5 a. m. 
winter. 

Yes Yes 



No i Yes Yes 

16; women I 15 18 

from 21. I 

52 days a year. 52 days a year. Sundays and a 
maximum of 
8 other da vs. 



14-16. 

Not laid down. 



58 hours. 



All over 16. 



Not laid down. 
58 hours. 



Not laid down. 



Not laid down. 



10p.m.-«a.m. 



Yes. 



Yes. 
16. 



Sundays and 7 
other days. 



DWELLINGS OF WAGE-WORKERS. 

Throughout Yorkshire the typical workmen^s dwelUngs are built in 
what is called the "terrace" style — that is, in straight rows of two- 
story brick or stone buildings, usually on sloping ground, so that each 
four-room section in the row is '* stepped '^ (raised) up a few feet above 
that of the one next below adjoining. There is little variation, and 
throughout Yorkshire this type is almost universal. In Saxony and 
other sections of the Continent, also in parts of Scotland, the prevar 
lent type is four or five story barrack tenements built around the four 
sides 01 the block. In such cases there are two to four doors opening 
on each landing. There is little privacy, and as it is troublesome for 
the small children and the old people to go up and down the stairs 
they get little outdoor exercise. Tnis type of building is very rare in 
England, as each worker wants his own separate entrance, and work- 
men's dwelUnra are rarely over two stories high. There are no 
detached buildings, however, so we see these long rows of imiform 
dwellings, usually straight but at other places winding in curves 
up and down the slopes. Figures 1 and 2 (pp. 63 and 65) show 
typical Bradford streets and houses inhabited by operatives from the 
worsted factories, while figure 3 (p. 67) shows the type of older 
streets in Bradford with houses inhabited by the poorer paid classes 
of operatives. 



WAGES IN YOSKSIIIBE. 



68 



3. 




64 



BBITISH WOOLEN INDUSTRY. 



The houses composing these terraced rows are iisuaUy one or the 
other of the two following classes: 

First, ''through" houses^ consisting of kitchen, sitting room and 
two or three bed rooms facing a front street 42 feet wide. They are 
built in rows of eight usually, and between each pair of front streets 
is a back street of 15 feet, separating the back yards from those of 
the next row of houses. Each house in the row is only one room 
wide, usually 12 feet. On the groimd floor is the Uving room, entered 
direct from the street, and behind this the scullery. On the firat 
floor above are two bedrooms, and if there is an attic another bed- 
room in that. The size of the living room and of the large bedroom 
is usually 12 by 15 feet, and 11 feet high, or 12 by 11 bv 9 feet, and 
of the smaller oedroom about 10 by 7 feet 6 inches ancf 9 feet hi^h. 
Almost all houses have small basements and in these are providea a 
pantry, accommodation for coals, and sometimes a wasn kitchen. 
Such houses rent from $1.22 to $1.94 a week. 

The second type of houses is built also in rows but back to back, and 
each consists of either a living room and a large and small bedroom, 
or, as is usually more common, of a living room on one side of the 
door and a scmlery on the other, a bedroom over each, and usually 
a third attic bedroom with dormer window. These are built in blocks 
of eight, and rent for 97 cents to $1.40 a week. They also usually 
have a small cellar used as pantry, space for coal, etc. These houses 
are only one room in depth. There is no through draft from back to 
rear, and no back yard m which to deposit dirt, which is an advan- 
tage in the poorer c[uarters of the town. This back-to-back style of 
house is. not as sanitary or convenient as the 'through" type^ and 
in many sections of England is forbidden but it is the predommant 
type in Yorkshire. 

DWELLING HOUSES COMPARED. 

As a rule the English workman has a good deal more living room 
than the continental workman. On the Continent, in most places 
where the tenement-house system flourishes, two rooms constitute 
the ordinary requirements of a worker and his family, while an Eng- 
lish worker with the same sized family will have three, four, or five 
rooms, four rooms being about the average. At Chemnitz the typ- 
ical operative pays 3 marks (71 cents) rent a week for two rooms m 
a big tenement, and at Bradford the typical operative pays 5 shil- 
lings ($1.21) for a four-room section in a back-to-back row of two- 
story terrace houses. The rent per room is a little less to the Eng- 
lishman, and his home life is more private, as he enters direct from 
the street instead of from a landing used by two or three other fami- 
lies. The following table shows the present range of rents in the 
four leading wool towns of Yorkshire m dollars per week: 





TToi:^3. 


Bradford. 


Huddersfield. 


Halifax. 


Leeds. 


Back-to-back: 
Two-room . 
Three-room 
Four-room . 




l0.73-$0.»7 
.97- 1.21 
.97- 1.36 


! 

10.73-10.91 1 
1.09- 1.35 
1.22- 1.40 
1. 70- 2. 18 

1 


10.55-10.73 
.73- .90 
.97- 1.40 
1.22- 1.58 

1.4&- 1.94 
1.46-2.06 


I0 78-Ia86 

.85-1.09 

1 0^ 1 46 


FIv©-room . 




1.22- 1.58 


Thxough: 

Four-room . 




1.22- 1.58 
1.40- 1.82 




Five-room . 





1 


1.&8- L70 




1 





WAGES IN YOBKSHIBE. 



65 







H. Doe. 1330, GO- 2- 



66 



BRITISH WOOLEN INDUSTBY. 



In the typical back-to-back terraced style of dwellings the average 
rent per room is therefore about 30 cents per room a week, and about 
35 cents per room a week in the case of the through houses varying 
according to the number of rooms to the house, the town, and the 
location. 

Considering the total population of the four main towns the census 
of 1901 showed the dwelling conditions to be as follows, the figures 
representing percentage of total population inhabiting dwellings of 
one to five or more rooms, respectively: 



TOWTI. 



''JSn^"" ^«>0"'- I 2 rooms. 



Bradford 279,767 

Huddersneld 95.047 

Halifax 104,936 

Leeds 428,968 



3 rooms. 4 rooms. 



1.2 ! 

2.1 i 

2.2 I 
.4 I 



13.6 
12.9 
18.3 
0.5 



27.4 i 

26.5 ; 

17.3 
16.0 ' 



2a8 ; 

17.0 
25.0! 



S7.0 
S7.6 
44.6 
49.1 



It is seen that one-half to three-fourtlis of the population inhabit 
houses of four to five rooms. The rents given above mclude all rates. 
As a rule out of 6 shillings 6 pence rent the rates will amount to about 
2 shillings 6 pence in the town. The rents, wages, and food costs are 
higher in Huddersfield than in any of the other Yorkshire towns. It 
is usualljr considered by economists that wages follow rents, but it 
is sometimes difficult to say which is cause and which effect. The 
Huddersfield Question may be influenced by the fact that the facto- 
ries there employ a much larger proportion of male labor than is the 
case in any of the other wool-manufacturing sections. 

COST OF FOOD. 

Food is higher in Scotland than in England, but is higher in 
Yorkshire than in Lancashire. For instance, at Dundee a 4-pound 
loaf of bread costs 6 pence (12 cents), but at Bradford it is only 
5 pence, and at Mancnester it is only 4i pence. This proportion 
does not hold good in regard to all articles, but shows tne general 
trend of the food costs. Of the Yorkshire wool towns Huddersfield 
is the highest. Bradford prices are about the average for the wool 
section. 

In Yorkshire, as throughout the United Kingdom, flour, potatoes, 
etc., arc sold by the half-stone of 7 pounds, while bread is sold by 
the 4-pound loaf. Present prices (October 21) at Bradford run 
about as follows in United States currency; 



Article. 



Tea per pound. . 

Sugar, granulated do 

Flour do 

Potatoes do 

Bread do 

Butter do 

Cheddar cheese, American do 

Bee&teak do 

Baoon, roll do 

Mutton, leg do. . . :. . 

Pork, leg do 

BjMB per dozen. . 

IflCi. per quart. . 



Cents. 



40.0 
4.3 
2.3 
.8 
2.6 
24.3 
13.5 
19.0 
16.0 
19.0 
17.0 
26.0 
6.0 



WAGES IN YORKSHIBE. 



67 




68 BRITISH WOOLEN INDUSTRY. 

Paraffin oil sells for 15 cents a gallon and coal sells by the hundred- 
weight of 112 pounds for 22 cents. 

Many of the operatives belong to cooperative societies, and these 
get their groceries and coal cheaper than the above by about 15 per 
cent. The larjgest of these cooperative societies in Bradford has a 
membership oi over 20,000. 



PLAIN WORSTED COATINGS. 



PARTICULARS OF PLANT AND COSTS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF THE CLOTH 
AS A FINISHED MATERIAL. 

In a British plant of one hundred 84-inch box looms, the following 
details have been worked out, covering all the processes and expenses 
in producing a certain plain worsted coating, which is pictured in 
illustration following : 

Cloth to be produced [as per sample in the Bureau of Manufac- 
tures] is woven 70 inches wide in loom, and finishes 60 inches wide. 
Seventy yards of warj) produces 61^ yards (37 inches trade yards) 
finished cloth. Cloth is made with 78 ends of 2/44s worsted warp 




Fig. 4.— Plain worsted coating. 

per inch, and 72 picks l/20s worsted weft per inch. Cloth weighs 
16.15 ounces per yard (37 by 60 inches). Each piece requires 31^ 
pounds warp and 32i pounds weft, or a total of 64 pounds yarn. 

The production of 100 looms running at 125 picks per minute, fifty- 
four hours per week, fifty weeks per year, allowing for 30 per 
cent stoppage, 72 picks per mch, 68 yards per piece woven, will figure 
as follows in number of pieces per annum : 

100 by 125 by 60 by 5 4 by 50 by 70 _ g ^40 say 8.000. 
300 by 72 by 36 by 68 

The weight of yarn required for 8,000 pieces will be — 

252, 000 pounds 2/44s worsted warp. 
260,000 pounds 1/208 worsted weft. 



Total 512,000 pounds yarn. 

The weight of top required, allowing 7^ per cent waste in spinning, 
will be about 553,500 pounds. To produce this amount of top the 

69 



70 BRITISH WOOLEN INDUSTBY. 

greasy wool required, figuring on a yield of 52 per cent, and a tear 
of 8 parts top to 1 part noil will be ootained as follows : 

553, 500 pounds top. 
69, 200 pounds noil. 

622, 700 pounds clean wool or about 1,200,000 greasy wool. 

Very few English worsted mills are self-contained; that is, very few 
contain the whole series of processes from greasy wool to finished 
cloth. Usually the manufacturing is divided up among a large num- 
ber of separate firms, making a specialty of their own department. 
Thus, there is (1) the wool buyer, (2) the top maker, (3) the worsted 
spinner, (4) the weaver, (5) the dyer and finisher, witn the merchant 
or the weaver as the central agent in the cloth manufacture. Natur- 
ally, each of these firms has a separate staff for administration and 
selling, and makes its own charges for profit and financing. If a 
mill could make only a few styles of goods it would be more econom- 
ical to operate a complete plant, but worsteds are so affected by the 
vagaries of fashions that the individualization of processes is usually 
preferable. 

USUAL TRADE CHARGES. 

In the following notes I will first figure the cost of making this 
cloth according to the usual trade charges for commission work, and 
will then figure out the cost of equipment and of operation of the 
various departments: 

COST OF TOP. 

100 pounds P. P. (Port Philip) wool, at ll^d. (23 cents) per 
pound. Add for carriage, etc., about ^d. (say 1 cent) per 
pound, which makes total cost per pound wool about Is. £ .<?. 
(24. 3 cents), and for 100 pounds 5 0=$24. 33 

Yields 6 poiinds noil, at Is. 4d., or 32.3 cents a pound 8= 1,94 

Therefore 46 pounds top, at 2s., or 48.6 cents a iwund 4 12= 22.39 

Add for combing 2d., or 4 cents, a pound ; therefore cost per pound 
top is 2s. 2d., or 52.6 cents, a pound. 

COST OF 2/44s WORSTED YARN. 

£ S. d, 

100 pounds top, at 28. 2d. (52.6 cents) i)er pound 10 16 S=$52. 71 

Yield 7i pounds waste at 8d. (16 cents) 5 0= 1.21 

10 11 8= 51.50 
Therefore 92^ pounds, at 2s. 3id. (55.6 cents) per pound.. 10 12 0= 51.58 

Add for spinning 4Jd., or 9 cents, a pound; therefore cost per 
pound is 2/44s=2s. 8d., or 66.6 cents. 

COST OF 1/20S WORSTED YARN. 

£ 8. d, 

100 pounds top, at 2s. 2d. (52.6 cents) per pound 10 16 8=$52.71 

Yields 7i pounds waste, at 8d. (16 cents) per pound 5 0= 1. 21 

10 11 8= 51.50 
Therefore 92i pounds yam, at 2s. 3id. (55.6 cents) per 

pound 10 12 0= 51.68 

Add for spinning 2d., or 4 cents, per pound; therefore cost per 
jound of l/20s=2s. S^d., or 59.6 cents. 



PLAIN WORSTED COATINGS. 



71 



COST OF CLOTH. 

31} pounds 2/44S worsted warp, at 2s. 8d. (64.6 cents) per £ 8, d, 

pound 4 4 0=$20.44 

32} pounds worsted weft, at 2s. 5}d. (50.6 cents) per ix)und— 4 0= 19. 47 

Warping and beaming 1 6= .36 

Weaving ^ 15 0= 3.66 

Mending 3 6= .86 

Scouring and finishing 9 6= 2.31 

Piece dyeing 12 6= 3.04 

Warehouse and selling 6 0= 1.46 

Finances, etc 12 0= 2.92 

11 4 0= 54.50 
61} yards, at 3s. 8d. (88.9 cents) 11 5 0= 54.67 

Therefore cost per yard is 3s. 8d., or 88.9 cents. 

The selling price at the mill was 96 cents a yard, which is about 
95 cents a pound. 

The wool at various stages of manufacture (including the noils 
and waste which are sold to a woolen manufacturer) would have the 
following values and the following would be the duty on same : 



Greasy Port Philip wool. 

Nolla 

Scoured wool 

Tops 

Waste 

Warp yam 2'44« 

Weft yarn 1 "20s 

Finished cloth 



Price per 




pound in 
fluddera- 


Tariff 


paragraph. 


Held. 




Cents. 




24.8 


857 


82.3 


862 


48.6 


854 


52.6 


866 


16.0 


361 


66.6 


865 


f>9.6 


865 


95.0 


8('>6 



Kouivalent 

advalorum 

duty. 



I'er cnit. 

46.8 
61.9 
67.9 
138.6 
1H7.6 
97.8 
104.6 
101.8 



COST OF EQUIPMENT AND OPERATION. 

We will now figure on the detailed cost of equipment and detailed 
costs of operation of the different departments to produce 8,000 
pieces per year of the 16.15-ounce (per yard 37 inches oy 60 inches) 
plain worsted coating. The departments will be as follows : (1^ Wool 
combing; (2a) spinning for 2/44s worsted warp; (2b) spinning for 
l/20s worsted weft; (3) warping and beaming; (4) weaving; ^5^ 
perching, mending, and knotting; ^6) scouring ana finishing; (7) 
piece dyeing; (8) warehouse and selling; (9) office. 

(1) WOOL-COMBINO PLANT. 

[Efltimatc by Taylor, Wordsworth A Co., I^eds, to produce 4,000 pounds finished tops 

per day of ten hours.] 

Capital exi)endlture: 

1 Ma lard steeping machine. 

4 wool-washing machines (1 4-bowl set) 36 inches wide. 
12 cards, each producing 300 pounds per day of ten hours. Card clothing 
for these 12, at £75. £900. 

1 grinding frame. 

2 7-cylinder hot-air baclcwushers, each delivering 2,000 iK>und8 i>er day of 

ten hours. 
2 first prer>arer8. 
2 second prei)arers. 
1 winding frame. 



72 BRITISH WOOLEN INDUSTRY. 

Capital expenditure — CJontinued. 

10 Noble combing machines, each producing 400 pounds per day of ten 

hours. 
6 first finishers. 
6 second finishers. 
1 4-cylinder willey for card waste. 

Total cost of above combing plant, £12,000, or $58,398 ; total power required, 
100 indicated horsepower ; total space required, 15,000 square yards. 

Labor : £ s.d. 

General wages per week 23 9 6 = $114.23 

Wages mechanic 2 00= 9.73 

Wages pin setter 1 15 = 8.51 

Wages two men on Malard steeper 2 10 = 12.16 

Total 29 14 6 = $144.68 



Per year. 



1,076 0=$5,236.35 

194 0= 944.10 
262 10= 1,277.45 
500 0= 2,433.25 



Departmental costing: 

Machines, interestand depreciation (14 years) on £11,000, 

at 4i per cent 

Cards, interest and depreciation (6 years) on £1,000, at 

4i per cent .' 

Rent, 1,500 square yards, at 3s. 6d. per square yard 

Motive power, IOC indicated horsepower, at £5' 

Repairs ' 120 0= 583.98 

Rates, taxes, lighting, and insurance 500 0=2, 433. 25 

Auxiliary supplies ' 250 0= 1 , 216. 63 

Steam for combs, washers, etc ' 90 0= 437. 99 

Water for washers and steeper 80 0= 389. 32 

Miscellaneous expenses i 100 0= 486.65 

Wages, £29 14s. 6d. for 50 weeks 1,486 5= 7,232.83 

Wages, £4 for 52 weeks 208 0= 1,012.23 



Total j 4,866 15=23, 684. aS 



Productive capacity=4,000 by 5} by 50, or 1,100,000 pounds per annum. 
Cost per pound=-£4,86a-15-J-l,l00,000=1.07d., or 2.14 cents i)er pound. 

The trade commission charged for combing is 2d. (4 cents) per 
pound, which must include profits, administration, finance, and selling 
charges. 

(2^) PLANT FOR G,000 POUNDS PER WEEK 2/44S — BOTANY — OPEN DRAWING. 

Capital expenditure: £ «. 

4 revolving ball creels for 12 balls, at £11 44 = $214. 13 

4 double can gill boxes, at £26 104 = 506.11 

6 2-spindle gill boxes, at £26 156 = 759. 17 

2 6-spindle drawing boxes, at £25 50 = 243. 33 

2 8-spindle drawing boxes, at £30 60 = 291. 99 

2 12-spindle first finisher, at £36 72 = 350.39 

6 12-spindle finishers, at £36 216 = 1,051.16 

9 24-spindle reducing frames, at 30s 324 = 1,576.75 

24 32-spindle roving frames, at 27s 1,036 16 = 5,045.58 

28 cap spinning frames, 160 spindles each, at 12s__ 2, 688 = 13, 081. 15 

12 cap twisting frames, 160 spindles each, at lis. 9d- 1, 128 = 5, 489. 41 

Miscellaneous expenses, cans, belting, spools, etc— 500 0=2, 433. 25 

Total 6.378 16 = 31,042.42 

Floor space required, 1,986 square yards ; power required 189 indicated horse- 
power. 



PLAIN WORSTED COATINGS. 



73 



Per week. 



Labor: 

1 can ffill tenter 

2 spindle gill tenters, at 1^. 6(1. . 

2 drawing-box tenters, at 128. 6d 
4 finisher tenters, at 128 

3 reducer tenters, at 128 

8 rover tenters, at 12s 

1 jobber tenter 

1 overlooker tenter 

28 spinners, at lOs 

Udoffers, at 8s. 6d 

1 jobber 

2 takers-off, at lOs 

2 setters, at 9s. 6d 

1 sweeper 

1 overlooker 

24 twisters, at lis 

8doffer8, at Ss. 6d 

1 jobber lad 

2 takers-off, at lOs 

2 setters, at 9s. 6d 

1 overlooker 

Share of manager's wages, at £6. . 
Total 



8. 

12i 

5 

5 

8 

16 

16 

12 

12 



19 

11 



19 

7 

1 12 



3 4 
3 8 

11 
1 

19 
1 12 



$3.04 
6.08 
6.08 

11.68 
8.75 

23.35 
2.92 
7.78 

68.13 

28.95 
2.67 
4.86 
4.62 
1.70 
7.78 

64.23 

16.54 
2.67 
4.86 
4.62 
7.78 



59 8} 
4 



289.09 
19.47 



63 



8i = 308.56 



Worsted spinning, 2/^8, 



Departmental costing: 

Interest and depreciation (10 years) on £6,500, at 4J % . . . 

Rent, 2,000 square yards, at 38. 6d 

Motive power, say 200 indicated horsepower, at £5 

Repairs 

Lighting 

Rates, taxes, and insurance 

Materials 

Miscellaneous expenses 

Wages, 50 weeks, at £59-8-6 

Wages, 52 weeks, at £4 

Total 



Per year. 



£ 


8. 




814 11 = 


$3,964.00 


350 


0= 


1,703.27 


600 


0= 


2,919.90 


50 


0= 


243. 32 


120 


0= 


583.98 


250 


0= 


1,216.62 


70 


0= 


340.66 


30 


0= 


146.00 


2,971 


5= 


14,454.60 


208 


0= 


1,012.24 


5,463 16= 


26, 584. 49 



Production, 7,500 pounds per week. CJost per pound, £6,463 16s. ($26,584.49) 
-I- (7,500 by 50)=3.54d. (7.08 cmts) per pound. 

The trade charge for spinning 2/44s. would be 4^d. (9 cents) per 
pound, which would include profits, administration, selling, and 
financing charges. 



74 



BRITISH WOOLEN INDUSTRY. 



(2b) PLANT FOB PRODUCING 6,000 POUNDS PER WEEK 1/208. 

Capital expenditure: £ «. 

2 revolving ball creels for 12 balls, at £11 22 0= $107.06 

2 double-can gill boxes, at £26 52 0= 253.06 

3 2-spindle gill boxes, at £26 78 0= 379. 59 

1 6-spindle drawing box 25 0= 121.66 

1 8-spindle drawing box 30 0= 146.00 

1 12-8pindle first finisher 36 0= 175. 19 

2 12-spindle finishers, at £42 84 0= 408. 78 

6 36-spindle rovers, at 27s per spindle 291 12=1,419.07 

9 cap spinning frames 160 spindles, at 12s per spindlel— 864 0=4, 204. 66 

Miscellaneous expenses 200 0= 973.30 

Total 1,682 12=8,188.37 

Floor space required, 530 square yards ; power required. 48i indicated horse- 
power. 



Per week. 



Labor required: \ £ %. d, 

3 minders, at 12s. 6d I 1 17 6 =$9.12 

2 minders, at 12s 14 = 5.84 

2 rovers, at 128 1 4 = 5.84 

9 spinners, at 10s 4 10 = 21. 90 

5 doffers, at 8s. 6d 2 2 6 =10.34 

Ijobberlad 11 = 2.67 

Itakeroff 10 = 2.43 

Isetter 9 6 = 2.31 

1 sweeper • 7 = 1.70 

loverlooker 1 12 = 7.78 



14 7 6 
Share of manager's wages ' 2 



69.95 
9.73 



Total. 



I- 



16 7 6 = 79.68 



Wor%te^ spinning, 1/208, 



Departmental costing: 

Interest and depreciation (10 years) , at 4} per cent 

Rent, 530 square yards, at 8s. *6d 

Motive power, say 60 indicated horsepower, at £5. . 

Repairs 

Lighting, rates, taxes, and insurance 

Materials 

Miscellaneous expenses 

Wages, 50 weeks, at £14 7s. 6d 

Wages, 52 weeks, at £2 



Total 1,610 6= 7,836.44 



Per year. 



£ 8. 

214 16=$1,045.50 
92 15= 451.37 



300 
20 

100 
50 
10 



0= 1,459.95 



0= 
0= 
0= 
0= 



97.33 
486.65 
243.33 

48.66 



718 15= 3,497.50 
104 0= 506.12 



Production, 7,500 pounds per week. Cost per pound, £1.610 6s. ($7,836.44) 
-H( 7,600 by 50)=1.03d. (2.06 cents) per pound. 

The trade charge for spinning l/20s. would be 2d. (4 events) per 
pjound, and would include profits, administration, selling, and nnan- 
cing costs. 



PLAIN WOBSTED COATINGS. 



76 



Production of worsted spinning plant for 2/J^s, 

Speed of spindles, 7,000 revolutions per minute; turns twist per inch 1/448, 

7,000 
13; production per minute per spindle, jo'K^aR y*^''*^^- 

Production per week of flfty-flve and one-half hours, allowing 15 per cent for 
stoppages : 



[ Yards pt*r minute. 

I 



7,000 ^ 



Minutes per week, 



60 by 55J by 



Bpindlefl. 



28 by 160 by 



Per cent. 



85 
100 



bv 



Yards per 
pound. 



I 
1_ I 

44 by 560~ 



Equals 7,697 pounds, say ^,500 pounds per week of fifty-five and one-half 
hours. 

Production of worsted spinning plant for J /20s, 

Si)eed of spindles, 7,000 revolutions per minute; turns twist per inch, 0; 

7,000 
production per minute per spindle, ^ . g^ yards. 

Production per week of fifty-five and one-half hours, allowing 15 per cent for 
stoppages : 



Yards por minute. 



7,000 , 
9 by 36 ^'y 



Minutes per week. 



60 by 55J by 



Spindles. 



9 by 160 by 



Per cent. 



85 , 



Yards per 
pound. 



1 

20 by 560 



Equals 7,862 pounds, say 7,500 pounds per week of fifty-five and one-half 
hours. 

(3) WABPING AND BEAMING DEPARTMENT. 

Capital expenditure: 

5 warping and beaming machines, at £55 £275 = $1,338. 28 

5 creels, at £20 100= 486.65 

Pulleys and belts 15= 73.00 

Miscellaneous apparatus 50= 243.83 



Total 440 = 2, 141. 28 



Departmental costing: 

Interest and depreciation (13 years) on £450, at 4i |)er cent. 

RepaifH 

Rent, 200 wiuare yards, at 3a. 6d 

Rates, taxes, gas, an<l insurance 

Motive i)ower, 8 indicated horseiwwer, at £5 

Miscellaneous exi>ensea 

Wapes, T) wari)e?-s, at ISs. |>er week 

Wages, 1 beamer, at 288. per week 



Total. 



Per year. 



£ 8. 




46 9 = 


$226. 16 


5 = 


24.33 


:H5 = 


170.33 


32 = 


155. 73 


15 = 


73.00 


15 = 


73.00 


225 = 


1,094.96 


70 = 


340.65 



443 9 = 2, 158. 16 



Then £443 9s. Gd. ($2,158.16), divided by 8,000 cuts, gives cost per cut of 
Is. 2d. (28.3 cents). 



76 



BRITISH WOOLEN INDUSTRY. 



(4) WEAVING DEPARTMENT. 

Capital expenditure: £ 

100 84-inch box looms, 6 shafts, tappets, at £38 3, 800 

Straps, shuttles, temples, at 18s. 6d 92 

Pulleys and belts, at 16s 80 

Extra fittings 30 

Healds and slays 972 

Miscellaneous expenses 300 

Total 5, 274 



8. 

0=$18, 492. 70 
10= 
0= 
0= 
0= 
0= 



450.15 

389.32 

146.00 

4,730.24 

1,459.94 



10= 25,668.35 



Per year. 



Departmental costing: 

Interest and sinking fund (10 years) on £5,300, at 4J 

per cent 

Repairs, including new healds and slays 

Rent, 1 ,500 square yards, at 8s. 6d 

Rates, taxes, gas, and insurance 

Motive power, 50 indicated horsepower, at £5 

Miscellaneous expenses 

Wages, 1 tuner at 408.; 3 tuners at 378. 61. (52 

weeks) 

Wajres, 2 beamers, at 28s.; 12 twisters, at 17h. (50 

weeks) 

Weaver's wages, 8,000 (cuts) by 18 (picks per J inrh) 

by 4id. ( price paid per pick ) per \ inch 



£ 


s. 


d. 


669 


7 


10 = $3, 257. 59 


180 





= 875. 97 


262 


10 


0= 1,277.43 


220 





0= 1,070.63 


250 





0= 1,216.63 


50 





= 243. 33 



396 10 0= 1,929.50 

650 0= 3,163.24 

L\850 = 13,869.53 



Total 



5,528 7 10 = 26,903.85 



£5,528 7s. lOd. ($26,903.91) divided by 8,000 cuts=148. ($3.30) i)er cut. 

(5) PERCHING, MENDING, AND KNOTTING DEPAKTMENT. 

Capital expenditure: 

Tables, forms, perches, scrays, numbering machines, etc., 

say £200 = $973. 80 



Per year. 



Departmental costing: 

Interest and depreciation (20 years) on £2(X)at4i i)ercent.. 

Rent, 300 Sijuare yards, at 38. 6d 

Rates, taxes, gas, and insurance 

AVages, 50 weeks, at £21 4s 

Miscellaneous expenses 

Total 



£ 8. 




15 7= 


$74. 82 


52 10= 


255.49 


40 0= 


194.66 


1,060 0=5 


, 158. 49 


30 0= 


146.00 



1,197 17=5,829.46 



£1,197 17s. 6d. ($5,829.45) divided by 8,000 = 3s. (72.9 cents) per piece. 

(6) SCOUBINQ AND FINISHING DEPARTMENT. 

Capital expenditure: £ «. 

3 washing and scouring machines, at £42 126 = $613. 18 

2 milling machines, at £40 80 = 389.82 

1 hydro-extractor 120 = 583.98 

1 tentering and drying machine 427 0= 2,078.00 

1 brush dewing machine 45 = 218.99 

6 cutting machines, at £33 198 = 963.57 

1 extra set, 10 spiral cutters and blade 9 8= 45. 74 

2 brushing and steaming machines, at £88 176 = 856. 60 



PLAIN WOBSTED COATIKOS. 



77 



Capital expenditure — Continued. £ a. 

1 double brushing machine 48 0^ $233.59 

4 hydraulic presses, 4 feet 6 inches lift, 12-inch ram, 

at £100 400 0= 1,946.60 

Press papers, plates, fencing, etc 134 = 652. 11 

1 steam oven 29 = 141. 13 

1 hydraulic pump 92 = 447. 72 

1 single-screw baling press 16 = 77.88 

lyMj^ch grinding machine 55 = 267.67 

;iJ^ables, scrays, pulleys, belting, etc 60 = 291.90 

Meellaneous 150 0= 729.98 

2,165 8 = 10,537.93 
1 blowing machine, 1 rigging and cutting machine, 

say 300 0= 1,459.95 

Total 2, 465 8 = 11, 997. 88 

Fifty-five and one-half indicated horsepower required for power besides steam 
for blowing, brushing, tentering, driving hydro-pump, etc. 





Per year. 


Labor: 

1 head finisher, at £3 lOs. per week 


£ 
182— $885.70 


1 head scourer, at £2 per week 


102= 496. 38 


3 scourers (248. ) and millers, at £3 128. per week 

1 tenterer, at £1 28. per week 


180= 875.97 
55= 267.66 


4 finishers, at 258., £5 per week 


250=1,216.62 


4 pressers, at 26s., £6 48. per week 


260=1,265.29 


8 ads, at 168., £6 88. per week 


320=1,557.28 






Total 


1,349=6,564.90 





Departmental costing: 

Interest and depreitiation (14 years) on £2,500, at 

4i per cent 

Repairs _ 

Rent, 1,200 8(]uare yards, at 38. 6tl 

Rates (£90), taxes (£10), gas (£30), and iuHurance 

(X12J) : 

Motive power, say 65 indicated horsepower, at £5 

Steam for tt'nterinc:, brushinjr, blowing 

Steam for driving hydro, tenter, pump , 

Water for scouring, 4,000,000 gallons, at 7d. (14c ) per 

1,000 

Soap and other materials 

Wages , 

Miscellane<^us 

Total 



I*er year. 



£ 8. 

244 10 » 

35 0: 

210 0: 

142 10 : 

325 0: 

250 0: 

50 0: 

116 13 « 

100 0" 

1,349 = 

30 0: 



» $1,189. 86 

170.32 

■• 1,021.90 

693. 47 
* 1,681.61 
: 1,216.63 
« 243. 33 

: 567. 75 
486.65 

'• 6,564.91 
146.00 



2,852 13 = 13,882.43 



£2,852 13s. 4d. ($13,882.49) -+-8,000 pieceB=78. lid. ($1,735) per piece. 

The country finisher with all expenses of collecting and delivering, 
office and financial charges, seeking-in work, etc., would charge from 
9s. 6d. ($2.31) per piece for finishing. 



78 



BRITISH WOOLEN INDUSTRY. 



(7) PIECE DYEING DEPABTMENT. 

Capital expenditures: £ 

3 piece-dyeing machines, with engine and winch, at £43__ 129= $627. 78 

3 chroming machines, with engine and winch, at £43 129= 627. 78 

3 coolers, at £18 54= 262. 79 

3 washing-off or scouring machines, at £40 126= 613. 18 

1 hydro-extractor 120= 583.98 

2 indigo vats, with copper coil, steam taps, etc., at £33-__ 66= 321. 19 

2 hawljing machines, at £33 66= 321.19 

2 piece squeezing machines, nt £20 40= 194.66 

Fixing and steam piping, pulleys, etc 200= 973.30 

Miscellaneous 150= 729.97 

Total - 1.080= 5,255.82 

Power required, 16 indicated horsepower. This plant would dye 180 pieces 

per week. 

Labor : £ ». 

1 dyer, at £4 i)er week 4 0= $19.47 

10 laborers, at 25s 12 10= 60.83 

Total 16 10= 80.30 



Floor space required 300 by 30 feet, 
for 11 machines (vats and washers). 



Need steam for 7 small engines and 



Per year. 



Departmental costing: 

Interest and depreciation (14 years) on £1,080, at 4 J per 

cent _ 

Repairs 

Rent, 1,250 square yards, at SOs. 6d 

Rates and taxes (£70), gas ( £20). insurance (£3) 

Motive power, 16 indicated horsepower, at £5 

Steam for engines, 21 indicated horsepower, at £5 , 

Steam for vats and washers I 

Dye wares I 

Dve wares, indigo 

Wages, 50 weeks, at £12 10s 

Wages, 52 weeks, at £4 

Water _ 

Miscellaneous expenses 



Total 3,069 8=14,937.27 



£ 


«. 




99 


13= 


$484. 98 


30 


0= 


145.99 


218 


15= 


1,064.54 


93 


0= 


452.58 


80 


0= 


389. 32 


ia5 


0= 


510. 98 


700 


0= 


3, 406. 55 


350 


0= 


1,703.27 


500 


0= 


2, 4;i3. 25 


625 


0= 


3,041.56 


208 


0= 


1,012.23 


40 


0= 


194.66 


20 


0= 


97.33 



no rjfiU 

Pieces dyed, 8,000. Cost per piece "o"7xxr=78. 8d. say 8s. ($1,944) per piette. 

(8) WAREHOUSE AND SELLING DEPARTMENT. 

Capital exi)endituro : 

Tables, pattern-cutting machine, packing; press, etc., say__ £300=$1, 459. 95 



Per year. 



Departmental costing: 

Interest and depreciation (20 years) on £3(X) at 4 J 

per cent 

Rent, 200 square yards, at 38. 6ti 

Rates, taxes, gas, and insurance 

Wages, 2 warehousemen and lad, at 75s 

Packing materials 

Salaries and commission 

Miscellaneous, carriage, etc 



£ X. 




23 1- 


$112.23 


35 = 


170.33 


60 = 


291.99 


187 10 = 


912.46 


50 = 


243.33 


1,500 = 


7, 299. 76 


200 = 


973.30 



Total 2,055 11 = 10,003.39 



£2,056 lis. 3d. ($10,003.39) divided by 8,000 pieces=5s. Ifd., say, 58. 6d. 
($1,335) per piece. 



PLAIN W0B8TED COATINGS. 



79 



(9) FINANCE, OFFICE AND MISCELLANEOUS. 

Capital expenditure: 

OfDce fittings (£200), carts, horses, and miscellaneous 

(£1.000) £1, 200 = $5, 839. 80 



I 



Per year. 



Dejmrtmental costing: 

Interest and depreciation (14 years) on £1,200, at 4 J 

per cent 

Rent, 100 square yards at 3s. 6d 

Rates, taxes, gas, and insurance 

OflBee materials, postage, etc 

Cashier (£200) and clerks (£200), wages 

Timekeeper's wages 

Manager's wages 

Cartage 

Bad debts 

Difference between discounts received and allowed, 

2i per cent on £9,800 = £2,450 less received £150. . . 
Interest on capital for stock and wages, £49,000, at 4 J 

per cent for three months 

Total 



£ 


/». 




63 


7 = 


$308. 43 


17 


10 = 


85.16 


50 


= 


243.33 


200 


= 


973.30 


400 


= 


1,946.60 


50 


= 


243.33 


500 


= 


2, 433. 25 


250 


= 


1,216.63 


150 


0= 


729.98 


2,300 


= 


11,192.95 


501 


5 = 


2,439.32 


4,482 


2 = 


21,812.28 



£4,482 ($21,812.28) divided by 8,000 pieces = lis. 3d., or $2,727, per piece. 



COST AT HUDDERSFIELD. 



SAMPLES OF WOOL. GOODS — ^LAY OUT AND ESTIMATED COST. 

Huddersfield is noted as the center of the fine worsted trade in the 
West Riding of Yorkshire, especially for men's high-class worsted 
wear. These goods are woven on wide looms, with one loom per 
weaver, and the weavers are mainly men, while the Bradford stuflf 
mills use mainly women weavers, operating two narrow looms each. 

Accompanying this report are eight samples of wool goods repre- 
senting the fabrics made at Huddersfield, England. The lay out and 
estimate of cost are given for each fabric, the estimate being made in 
each case for 1,056 yards of cloth. Samples 1 to 6 are worsted goods 
and the cost estimates are based on the manufacture in a mill buying 
the worsted yam, as is the custom in this district. Nos. 7 and 8 are 
carded woolen goods, and as such fabrics are manufactured in one 
mill from the wool or shoddy, the estimates of cost cover all operations 
from the loose raw material to the finished goods. The yarn counts 
for worsted, cotton, and spun silk are the same as those used in the 
United States. (The Huddersfield count for woolen yam has been 
reduced to the run basis.) 

The weights of the material as given include an allowance for 
waste in the various processes. The cost of manufacturing the cloth 
is apportioned to the various departments of the mill as follows : 

Office expenses include, besides the regular office expense, differences 
in discount given and received and in terms of payment given and 
received. 

The warehouse item includes warehouse expenses, packing material, 
traveling and selling expense, commission tor selling, and all other 
expenses in the shipping and marketing of cloth. 

Patterns include cost of getting out styles, travelers' lengths, also 
salaries of designers. 

Weaving includes warping, beaming, and putting up, as well as 
weavers' wa^s and all other expenses of this department. 

Mending includes knotting and burling. Finishing includes all 
the processes necessary for preparing the cloth for the warehouse. 
It is connected with dyeing, as in the case of the dyed piece it is 
simpler to combine the charges for dyeing and finishing. 

DIFFERENCES ACCOUNTED FOR. 

The differences in discount given and received, included under 
office expenses, are considerable, because the discount is allowed on the 
total cost of the cloth, which includes many items, such as wages and 
salary, rent, etc., on which no discount is received. 
80 



COST AT HUDDEBSFIELD. 



81 



Ofl5ce expenses also include the differences in terms of payment. 
Many goods bought for manufacturing are paid for on much shorter 
terms than the goods sold ; that is, wool must be paid for in seven 
days; in addition the material is lying idle for the period of time 
required for manufacture, this varying on different classes of goods. 

The terms of payment tor cloth sold are very easy in the Hudders- 
field trade, and probably six months would barely cover the time from 
paying for the raw material to receiving the payment for the cloth 
sold. 

With regard to wages, nearly the same length of time would elapse 
between paying and receiving payment for tne cloth. Hence a large 
amount of floating capital is necessary to finance a Huddersfield mill. 
The amount of this item is included in the office expenses and financial 
charges column and varies according to the cost of raw material, 
rates of wages, terms, and other expenses. 

The samples, lay out, and estimates of cost follow : 




Fig. 5. — Sample No. 1. — Fancy Worsted Suiting. 

11,050 yards, high grade: weight per square yard, 13.0 ounces; thread per Inch In warp 
42, filling 40; grade, botany No. 70, at 74 cents; yarn 1.530 pounds, 2/IGh.I 





Yarn. 


Interest 
and de- 
precia- 
tion. 


Re- 
pairs. 


Rent. 


Gas, 
etc. 


Power. 


Sup- 
plies. 


Wages. 


Sala- 
ries. 


Total. 


Material 


SI. 132. 20 
















$1,132.20 


Office expense 






10.34 


10.16 




SO. 12 




S20.18 


20.80 


Discounts, tenuH, 
etc 




$30.60 




30.60 


Warehouse 






2.96 

.24 

4.56 

1.20 

5.98 


1.64 

.24 

4.70 

1.20 

4.98 


'*i3.*92' 


1.48 
1.16 
1.30 


S2.96 
26.88 
82.64 
21.60 

48.60 


20.56 
6.08 
18.94 

2.10 


29.60 


Patterns . ... 








33.60 


Weaving 




11.70 


S3. 12 


190.88 






24.00 


Finishing and 
dyeing 




10.08 


1.78 


10.36 


12.60 


96.48 








Total 


1.132.20 


52. 3« 


4.90 


15.28 


12.92 


14.28 


16.66 


182.68 


66.86 


1,498.16 



Cost per yard, 58 inches, $1,419. 
H. Doc. 1330, 00-2 6 



82 



BRITISH WOOLEN INDUSTRY. 




Fig. 6. — Samplk No. 2. — Fancy Worsted Suiting. 

1 1,056 yards, medium quality; weight per square yard. 11.8 ounces: threads per inch In 
warp 45, filling 48 ; grade, dark gray botany No. 64 at 66 cents ; No. 64 at 74 cents ; yarn, 
1,370 pounds, 2/208.] 





Yarn. 
$908.20 


Interest 
and de- 
precia- 
tion. 


Re- 
pairs. 


Rent. 


Gas, 
etc. 


I'ower. 


fiup- 
plies. 


Wages. 


Sala- 
ries. 


Total. 


Material 














$908.20 


Office expense ... 




«0.36 


$0.18 


$0.18 




$0.12 $20.82 


$0.12 


21.60 


Discounts, terms, 
etc 




J27.40 


27 40 


Warehouse 






3.12 

.16 

4.80 

1.20 


1.72 

.06 

4.94 

1 •>n 


"ii.i2' 


1.56 

.72 

1.38 


3.12 
16.58 
86.40 
21.60 


21.68. 
3.28 
19.90 


81.20 


Patterns 








20.80 


Weaving 


12.36 1 3.30 


137.20 


Mending 




OA m 


Finishing and 
dyeing 




6.30 , 1.08 


3.72 j 3.12 


6.48 


H.IO 


30. 4M 


72 : fiO-00 


Total 










908.20 


46.06 


1.38 


13.36 


11.22 


10.60 


11.88 ! 179.00 45.70 


1.230.40 



Cost per yard, 58 inches, $1,165. 




Fig. 7. — Sample No. 3. — Fancy Worsted and Woolen Suiting. 



COST AT HUDDERSFIELD. 



88 



[1,056 yards; weight per square yard, 11.9 ounces; threads per inch in warp 56, filling 
54 ; grade, botany No. 1, 608, at 67 cents : No. 2, 608, at 67 cents ; woolen weft, at 30 
cents; yarn, 570 pounds. No. 1, 2/288; 330 pounds. No. 2/24s ; 534 pounds, woolen, 
2 5/8 runs.] 





Yam. 


Interest 
and de- 
precia- 
tion. 


Re- 
pairs. 


Rent 


Gas, 
etc. 


Power. 


Sup- 
plies. 


Wages. 


Sala- 
ries. 


Total. 


Material 


«764.28 


















$764.28 


Office expense . . 


$19.08 

















19 08 


Discounts, terms, 
etc 






$0.36 

3.12 

.16 

4.80 

1.20 

3.72 


$0.18 

1.72 

.06 

4.94 

1.20 

3.12 


'*$4."i2* 


$0.12 

1.56 

.72 

1.38 


$20 82 
3.12 
16.58 
86.40 
21.60 

30.48 


$0.12 
21.68 
3.28 
19.90 

.72 


21.60 


Warehouse 








31.20 


Patterns 








20.80 


Weaving 




12.36 


«3.30 


137.20 


Mending 


24.00 


Finishing and 
dyeing 


6.30 


1.08 


6.48 


8.10 


60.00 














Total 


764.28 


37.74 ! 4.38 


13.36 1 11.22 


10.60 


11.88 


179.00 


45.70 


1,078.16 



Cost per yard, 58 inches, $1,021. 

Sample No. 4 — Piece Dyed Indigo Suiting. 

[1,056 yards ; weight per square yard, 14.0 ounces ; threads per inch in warp 44, filling 48 ; 
grade, botany No. 80, at 66 cents; yarn, 1,500 pounds, 2/20s.] 





Yarn. 


Interest 
and 

deprecia- 
tion. 


Re- 
pairs. 


i 

1 


Power. 


Sup- 
plies. 


Wages. 


Sal- 
aries. 


Total. 


Material 


$990.00 
















$990.00 


Office expense . . . 






$0.36 1 $0.18 


• 


$0.12 


$20.82 


$0.12 


21.60 


Discounts, terms, 
etc 




$30.00 




30.00 


Warehouse 






3. U ! i. 72 




1.66 


3.12 


21.68 


81.20 


Patterns 










Weaving 




9.84 


$2.64 


3.84 ' 3.90 
1.20 1 1.20 


$3.26 


1.10 


69.12 
21.60 

72.48 


15.98 1 109.68 


Mending 




1 


' 24. 00 


Finishing and 
dyeing 




15.12 


2.56 


8.90 1 7.50 


15.60 141.84 


I 264.00 










Total 


990.00 1 54.96 6.20 


17.42 1 14.50 1 18.86 


144.62 


187. 14 


37. 78 1, 470. 48 



Cost per yard, 58 inches, $1,392. 



Sample No. 5. — Wool Dyed Indigo Suiting. 

[1,056 yardfi : weight per square yard, 9.8 ounces ; threads per inch in warp 48, filling 48 ; 
grade, botany worsted No. 70, at 80 cents per pound ; yam, 1,180 pounds, 2/248.] 





Yam. 


Interest 
and 

deprecia- 
tion. 


Re- 
pairs. 


Rent. 


Oas, 
etc. 


Power. 


Sup- 
plies. 


Wages. 


Sal- 
aries. 


Total. 


Material 


$944.00 
















$944.00 


Office expense ... 








$0.36 


$0.18 




$0.12 


$20.82 


$0.12 


21.60 


Discounts, terms, 
etc 




$31.20 




31.20 


Warehouse 






3.12 

.16 

4.08 

1.20 

5.96 


1.72. 




1.56 

.72 

1.16 


8.12 
16.68 
73.20 
21.60 

48.60 


21.68 
3.28 
16.66 

1.28 


31.20 


Patterns 








.06 
4.20 
1.20 

5.00 


'■$3.'48" 


20.80 


Weaving 




10.44 


$2.78 


116.00 


Mending 




24.00 


Finishing and 
dyeing 





10.08 


1.76 


10.36 


12.96 


96.00 










Total 


944.00 51.72 


4.54 


14.88 


12.36 1 13.84 


16.52 


183.92 


43.02 


1,281.80 



Cost per yard, 58 inches, $1,216. 



84 



BRITISH WOOLEN INDUSTRY. 




FiQ. 8. — Sample No. 6. — Wool Dyed Indigo Suiting. 

[1,056 yards ; weight per square yard, 9.8 ounces ; threads per Inch in warp, 48, filling 48 ; 
grade, botany worsted (white) No. 70, at 68 cents, (blaclc) No. 70, at 08 cents; white 
spun sillc, at $3; yarn, 500 pounds, 2/28s ; 25 pounds, 10/4s sillc.] 





Yam. 


Interest 
and 

deprecia- 
tion. 


Re- 
pairs. 


Rent. 


Gas, 
etc. 


Power. 


Sup- 
plies. 


Wages. 


Sal- 
aries. 


Total. 


Material 


$415.00 




! 








! 


$415.00 


Office expense . . . 






$0.36 


$0.18 




$0.12 


$20.82 $0.12 


2L60 


Discounts, terms, 
etc 




133.60 






33.60 


Warehouse 






3.12 

.44 

6.24 

1.20 


1.72 
.44 

6.:{6 

1.20 
6.00 


"$5.*84' 


1.56 
2.00 
1.7« 


3.12 
46.08 
109.44 
21.60 

48.60 


69. 6S 
8.64 
28.22 

1.28 


79.20 


Patterns 






57.60 


Weaving 




15.96 


$4.26 


177.60 


Mendinsr 




24 00 


Finishing and 
dveinsr .... 




10.08 


1,76 


10.36 


12.96 


96 00 










Total 


415.00 i 59.64 


6.02 1 17.32 


14.90 


15.70 


18. 42 


249.66 1 107.94 


904.60 



Cost per yard, 58 inches, $0,856. 




Fig. 9. — Sample No. 7. — Fancy Tweed, Low Quality. 



COST AT HUDDERSFIELD. 



85 



[1,056 yards; weight per square yard, 11.9 ounces; threads per inch In warp 36, filllnir 
32; grade, woolen blend at 20 cents, cotton yam at 22 cents, worsted yam and twist at 
56 cents ; material 1,310 pounds, woolen blend, 250 pounds, l/20s., 60 pounds, 2/148 1 





Yam. 


Interest 

and 
deprecia- 
tion. 


Re- 
pairs. 


Kent. 


Gas. 
etc. 


Power. 


1 
p^£. Wages. 


Sal- 
aries. 


Total. 


Material 


$350.62 
















$360.62 


Office expense ... 


1 










Discounts, terms, 
etc 




$3.72 




$0.18 

1.52 

.08 

3.20 

.60 

2.98 
7.44 


$0.10 

.76 

.08 

3.52 

.60 

2.50 
5.72 


"*$6.*68* 
"■•2.* 74' 


$0.06 , $11.60 

.76 10.56 

.42 9.60 

. 10 1 57. W 

10 80 


$0.06 
1.62 
1.82 

13.64 

.60 
7.54 


15.72 
15.20 
12.00 
91.20 
12.00 

48.00 
84.00 


Warehouse 




Patterns 








Weaving 




8.20 


$2.20 


Mending 




Finishing and 
dyeing 




5.04 
19.80 


.86 

1 4A 


5.18 
9.70 


6.48 24.86 
4.64 1 27.68 


Carding, spin- 
ning, and twist- 
ing 










Total 


350.62 


36.76 1 4.54 i 16.00 


13.28 


17.70 1 12.46 1 152.20 


25. 18 1 628. 74 



Cost per yard, SS-inch, 59.5 cents. 




Fig. 10. — Sample No. 8. — Fancy Fine Woolen Overcoating. 

[1,056 yards: weight por square yard, 11.0 ounces; threads per inch in warp 60, 
filling 60; grade, fine Saxony woolen blend at 56 cents; wool, 1,420 pounds.] 





Yam. 


Interest 
and de- 
precia- 
tion. 


Re- 
pairs. 


Rent 


Gas, 
etc. 


Power. 


Sup- 
plies. 


Wages. 


Sal- 
aries. 


Total. 


Material 


$795.20 


















$706.20 


Office expeniKJ 


«£3.60 


$0.36 


W.18 


$0.12 1 $20.82 


$0.12 


65.20 


Discounts, terms, | 
etc 




Warehou.«»e 






8.12 

.44 

6.72 

1.20 

7.44 

13.10 


i.72 

.24 

6.90 


**i5.'76* 


1.66 
2.00 
1.92 


8.12 
46.08 
120.48 


21.68 
8.64 
28.34 

1.44 
11.86 


81.20 


Patterns 






67.40 


Weaving ' 


17.28 


K60 


192.00 


Mending - 




21.60 
60.96 
48.60 


22.80 


Finishing a n d 
dyeing 

Carding and 
spinning 




12.60 
34.80 


2.16 
2.40 


6.24 
10.08 


1 
12.96 16.20 

17.04 8.16 


120.00 
146.04 


Total 


795.20 


98.28 


9. 16 1 32. 38 


25.36 


35.76 1 29.96 1 321.66 


72.08 


1,419.84 



Cost per yard, 58-inch, $1,344. 



ENGLISH AND AMERICAN COSTS. 



THE MANUFACTURE OF BRADFORD GOODS CONTRASTED WITH AMERICAN 
PRODUCT SHOWS MARKED DIFFERENCES. 

In the course of investigations into the English woolen industry 
there was obtained 18 specific samples of goods with exact cost of man- 
ufacture of each. These samples raneed from low tweeds (shoddy) 
to men's high-grade worsteds. An American mill was found that 
makes goods almost precisely similar to that of four of the samples 
of Bradford stuffs, and the home cost of manufacture has been ob- 
tained. On these samples the cost of manufacture per yard follows : 



Samples. 



A. Cotton and worsted caslimere 

B. Cotton and worsted cashmere 

C. All-wool sate^en 

D. All-wool serge 



England. 



SO. 1560 
.1785 
.3112 
.1700 



United 
States. 



Differ- 
ence. 



«).2600 
.2987 
.707C 
.4365 



Pit cent. 
67 
67 
127 
156 



Duty. 



Per cent. 
104.8 
100.5 
116.7 
146.8 



The description and detailed cost of above samples is as follows: 

Sample A. — Cashmere Made of Cotton and Ix)w Botany Wool. 

This cloth is 42 inches wide and has 76 warp ends and 72 weft ends per inch. A 
yard weighs 3.22 ounces (.2 lb.), of which 1.28 ounces, or 39.8 per cent, is No. 50b 
cotton warp and 1.94 ounces, or 60.2 per cent, is No. 66s worsted weft. A yard 
length =: 1.166 square yards. A square yard ^^f^\= 14.7 cents. A pound costs 
W» or 78 cente. 

The Yorkshire (Bradford) mill costs of this cloth were given as 
follows : 





Yam 
cost. 

$6,075 
.093 


Weaving 
wage. 


Ex- 
penses. 


Dyeing. 


Total. 


Cost of 66 yard.s 


$0,829 
.013 


$1,658 
. 026 


81.578 
.024 


110. 14 


Cost of 1 yard 


156 






Per cent of total 


59.6 


8.3 


16.7 


15.4 


100 







The manufacturer's selling price at the British mill was given at 
$10,629 per 65-yard cut, or $0,164 a yard. 

The manufacturing costs of this same cloth were also obtained 
at a large Massachusetts mill. In this case the width was the same, 
but the cuts were 48 yards; each yard weighed 3.B6 ounces, of which 
1.46 ounces, or 43.5 per cent, was warp and 1.90 ounces, or 56.5 per 
cent, was weft. The manufacturing costs were given as follows: 





Yam 
cost. 


Weaving 
wage. 


All other 
costs. 


Total. 


Coet of 48 yards 


$7.47 
.154 


$3.07 
.064 


$1.94 
.042 


$12. 48 


Coet of 1 yard 


.260 






Per cent of total 


59. 2 24. 6 


16.2 


100 











86 



ENGLISH AND AMEBICAN COSTS. 



87 



This shows the American cost of manufacture per yard to be 66f 
per cent higher than the English. 
These goods fall under paragraph 368 of the 1897 tariff : 

Cents a yard. 

Duty at 7 cents a square yard 8. 162 

Duty at 55 per cent ad valorem 9. 02 

Total duty.— 17. 182 

or 104.8 per cent ad valorem. 

Sample B. — Cashmere Made of Cotton and Botany Worsted. 

This cloth is 44 inches wide and has 71 warp ends and 93 weft ends per inch. A 
yard weighs 3.86 ounces (.241 pound), of which 1.60 ounces, or 41.5 per cent, is No. 
50s cotton warp and 2.26 ounces, or 58.5 per cent, is No. 66s worsted weft. A yard 
length =1.222 square yards. A square vard=f7<H=14.6 cents. A pound costs 
V;^V, or 74.1 cents. 

The English costs were as follows: 





Yam 
cost. 


Weaving 
wage. 


Ex- 
l>enses. 


Dyeing. 


Total. 


Cost of 67 vards 


$7,713 
.1151 


$1,012 
.0161 


$2,024 
.0302 


$1,215 
.0181 


$11,964 


Cost of 1 vard 


.1785 






Per cent of total 


64.5 1 8.5 


16. 9 i 10. 1 


100 















The manufacturers' selling price at mill was $12.59 per 67-yard cut, 
or $0,188 per yard. 
The American costs were as follows : 





Yarn 
cost. 


Weaving 
wage. 


Another 
costs. 


Total. 


Cost of 48 yards 


$9.15 
.191 


$3.08 
.0642 


$2.11 
.0435 


$14.34 


Cost of 1 yard 


.2987 


Per cent of total .. 


63.9 


21.4 


14.7 


100 







This shows the American cost of manufacture per yard to be 66J 
per cent higher than the English. 

These goods fall under paragraph 3G8 of the 1897 tariff: 

Cents a yard. 

Duty at 7 cents a square yard 8.554 

Duty at 55 per cent ad valorem 10.34 



18.894 



Total duty 

or 100.5 per cent ad valorem. 

Sample C. — All-Wool Sateen op Botany Wool. 

This cloth is 42 inches wide and has 110 warp ends and 63 weft ends per inch. A 
yard weighs 7.07 ounces (.442 pound), of which 4.70 ounces, or 66.5 per cent, is No. 
62/2 worsted warp, and 2.37 ounces, or 33.5 per cent, is No. 30/1 worsted weft. A 
yard length=1.166 square inches. A square yard=f:ViJ=26.7 cents. A pound 
costs ^1^4^, or 70.4 cents. 



The English costs were as follows : 












Yarn 
cost. 


Weaving 
wage. 

$1. 152 
.0142 


Ex- 
penses. 

$2,807 
.0285 


Dyeing. 


Total. 


Cost of 81 yards 


$18,102 
.2285 


$8,645 
.0450 


$25,209 


Coet of 1 yard 


.3112 






Per cent of total 


71.8 


4.6 


9.2 


14.4 


100 







The manufacturers' selling cost at mill was $25,595 per 81-yard 
cut, or $0,316 per yard. 



88 BRITISH WOOLEN INDUSTRY. 

The American costs were as follows : 





Yarn 
cost. 


Weaving 
wage. 


All other 
costs. 


Total. 


Cost of 31 yards 


$17.67 
.667 


$1,807 
.0583 


$2.64 
.0817 


$21,917 


Cost of 1 yard 


.7070 






Per cent of total 


80.2 


8.2 


11.6 


100 







This shows the American cost of manufacture per yard to be 127 
per cent higher than the English. 
Duty under paragraph 366 of the 1897 tariff: 

Cents a yard. 

Duty at 44 cents a pound 19.448 

Duty at 65 per cent ad valorem 17. 116 

Total duty- 36.564 

or 115.7 per cent ad valorem. 

Sample D. — ^All Wool Serge Made or Crossbred Wool. 

This cloth is 42 inches wide and has 53 warp ends and 42 weft ends per inch. A 
yard weighs 6.16 ounces (.285 pound), of whicn 3.42 ounces, or 55.6 per cent, is No. 
42/2 worsted warp and 2.74 ounces, or 44.4 per cent, is No. 20/1 worsted weft. A 
yard length=1.166 square yards. A square yard=x:VV7=14.6 cents. A pound costs 
^ij, or 44.1 cents. 

The English costs were as follows : 





Yarn 
cost. 


Weaving. 


Wage 
expenses. 


Dyeing. 


Total. 


Cost of 91 yards 


$10.79 
.119 


$0,769 
.008 


SI. 538 
.017 


$2,367 
.026 


116.464 


Cost of 1 yard 


.17 






Per cent of total . . . .... 


70.0 


4.7 


10.0 


15.3 


100 







The manufacturers' selling cost at mill was $15.90 per 91-yard 
cut, or $0,175 a yard. 

In the foregoing examples the English manufacturer itemized his total costs 
into cost of yarn, weaving wage, expense, and dyeing, while the American manu- 
facturer itemized his costs into cost of yarn, weaving wage, and all other costs. 
Both mills were weave mills and bought their yarn. One-third of the cost of dye- 
ing is labor cost and, as the ** weaving wage " is intended to include all costs for 
labor from the yarn to the finished cloth, to get an exact comparison one-tliircl 
of the dyeing charge should be added to the EJnglish weaving wage given to 
obtain the weaving wage for comparison with the American weaving wage. 
For the first sample given. Sample A, cotton and worsted cashmere, the com- 
parison can therefore be made as follows: 

Sample A. — Cotton and Worsted Casiimebe. 



Weaving All other Total cost 
wage. costs, cts. a lb. 



English . . . 
American . 





Sample C. — ^All-Wool Sateen. 



English... 
American. 




81.12 
70.70 



The details given for this sample apply to all of the wool samples. 



CONSULAR REPORTS. 



BRADFORD CONDITIONING HOUSE. 
VALUABLE WORK PERFORMED THE SCHEDULE OF CHARGES. 

Deputy Consul R. B. NichoUs furnishes the following information 
regarding the work of the Bradford Conditioning House: 

The number of conditioning houses in operation are not numerous, 
and, excepting the silk one at New York, are confined to the conti- 
nent of Europe. The principal ones under municipal or chamber of 
commerce control being, for wools, at Roubaix, Tourcoing, Rheims, 
Fourmies, LaCateau, and Amiens, in France; Leipzig and Elberfeld, 
in Germany; and Verviers and Mazermet, in Belgium; for silks, at 
Lyons, Milan, Elberfeld, Crefeld, Bale, Zurich, and Turin. 

It is recognized among traders in wool and its manufactures that 
serious differences often arise between the weights and condition 
of goods invoiced and actualljr received, owin^ to the variable humid- 
ity of the atmosphere. Particularly does this apply when the con- 
signment is intended for foreign countries, and more especially hot 
countries, or where the merchandise passes in transit through such 
regions. It was in order to test merchandise submitted tor that 
purpose, by fixed standards, that the Bradford Conditioning House 
was ori^ally opened in 1891. It is the only municipal house of this 
nature m Great Britain, being under the control of the city council 
and recognized by the Board of Trade, which makes use of its services 
as occasion requires. 

The present building, which is one of the largest of its kind in the 
world and has a floorage of 3J acres, was opened in 1902, at a cost 
of £34,000 ($165,461) exclusive of land, and is erected around three 
sides of a large covered court, which is used for loading and unload- 
ing. It is five stories in height and the greater portion is devoted to 
wool warehousing, over 15,000 square yards bemg allotted for that 
purpose. The top floor of one-half of the building is fitted up as a 
testmg department. The whole is supplied with electric light, fire- 
proof doors and floors, and is constructed in sections, so that any out- 
oreak of fire could be isolated and easily dealt with. 

RESULTS ACCOMPLISHED BY THE HOUSE. 

Amon^ the many features which have been added of late years are 
commercial scour tests for oil and insolubles in tops, noils, wastes, 

irams, and cloths; commercial scour tests for yield in raw wools; 
engths, counts, twist, and strength of yams; tensile strength of 
cloths; analysis of cloths, vams, and fibers; chemical analysis of 
damaged wools, yams, and cloth; tops in oil; dry combed tops; 



90 



BRITISH WOOLEN INDUSTBY. 



worsted yams; woolen yams and waste; cloths. In order to secure 
results as perfect as possible, all tests and calculations are made in 
duplicate, by separate individuals, with the most approved and up- 
to-date scientific apparatus. 

Years of elaborate experiments have proved that absolutely dry 
goods when exposed to the atmosphere regain a varying amount of 
moisture, and as a result certain percentages of moisture have been 
fixed which are recognized as ^^ollicial standards/' In the case of 
wools it amounts to 16 per cent; tops combed with oil, 19 per cent; 
tops combed without oil, 18 J per cent; worsted and woolen cloths, 
16 per cent; ordinary noils, 14 per cent; clean noils, 16 per cent; 
worsted yams, ISJ per cent; cotton yams, 8i per cent; silk yams, 
11 per cent. With each test a certificate (specimen of which is 
attached to this report) is issued under the corporate seal. The 




Fio. 11.— City of Bradford Conditioning House. 

results covered by these certificates are accepted by both seller and 
buyer, and on the basis of these certificates transactions are settled. 
The conditioning ovens, 46 in number, in which tests for moisture 
are obtained, are of cylindrical shape, having an inner and outer case, 
a space of li inches being allowed between the two, to permit the 
heated air circulating freely. Thej are 40 inches high with a diam- 
eter of 30 inches, and are heated with hot air at about 130° F. forced 
through pipes from a central chamber. This air is superheated to 
from 220 to 230® by a Bunsen's gas burner, having 80 circular jets 
consummg 75 per cent of air fixed beneath each inner oven. A pii>e 
at the opposite side of the outer oven conveys the air, moisture, and 
gas fumes away, none of the latter being permitted to come in con- 
tact with the article under treatment. 



CONSULAB REPORTS. 91 

SELECTING SAMPLES FOR TESTS. 

In testing wools or tops the samples axe taken so as to secure fair 
representation, and when submitted in bulk they are extracted from 
each individual bale or sheet. In the case of wool, handfuls are 
taken from 9 different parts of the sheet, and in tops 3 balls are 
selected from each bag, in every bag from different positions, and 
samples taken from tne outside, midway, and center. These are 
placed on a very finely adjusted pair of scales firmly fixed to the 
drying oven, one end of the beam being exactly over the center of 
the latter, to which is suspended a cage. This cage is perforated at 
the bottom and contains the sample, through wmch tne hot air is 
forced until all the moisture is extracted and it ceases to lose weight. 
The quantity tested is usually 2 poimds, being 1 pound each test. 
The amount of weight lost is ascertained to one-tenth of a dram by 
weights, which are placed in a cup fixed to the scale above the cage. 
The weight given at each examination is recorded on a printed sup 
by the attendant, and when the last two records show no variation, 
indicating that absolute dryness has been secured, the result is 
checked by a foreman. Usually four or five examinations are made 
before the result is obtained. In the event of the tests varying 
more than 1 per cent, further samples are taken and tested, in order 
to secure reUable average results. 

Yams are tested for moisture in a similar manner, save that the 
weight is not confined to an exact pound, the sample hank being 
treated whole, about 4 pounds in every 1,200 pounds; when on bob- 
bins or tubes, 20 to 40 of these. In the case of warps in balls or on 
beams a number of entire ends are taken. In piece goods an exact 
half yard is tested and the result proportioned to the length of the 
piece. To ascertain the twist in folded yams, the average is taken 
from ten tests of 10 inches^ each. The strength of cloth is tested by 
machines on the dead-weight {)rinciplc, power driven, with clock- 
indicating registers. An analysis of clotn can be obtained for the 
weave, ends and picks, counts, twist, quality of warp and weft, per- 
centages of component parts, grease, tree dye ware, size and fillmg, 
fastness, and base of dye. 



92 



BRITISH WOOLEN IKDXJSTRY. 



CHARGES FOR CONDUC5TINQ TESTS. 



The following is the scale of charges: 



Forconditioniiig from bulk lots: 

Wool, noils, etc., In bales and 

sheets each.. 

Tops each.. 

Hank yarn each.. 

Spool,tube, or bobbin yam .each . . 
Skeps and tares, each at normal 

condition each.. 

Piece goods each. . 

For conditioning from sample lots: 
Wool, noils, tops, or hank yam, 

eacn 

Spool,tube, or bobbin yam. each. . 

Cloths each. . 

For yam: 

Counts as received, twist, 

strength each . . 

Counts and condition, hank yam, 

each 

Counts and condition, tube or 

bobbin yam each.. 

Length of hanks each. . 

For scouring, cleansing, drying, and 
conditioning: 

Commercial scouring each . . 

Insolubles test from. . 

Commercial scouring tube or bob- 
bin yam each.. 



Per test. 
8. d. 

1 6-10.36 
1 0- .24 

1 0- .24 

2 0- .48 


1 6- 
4 0- 


.36 
.97 


1 0- 

2 0<- 
1 0- 


.24 
.48 
.24 


1 6- 


.36 


2 6- 


.60 


3 6- 
3 0- 


85 
.73 


3 0- 
1 0- 


.73 
.24 



4 0- .97 



d. 

O-tO.97 
6- 2.55 
6- 2.55 
0- 5.10 



Analyses of cloths, yams, etc: Per test. * 

Dissecting of cloths and yams Special rate. 

Measurement of pieces Spedalrate. 

Chemical analyses: 

Proportion of cotton and wool or 
siOc in mixed goods each.. 

Analysis of textile soaps.. from.. 

Analysis of wool oik {S^™.*.* 

Net oil in tops, yams, and cloths, 

each 

Oovemment tests: 

Strength and elasticity of cloths, 

warp and weft ways eadi. . 

Warps: 

Measurement, condition, counts, 

and correct weight each. . 

Wool results: 

Absolute scouring of samples, 

from 

Samples pertaining to contracts: 

registered and filed with a refer- 

encenumber each.. 2 6— .60 

Duplicate certificates each. . 6— . 12 



4 0- .07 

2 0- .48 
4 0- .07 

3 0- .73 



REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE. 



The following table will give some idea of the extent to which the 
Bradford Conditioning House has developed since its opening, August 
8, 1891. The figures are for the years ending March 31. 



Income. 


Salaries and wages paid. 


Year. 
1892 


£ i. d. 
203 16 7» S991.03 


Year. 

1802 

1893 

1907: 

Officials 


£ t. d. 

271 13 1- 81,322.00 
434 17 4- 2,116.26 


1893 




652 8— 3,173.11 


1007 


11,892 9 9- 57,874.78 
16,231 19 8- 78,992.03 


1908 -- 








611 13 4- 2,076. 67 
4,714 3 6- 22,941.63 




WoTkniflp 




Total 




5,325 16 10- 25,918.20 




1908: 

Officials 




532 1 8- 2,580.96 
5,512 2 1- 26,824.66 

6,044 3 9- 29,418.03 




Workmen . 




Total 







The staff consists of 106 persons, which includes 26 officials and 
80 workmen. 

During the year ended March 31, 1907, 72,328,087 pounds were 
tested, while the amount during the year ended March 31, 1908, was 
74,214,573 pounds. This represents tests of wool, tops, noils, waste, 
and yams. The 1907 figures cover 163,797 tests, of which 140,747, 
or about 90 per cent, were tops. 

The utmost secrecy is maintained regarding transactions, and any 
attempted collusion between customers and employees is reduced to 
practically an impossibility. Samples for treatment are passed from 
one department to another under a number. All goods received are 
insured against fire and water by a floating poUcy which at present 
stands at £80,000 ($389,320). The management is in the hands of a 



CONSULAR BEFOBTS. 



98 



practical and thoroughly capable man, whose aim is to place the 
Bradford Conditioning House at the head of all such institutions. 
The following is a blank form certificate: 



Entry No. 



SPECIMEN CERTIFIGATE. 

Prog. No 

CITY OF BRADFORD. 

CONDITIONING HOUSE. 
The Bradford Corporation (Various Powers) Act, 1887. 

Bradford, , 190.., 



Delivered by. 



.Gross weight being lbs. 

Tare being lbs. 

Net weight being lbs. 



Lbi. 
. Lots extracted from the above, weighing net 

resulting after testing absolutely dry 

or loss per lb 

or total dry weight lbs. or. . 



dra. 



Regain % lbs. or % 

Invoice weight,] „ ^ 

„ > lbs. or % 

as per Tests,] 

Loss or Gain lbs. or % 

Original weight lbs. or % 



Tests., 



CHARGES. 



». rf. 



Weighing — 

Po6ta|B;e 

Duplicates. . 
Repacking. . 



I hereby certify Uiat the above is a correct return 
of the tests made by me of the eamples referred to> 
in testimony whereof the corporate common seal of 

the said city has be^n affixed hereto this day of 

190.. 

(Signed) -,, , 



Verified by 



Manager. 



[corporate 

SEAL.] 



94 



BRITISH WOOLEN INDUSTRY. 



CONDITIONS AT HUDDERSFIELD. 
CONSIDERABLE DEPRESSION AND COMPETITION IN THE INDUSTRY. 

Consul F. I. Bright, of Huddersfield, furnishes the following review 
of the woolen and associated industries in that British district for 
the first half of 1908 and a description of the Cloth Hall there: 

Although trade conditions were greatly depressed during the first 
six months of the current year, the industries of this district, gen- 
erally, enjoyed a fair degree of activity, considering the general 
decline in trade throughout the country. Makers of fancy woolens 
and worsteds have been employed with orders from the Continent, 
especiallv France, Germany, and Belgium. 

Manufacturers of medium grade cloths and cheap tweeds, who 
during recent years have enjoyed exceptional prospenty, were not so 
fortunate. Their trade has greatly declined, employment has been 
restricted, and some machinery idle. This branch of the trade 
depends largely upon the demand from wholesale clothing houses. 

The cheap and low woolen trade has experienced more diflSculty 
than any other branch. This trade suffered not only on account of 
the greatly restricted demand, but also from foreign competition. 
There have been a number of failures, and mills which have been 
working overtime for many years have discharged large numbers of 
employees. Japan has been one of the best customers. 

TRADE WITH THE UNITED STATES. 

The value of declared exports from this district to the United 
States during the six months ended June 30 was $406,533, a decrease 
of $347,249, or about 45 per cent, as compared with the corresponding 
period in 1907, when the exports amounted to $753,783. This 
decrease was due to a general falling off in trade, but trie greatest 
losses were in wool, $102,234; card clothing and other machinery, 
$89,654; woolens, $45,308, and worsteds, $37,217. 

Most of the chemicals consisting of coal-tar products used in the 
United States by color chemists are supplied from this district. The 
trade in these items has not greatly diminished. Manufacturers of 
chemicals claim to be greatly favored by the climate here, which is 
free from ^reat extremes of heat and cold. 

Trade \\ath the United States has shown a marked improvement 
during the last two or three months. The exports during July were 
$8,093 greater in value than for .July, 1907, but the number of invoices 
fell from 112 to 78. 

The following statement shows the gross value of declared exports 
from the consular district of Huddersfield to the United States during 
the six months ending June 30, 1907 and 1908: 



Articles. 



1907. 



Woolens ' 193,585 

Worsteds ! 144,924 

Otherfebrics 50,689 

Wool 132,003 ; 

'" • • • • 133,274 ! 



Chemicals and dyes. 
Card, clothing, and other ma- 
chinery 



1908. 



$48,277 

107,707 

18, 189 

29,769 

113,663 



135,831 I 46,177 



Articles. 



Total. 



1907. 



1908. 



Sewine cottons $34,762 $26,707 

Miscellaneous 28,715 16,044 



753,783 



406,533 



CONSULAR REPORTS. 95 

The Huddersfield Cloth Hall, a large buildmg erected m 1766 for 
the accommodation of cloth manufacturers, is a relic of the old days 
when the line between the manufacturing and merchanting of cloth 
was very closely drawTi. There are three other cloth halls in the 

Seat textile district of the West Riding of Yorkshire, located at 
alifax, Bradford, and Leeds. 

CHANGE IN BUSINESS METHODS. 

Formerly manufacturing was very largely in the hands of so-called 
''clothiers or small manufacturers, who aevoted themselves exclu- 
sively to manufacturing and had little or no knowledge of markets 
and the business of merchanting. The clothier brought the finished 
cloth to the cloth hall, w^here it was exhibited and sold to specialized 
cloth merchants, woolen and worsted merchants, who handled all 
goods, whether for the home or foreign markets. 

With the development of the factory system the specialized cloth 
merchant has been almost entirely driven out of the home market. I 
know of none in this district. Manufacturers took up the business 
of merchanting, and merchants that of manufacturing, and the grad- 
ual growth of the practice of direct dealing between manufacturers 
and customers finally brought to an end the middleman and the busi- 
ness for which the Cloth Hall had been constructed. The develop- 
ment of the wholesale clothing business, which afforded a convenient 
and ready market for large quantities of cloth, and which is now one 
of the most important industries in this district, had a great deal to 
do with bringing about this change. It is now quite common in this 
district for mill owners and manufacturers to do a large part of their 
own commercial traveling in preference to intrusting it to a regular 
traveling salesman. 

OPPORTUNFTY FOR AMERICAN TRADE JOURNALS. 

However, Cloth Hall may still be regarded as the center of business 
for the woolen and worsted trades of this district, as well as of other 
branches of commerce. On market days, Tuesdays and Fridays of 
each week, men gather here from all parts of the district to transact 
business and discuss commercial subjects. The chamber of coin- 
merce has its coimcil room here, where it holds its re^ar meetings. 
A spacious reading room, where the leading commercial publications 
and directories, technical and trade journals are kept on nle, has been 
provided and is open daily for the use of business men. 

Foreign and colonial journals are received, and it is the custom to 
keep current numbers of all these publications on file. When the 
succeeding issues arrive the old ones are taken to the Huddersfield 
public library, where an opportunity is given to the general public to 
read them. The secretary of the chamber of commerce and other 
officers assure me that any American trade and technical journals 
which may be sent will be received and filed in the same maimer as 
domestic and colonial publications, provided they come without ex- 
pense to the chamber of commerce. All such publications should be 
addressed Chamber of Commerce, Huddersfield, England, Cloth Hall 
or Exchange Building. 



MANUFACTURE OF SHODDY IN THE 
UNITED KINGDOM. 



H. Doc. 1330, GO-2 7 97 



EXPANSION OF SHODDY TRADE 



A HIGHLY DEVELOPED LINE OP MANUFACTURE — INTBIOATE SYSTEM 
OP BUYING, HANDLING, AND SELLING. 

The amount of manufactured wool that is remanufactured in 
Great Britain every year is considerably more than the total wool 
clip of the coimtry and makes up one-fourth of the total animal 
fibers employed. The Bradford Chamber of Commerce estimates 




Fio. 12.— Improved Rag ShalcBr. 

that of 262,300,000 poimds of unused wool, pulled wool, mohair, 
etc., manufactured in 1857 some 35,000,000 pounds, or 13.3 per cent, 
was shoddy materials, and that of the total of 850,300,000 pounds 
total in 1907 some 210,000,000 poimds, or 24.7 per cent, was shoddy 
materials. 

The great shoddy manufacturing coimtries are Germany, Great 
Britain, the United States, and France, though the industry is also 
largely carried on in Italy, Belgium, and Switzerland and to a smaller 
extent in almost every coimtry including China and New Zealand. 

99 



lOU lCA3rU7ACTUBE OF SHODDY IS THE TJSITED KOrGDOlL 

A hundred years ago wool waste and old rags were disposed *of by 
burning or hj being used as fertilizers, but they now enter laigety 
into the clothing requirements of the world, and by their cheapening 
effect have done much to popularize woolen clothmg for the masses. 
The increasing use of waste materials and of by-products of manu- 
facture is a sign of the increasing economic efficiency of mankind, 
and as the world is rapidly beconun^ more and more crowded the 
economic use and re-use or all ayailaole fibers will become of more 
and more importance. 

EMPLOYEES AND ORIGIN OF INDUSTRY. 

The official figures show that in 1895 Germany employed 7,390 
persons in the shoddy trade; in 1901 Great Britain employed 4,502, 
and in 1905 the United States employed 2,261. Owing to the diflFer- 
ence in dates and in the methods of compiling this does not ^ye an 
exact comparison of the strength of tne three coimtries m this 
industry, but it clearly shows tnat the industry is largest in Ger- 
many and that the second largest is the British, whicn in turn is 
about twice as large as the American. From the estimated figures 
for Great Britain as compared with the tabulated figures for the 
United States it seems that the amoimt of shoddy material handled 
by the operative in each country is yery nearly the same — that is, 
Great Britain uses twice as many operatiyes to work up twice as 
much material. 

The manufacture of shoddy in Great Britain seems to haye 
started at Batlcy,in Yorkshire, about 1813. The total consmnption 
is as yet only estimated, but the official import figures dating from 
1860 scom evidence enough to prove a steady increase. The import 
of shoddy materials into Great Britain has been as follows: 



Pounds. 

18(i() 16,824,000 

1 8(ir) 32, 670, 400 

1870 38,555,400 

1 87.') 56, 929, 600 

1 880 92. 433, 600 

188:) 73, 133, 600 



Pomids 

1890 77,638,400 

1895 84,257,600 

1900 68,757,800 

1905 91,932,587 

1900 99,892,110 

1907 113,423,418 



It is estimatod that nearly as much shoddy material is obtained 
in (Jreat Britain as is imported. In the last fifty years the propor- 
tion of shoddy to the total animal fibers used nas increased from 
about an eighth to a quarter. The proportions for the last ten years, 
as ostiniated by the Bradford Chamoer of Commerce, are as follows: 



Yoar, 



TotiU animal : ow.vi.iv 



Shoddy 
( wr wnt 
or total). 



Year. 



Total animal 
fibers. 



Shoddy. 



Shoddy 
(percent 
oftotel). 



Pounds. Pounds. 

IWS , rJ4. UXi» UV l:», OUO, IW 

liW ■ «5:7.ai^i»iw i.».wx\iw 

1«W fiM,t5(XKAV 130.MVAV 

1 Wl nM» aV. rt V 135. Oft\ iW 

mt> 1 t»:.AV.oiv i*\iw.ooo 



Pounds. Pounds. 

17.3 1903 625,000,000 140,000,000 22.4 

l£L4 I9m 643,600.000 ISD,000,000 2^0 

19.7 1905 681,700.000 1SO,000,0lX) S6l4 

19.2 190I'. 734.300,000 190,000,000 23^9 

21.0 1907 850,300,000 210,000,000 24.7 



EXPANSION OP SHODDY TRADE. 



101 



The proportion of reworked wool to the total is therefore about 25 
per cent, without including the large amount of cotton that is mixed 
with the shorter qualities to brii^ up the strength. While very little 
shoddy is manufactured by itself, cotton, cotton waste, unusea wool, 
or other material neariy always appear in the finished cloth as warp 
or mixed in the yam itself. On the other hand, it is admitted in 
Yorkshire as a well-known fact that there is not produced there a 
very large amount of woolen yam that contains only unused wool. 

SUPPLY OP RAOS. 

Great Britain imports rags from nearly every coimtry in the world 
as also does Germany, whfle the Unitea States depends entirely on 
its home supply. The fact that the American manufacturers are 
restrained from competition in outside markets enables Great Britain 




Fio. 13.— Improyed Rag Machine or "Devil." 

to obtain her rags cheaper than she would otherwise be able to do 
and also makes the cost of raw material higher to. the American 
manufacturer. Owing partly to this the American shoddy manu- 
facturer seems to mix in higher-grade materials than is customary 
in Great Britain. American dealers who supply the shoddy mills 
quote on broken pieces of tops, best soft drawing laps, double-combed 
noils and similar materials, wnich in Great Britain rarely come into 
the shoddy market at all, being worked up direct by the woolen 
mills. The production census of 1905 shows the average value of the 
materials used in the American shoddy mills as 6.84 cents a pound. 
There are no such figures for Great Britain, but the average value 
of the shoddy materials imported into Great Britain in 1907 was only 
4.6 cents a pound, and the materials obtained in the country itself 
will average probably even lower. 

France and Germany supply over half of the rags used in the 
British shoddy trade and large amoimts also come from Hollar ' 



102 MANUFACTUBB OP SHODDY IN THE UNITED KINGDOM. 



Belgium, with smaller amoimts from the United States, Russia, Den- 
manc, etc. Nearly every coimtry in the world contributes more or 
less. At Peshawar, near the Khyber Pass, J found that second-hand 
clothes from London were being sold to the Afghans, and after bein^ 
worn to rags part of these were reexported to Great Britain ana 
worked up mto shoddy clothes that would be worn probably by the 
inhabitants of some other quarter of the globe. Tnis is a curious 
illustration of how the nations are bound together by modem ties of 



commerce. 



EXTENT OF FACTORY OPERATIONS. 



Shoddy manufacturing in Great Britain centers in the two neigh- 
boring towns of Batley and Dewsbury, which lie in the heavy woolen 
district in the West Riding of Yorkslure, in northern England. These 
two places, lying about IJ miles apart, have almost a monopoly of 
this trade, and of the 908 rag machines in Great Britain in 1904 no 
less than 881 were to be found in Yorkshire, the bulk of these being 
in this heavy woolen district. Of the 908 rag machines employed in 
this industry 566 were in the regular shoddy mills, 329 were employed 
in woolen mills, and 13 in worsted mills. The extent to which snoddy 
is used in the woolen trade is evidenced by the number of rag-mnding 
machines employed by woolen mills and also by the fact uiat the 
bulk of the so-called ^^ shoddy mills" only prepare the material for 
use in woolen mills. Of 161 shoddy mills in 1904, only 23 contained 
a complete equipment for preparing, spinning, and weaving shoddy, 
2 had looms only, 4 had spmdles omy, 22 had rag-grinding machines 
and carding sets, and 110 had rag-binding macmnes only. 

The 1904 statistics of the British Government listed only the 
machinery, while the latest figures in regard to the operatives are 
those of 1901. The progress of the industry and its fluctuations are 
partly shown by the following: 





1867. 


1874. 


1885. 


1889. 


1904. 


Shoddy mills 


108 1 125 


108 


125 


161 


Rag-grinding machines 


666 


Woolen carding sets 




819 


Spinning spindles: 

ttMules 

CFrame 


7,319 


101,134 93,766 


94,404 


400 


Doubling spindles 


4,228 
1,095 


946 
1,437 


2,222 
1,981 


68i 
2,284 


2 fi20 


Power looms 


1,482 








Children working half time- 
Male 


140 
72 

1,398 
1,685 


187 
135 

1 384 


67 
25 

1 ja9 


84 
50 

2,138 
2,231 




Female 




Persons working full time: 

Male 




Female 


1,725 2)785 




Total persons employed 


3,195 -^-4.^1 1 4.70Q 


4,503 















It is seen that very few children are employed in this trade and 
that there are more men than women, which in both instances is 
also true of the woolen trade, while in the worsted trade women and 
girls form the bulk of the operatives. 

Besides the rag machines employed in making shoddy in shoddy, 
woolen, and worsted mills there are 103 rag-grinding machines ana 



EXPANSION OF SHODDY TBADE. 



103 



225 carding sets employed in 67 factories in which felt and flock proc- 
esses are carried on. These factories are mostly situated in Glouces- 
tershire and London. 



CLASSIFIOATION AND ASSORTMENT. 

Shoddy is a term that is frequently used to cover the whole range 
of remanufactured wool. However, in the trade there are many 
names used, and shoddy is only one special class. Shoddy is tech- 
nically the product of immilled goods and "mimgo*' is the product of 
milled or felted goods. The firat results from tearing to pieces, or 
''pulling." as it is called, soft woolen rags, stockings, underclothing, 
and similar soft woolens. M\mgo is usually made from hard woolens, 
tailors' clippings, etc. M\mgo is therefore made of shorter stapled, 
finer, and nigher-priced material than is shoddy. "Extract," some- 
times called alpaca, is made from mixed cotton and woolen cloths, 
the vegetable fibers being carbonized or burned away by acids and 
the ammal fibers thus extracted for reworking. "Merino" is a more 




Fio. 14.— Two-Swift Oamett Waste Opener. 

popular name than shoddy, but is only one of its subdivisions, being 
used to denote the rag wool made from women's dress goods ana 
similar soft worsted materials of good quality. "Worsted," "serge," 
"flannel," etc., are other names of rag wools that are commonly used 
in the trade and derive their names from the goods in which they 
were originally embodied. The better grades or shoddy are consia- 
erably more valuable than the lower grades of wool and are used to 
improve the surface of some of the finer cloths, such as those used for 
expensive smoking jackets, etc., and quite a little in facing some of 
the celebrated West of England cloths. Shoddy has become a term 
of reproach, even in its home in Yorkshire, so that merino is now fre- 
quently used as the generic name instead. The French in politely 
terming shoddy goods "renaissance cloth" have foimd the most 
correct name of all. 

In the commercial handling of the rags and of the rag wool before 
finally weaving into cloth in England, there is a highly organized 
trade system, admitting, however, of many variations. Ordinarily the 



104 MANUPACTUBE OP SHODDY IN THE UNITED KINGa>OM. 

handlers from "cloth to cloth" are as follows: (1) the itinerant rag 
gatherer; (2) the marine-stores dealer in small towns; (3) the marine- 
stores dealers at London or other lai^ town; (4) the rag sorter or 
shoddy dealer; (5) the rag puller or shoddy manufacturer; (6) the 
woolen-cloth manufacturer. In former days the itinerant rag gath- 
erers frequently sold to small mills, but the trade has gotten too 
highly specialized for that now, and with the many types and gntdes 
required middlemen have become a necessity. He sells to the local 
rag dealer or ''marine-stores dealer/' as he is usually called, and this 
man may sell a special lot he has collected direct te a shoddy maker, 
though ordinarily he sells to larger dealers in London or elsewhere, 
who collect large quantities and sort into general classes, according to 
whether the rags are new or old, all wool or cotton and wool, etc., 
and then sells special lots to rag sorters or shoddy merchants, as they 
are called. These men sort the rags according to type of cloth, gnule, 
color, etc., and then sell specific lots by sample to the shoddy mills. 
As previously noted, the main business of the shoddy mills is making 
shoddy, not working it up, so after one more careful sorting the rags 
are pmled by the shoddy maker, and then the material in ite original 
raw fiber state is sold to woolen manufacturers for manufacturing 
into cloth. 

BUYING AND WOBKINO UP BAGS. 

From abroad the rags are imported by merchants in the heavy 
woolen district or occasionally by the manufacturers themselves 
direct. If imported by the merchant, he may sell to another mer- 
chant those of a certain type, or to a large puller, or may sell at the 
auctions. There are five nouses in Batley that carry on weekly rag 
auctions in the same way that wool auctions are carried on in London. 
The rags sold may be the property of the house selling or may be with 
them on consignment from abroad or from another merchant. The 
man who owns the rag-pulling machines, therefore, may either buy 
direct or through many other nands, according as it suits him. 

There are a few firms at Batley who pull, carbonize, and even card on 
commission, but this is the exception and there is comparatively little 
of this class of work. The bulk of the pullers buy their own rags 
from the rag sorters, already sorted according to the classes they 
desire, then re-sort carefully, once at the mill for staple, color^ ete., 
and then tear up into their original fibers on the rag machine, nnaJly 
selling each uniform lot separately to the woolen nmls. Some of the 
large shoddy makers card the rag wool after pulling, and some buy 
rags and turn out finished goods ready for the market, though two- 
thu-ds of the shoddy mills have rag machines only. 

In a complete shoddy mill — which, as before noted, is very rare — 
the following would be the list of processes: Rag shaking, extracting, 
dyeing, sorting, oiUng, pulling (or gametting), blending and oiling, 
teasing and tenterhook willeymg, carding, spinning, weaving, scour- 
ing, raising or milling, finishing, and pressing. 

Whether the rags go through all or only part of these processes 
depends entirely on the quality of the original cloth and the kind of 
goods to be made therefrom. "All-wool cloths will of course not 
be subjected to the extracting process. If the rags are of a uniform 
color, say a good lot of ladies' olue serges, they can be run through 
and used to make yam of the same color without redyeing, but if 



EXPANSION OF SHODDY TBADE. 



105 



part of them are faded they will need to be redyed. Rags are run 
through the rag machine, or devil, and mill waste through a gamet- 
ting machine. Blending, teasing, or willeying may or may not be 
required. The finishing processes will vary according to the kind 
of goods. There are many variations, so that the cost of working 
one lot of rags may be several times as much as the cost of working 
another lot. 

I will briefly describe the machines as used in the Batlejr and Dews- 
bury shoddy mills and then give the complete detailed mrst cost and 
operating cost of a forty-loom shoddv mill making low tweeds. [A 
sample of this cloth may be seen at the Bureau of Manufactures.] 

SORTING AND OILING. 

The foreign rags arrive at the shoddy mill in hooped bales weighing 
6 to 8 himdred weight (English himdredweight = 112 poimds), while 




Fio. 15.— Improved Self-acting Shake WiUey or Teazer. 

the British rags us